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民国时期西北少数民族社会变迁及其问题研究

甘肃省第十三次哲学社会科学优秀成果一等奖;第七届高等学校科学研究优秀成果奖著作奖三等奖

ISBN:978-7-5161-0549-8

出版日期:2012-03

页数:501

字数:511.0千字

点击量:4896次

引用量:4次

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基金信息: 国家哲学社会科学成果文库 展开
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本书所指的西北,仅限于民国时期的甘肃、宁夏(包括阿拉善和额济纳两旗,今属内蒙古)、青海、新疆四省区,研究对象包括主要聚居在甘宁青地区的回、东乡、撒拉、保安、藏、土、蒙古等民族和主要聚居在新疆地区的维吾尔、哈萨克、柯尔克孜、塔吉克、乌孜别克、塔塔尔、俄罗斯、锡伯等民族。由于该地区是著名的西北高原,它实际上由蒙新高原大部、青藏高原和黄土高原的一部分组成。按照自然生态环境和民族分布的特点,西北地区又可划分为甘宁青地区和新疆地区两大部分,因此在本书研究中,常常从甘宁青地区和新疆地区两个部分来展开论述。甘宁青新地区自古就是一个多民族聚居的地区,也是多元文化交汇之地。民国时期,这一多民族社会经历了重要的发展阶段,发挥了重要的历史作用,在东部和中部汉族地区现代化潮流的推动下,开始了从传统社会向现代社会的转型。关于民国时期西北少数民族的研究,学术界有一定的积累。早在民国年间,中国学术界就开展了西北回、藏、蒙古、维吾尔等民族历史文化的学术研究。当时大量的考察报告、游记、行记、笔记、文集以及民国档案等,均不同程度地记载或反映着那个时代西北少数民族的社会状况,这为我们系统研究民国时期西北少数民族提供了基本资料。20世纪50年代,国家组织众多学者进行了规模空前的少数民族社会历史调查,随后出版了“五种丛书”,其中有关西北各少数民族的简史简志、社会历史调查丛书,收集了西北各民族近现代社会历史的大量资料,对进一步推进高质量的西北少数民族研究打下了基础。改革开放以来,中国民族史学发展迅速,取得了丰硕的研究成果。甘宁青新四省区组织出版了一批文史资料,汇集了当事人的回忆材料,补充和延伸了以往的史料记载。近年来随着西部大开发的展开,民国时期西北边疆和民族的研究越来越引起学界的关注,一些历史学、民族学、宗教学、文化人类学的学者开始积极涉足对民国时期西北少数民族的研究之中,研究成果也不断涌现,这些研究成果为我们进一步的研究提供了很好的参考和借鉴。然而,由于种种原因,民国史的研究起步较晚,民国时期西北少数民族史的研究至今仍是一个比较薄弱的环节,已有研究成果具有较大局限性。主要表现在:一是在研究范式上。重视政治、革命斗争历史,忽略各民族社会结构、经济和文化的变迁,许多社会领域和社会问题都不能被其所包含,不能从总体上展示民国时期西北少数民族社会变迁及其内在规律,也有碍于民族史学的发展和繁荣。二是在研究的层面上。由于民国时期西北少数民族资料相对缺乏,并且分布零散,造成以往学术界的研究,多为零散微观的研究,要么是对个别民族的研究,要么是对个别问题的研究,缺乏宏观上的整体把握。因此,选择民国时期的西北少数民族社会变迁进行系统研究,具有学术和实践两个方面意义。从学术上讲,首先,本书以翔实的史料为基础,对民国时期西北少数民族社会显著变动的方面及其主要问题进行了较为细致的研究,丰富了西北少数民族史研究的内容,在一定程度上拓展了中国民族史研究的领域。其次,以社会变迁为切入点,对民国时期西北少数民族社会开始从传统向现代转型的基本历史进程进行了较为细致的描述与分析,拓展了民族史、民国史研究的视野。第三,对民国时期西北少数民族社会变迁特点及其规律进行了比较深入的探讨,为当代中国西北少数民族研究提供了有益的参考和借鉴。从实践的角度来看,现实问题的研究只有放到历史之中,才能看清其来龙去脉。民国时期是西北少数民族历史演进中的重要时期,许多今天存在的民族问题,与各民族的历史发展有着直接的密切关系,亟待大力加强研究。因此,对民国时期西北少数民族社会变迁进行总体性探讨与分析,又是具有重大社会实践意义的课题。它不仅使人们能更全面地了解民国时期西北少数民族社会的历史原貌,了解西北各族民众开发西北边疆、反对外国侵略、维护祖国统一的历史贡献,认识和总结民国时期开发西北地区的历史经验和教训,丰富人们对该时期西北少数民族社会的整体认识,而且通过这一研究,对西北少数民族及民族地区发展过程的不平衡性、复杂性、滞后性等进行比较系统的总结,对促进和制约其社会发展的诸因素进行比较系统的分析,以发现其独特规律,为当代中国西北少数民族问题研究提供了有益的参考和借鉴,为今天西北少数民族的现代化和西部大开发提供多方面的历史借鉴与一定的理论支持,对正确执行党的民族政策和宗教政策,加强民族团结,维护西北民族社会稳定等方面,都是十分有益的。由于民国时期西北各民族人口、经济、社会等研究资料匮乏、零散,统计数据来源复杂,有些是实际的普查数或登记数,有些则完全是估计数,对于各民族人口也并未作单独统计,这给我们的研究带来了诸多困难。我们搜集整理了大量的有关民国时期西北少数民族人口、经济、社会等方面的统计资料和文献资料,并从相关问题与相关学科的角度给出了解释和说明,对其中的一些数据进行了重新统计和分析,纠正了一些因时代局限而产生的不足和谬误。本书充分吸收了学术界的研究成果,以社会变迁为切入点,对民国时期西北少数民族社会开始从传统向现代转型的基本历史进程进行了较为系统的探讨与分析。社会变迁是社会结构和社会行为突发的、急剧的、演进的或缓慢的变化,是社会的动态表现的一面。民国时期,中国社会由于民族矛盾和阶级矛盾空前尖锐,面对西方先进文明的强大压力和中国社会对现代化的内在要求,其变迁十分剧烈。在东部和中部汉族地区现代化潮流的推动下,西北民族地区开始了从传统社会向现代社会的转型。因此,本书选取了人口变迁、传统社会中的现代性因素、绿洲农业变迁、教育变迁、社会分层与流动、灾荒与社会问题、西北军阀与西北民族社会等专题进行论述,总体上都突出了社会显著变动的方面及其主要问题。另外,本书采用新的视角,对民国时期西北地区错综复杂的各类人物的叙述和分析比较深入,实事求是,持论恰当,走出了民国人物研究的既有思维定式。本书的研究从不同侧面再现了民国时期西北少数民族在各种时代力量的左右下,在传统与现代、新与旧因素的交互作用中曲折发展的复杂过程。通过研究,我们对该时期西北民族社会有了较为深入的认识。第一,民国时期的西北民族社会有两个明显特征。其一,西北少数民族在民国时期经历了重要的发展过程,发挥了重要的历史作用,在东部和中部汉族地区现代化潮流的推动下,开始了从传统社会向现代社会的转型,但与内地相比,其转化的速度比较缓慢。西北早期现代化属于“晚发外生型现代化”。与中国主流社会的“晚发外生型现代化”所不同的是,中国主流社会现代化的“晚发”是相对于当时全球范围内的现代化发生时间,而西北现代化的“晚发”则是相对于中国较发达地区而言的;中国主流社会现代化的“外源”是指西方资本主义世界,而西北现代化的“外源”是指中国内部现代化的早发地区。中国主流社会现代化是1840年开始启动的,而西北地区是在受到国家政体的变革后和东部汉族地区现代化潮流的影响下,社会才开始发生变革的;现代生产力要素和现代化的文化要素都是从外部移植或引进的。因此,现代社会因素同同期内地汉族地区相比发育的并不充分,传统社会因素广泛存在,这使西北民族社会的整体运行并不和谐,社会发展滞后,社会各方面问题比内地更复杂。这种差异就决定了西北地区早期现代化的起点低、起步晚、时限短,西北民族社会从传统向现代社会的转型更艰难和缓慢。其二,民国时期西北民族社会呈现出多元化的特点(包括宏观上的多元化和微观上的多元化),但各民族社会从传统社会向现代社会过渡过程中,存在着极大的不平衡。不仅是不同民族有极大的差异性,同一民族也因种种原因而出现社会变革程度的不一致。由于各民族所处生态环境的不同、历史文化的独特性,社会构成的多元化,社会意识也存在较大差异,这些因素影响其对现代社会因素的接受、消化吸收和理解。现代社会积极进步的社会因素并不是每一个民族都自觉接受的,故各民族社会从传统向现代过渡时,其社会整体变革并不一致。第二,民国时期西北民族地区出现的现代性因素还很微弱,可以说传统的西北民族社会才逐步迈进了近代文明的门槛,但它毕竟是新的进步的标志,为这块古老而沉寂的地区迎来了现代文明的曙光,加快了西北少数民族社会转型的进程,为20世纪中期以后西北少数民族地区的发展与腾飞作了历史的准备。第三,民国时期的西北少数民族社会在当局的治理下,虽开始向现代社会迈进,但由于地处偏远、交通落后、自然环境脆弱、传统遗风浓厚、民族关系复杂,宗教信仰各异、战乱频仍、灾荒和疾病多发、军阀统治专横、民族主义和地方主义盛行,其发展仍极为缓慢,有时甚至出现倒退。因此只有在中华人民共和国成立后,在中国共产党的领导下,实行了正确的民族政策,西北少数民族社会才迈上健康快速发展的轨道。

The northwest referred to in this book is limited to the four provinces and regions of Gansu, Ningxia (including the Alxa and Ejina Banners, now part of Inner Mongolia), Qinghai and Xinjiang during the Republican period, and the research objects include the Hui, Dongxiang, Sala, Baoan, Tibetan, Turkish, Mongolian and other ethnic groups mainly living in the Ganningqing region, and the Uygur, Kazakh, Kirgiz, Tajik, Uzbek, Tatar, Russian, Xibe and other ethnic groups mainly living in the Xinjiang region. Since the area is known as the Northwest Plateau, it actually consists of most of the Mengxin Plateau, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and part of the Loess Plateau. According to the characteristics of natural ecological environment and ethnic distribution, the northwest region can be divided into two parts: Ganningqing region and Xinjiang region, so in the study of this book, it is often discussed from the two parts of Ganningqing region and Xinjiang region. Since ancient times, the Ganning Qingxin area has been a multi-ethnic area and a place where diverse cultures meet. During the Republican period, this multi-ethnic society experienced an important stage of development, played an important historical role, and began the transformation from a traditional society to a modern society under the impetus of the modernization trend in the eastern and central Han areas. Regarding the research on ethnic minorities in the northwest during the Republican period, the academic community has a certain accumulation. As early as the Republic of China, Chinese academic circles carried out academic research on the history and culture of Northwest Hui, Tibetan, Mongolian, Uygur and other ethnic groups. At that time, a large number of investigation reports, travelogues, travel notes, notes, anthologies and archives of the Republic of China all recorded or reflected the social conditions of the ethnic minorities in the northwest of the country to varying degrees, which provided basic information for us to systematically study the ethnic minorities in the northwest during the Republican period. In the 50s of the 20th century, the state organized many scholars to conduct an unprecedented social history survey of ethnic minorities, and then published the "Five Kinds of Books", including a brief history of ethnic minorities in Northwest China and a series of social history surveys, which collected a large amount of data on the modern and modern social history of ethnic minorities in Northwest China, laying a foundation for further promoting high-quality research on ethnic minorities in Northwest China. Since the reform and opening up, Chinese ethnohistoriography has developed rapidly and achieved fruitful research results. The four provinces and regions of Ganning, Qingxin organized and published a batch of literary and historical materials, which collected the memories of the parties concerned and supplemented and extended the previous historical records. In recent years, with the development of the western region, the study of the northwest frontier and nationalities in the Republic of China period has attracted more and more attention from the academic circles, and some scholars of history, ethnology, religious studies, and cultural anthropology have begun to actively participate in the study of ethnic minorities in the northwest during the Republican period, and research results have also emerged, which provide a good reference and reference for our further research. However, due to various reasons, the research on the history of the Republic of China started late, and the research on the history of ethnic minorities in northwest China during the Republican period is still a relatively weak link, and the existing research results have great limitations. The main manifestations are: First, in the research paradigm. Attaching importance to the history of political and revolutionary struggles and ignoring the changes in the social structure, economy and culture of various ethnic groups, many social fields and social problems cannot be contained by them, cannot generally show the social changes and internal laws of ethnic minorities in the northwest during the Republic of China, and also hinder the development and prosperity of ethnohistoriography. The second is at the level of research. Due to the relative lack of data on ethnic minorities in the northwest during the Republican period, and the scattered distribution, the previous academic research was mostly scattered and microscopic research, either the study of individual ethnic groups or the study of individual issues, lacking the overall grasp of macroscopic. Therefore, the selection of social changes in the northwest ethnic minorities during the Republic of China period for systematic research has both academic and practical significance. Academically speaking, first of all, based on detailed historical materials, this book conducts a more detailed study of the aspects of the significant changes in the society of ethnic minorities in Northwest China and their main problems during the Republican period, enriches the content of the research on the history of ethnic minorities in Northwest China, and expands the field of Chinese ethnic history research to a certain extent. Secondly, taking social change as the starting point, the basic historical process of the transformation of ethnic minority society in northwest China from tradition to modernity is described and analyzed in detail, which expands the horizon of ethnic history and Republic of China history research. Third, the characteristics and laws of social changes of ethnic minorities in northwest China during the Republic of China period are discussed in depth, which provides useful reference and reference for the study of ethnic minorities in northwest China in contemporary China. From a practical point of view, the study of practical problems can only be clearly seen in history. The Republican period was an important period in the historical evolution of ethnic minorities in Northwest China, and many ethnic issues existing today are directly and closely related to the historical development of various ethnic groups, and urgently need to be vigorously strengthened and studied. Therefore, the overall discussion and analysis of the social changes of ethnic minorities in northwest China during the Republic of China period is a topic of great social practical significance. It not only enables people to have a more comprehensive understanding of the historical original appearance of ethnic minority society in the northwest during the Republican period, understand the historical contributions of the people of all ethnic groups in the northwest to developing the northwest frontier, opposing foreign aggression and safeguarding the unity of the motherland, understand and sum up the historical experience and lessons of developing the northwest region during the Republican period, and enrich people's overall understanding of the minority society in the northwest during this period, but also through this research, a comparative and systematic summary of the imbalance, complexity and lag in the development process of ethnic minorities and ethnic minority areas in the northwest. A relatively systematic analysis of the factors that promote and restrict their social development in order to discover their unique laws provides a useful reference and reference for the study of minority issues in northwest China in contemporary times, provides multifaceted historical reference and certain theoretical support for the modernization of ethnic minorities in northwest China and the large-scale development of the western region, and is very beneficial to the correct implementation of the party's ethnic and religious policies, strengthening ethnic unity, and maintaining social stability of ethnic minorities in northwest China. Due to the lack and scattered research data on the population, economy and society of various ethnic groups in the northwest during the Republic of China, and the sources of statistical data are complex, some are actual census numbers or registered numbers, while others are completely estimates, and no separate statistics are made for the population of various ethnic groups, which has brought many difficulties to our research. We have collected and sorted out a large number of statistical data and literature on the population, economy and society of ethnic minorities in Northwest China during the Republic of China, and explained and explained them from the perspective of relevant issues and related disciplines, re-counted and analyzed some of the data, and corrected some deficiencies and errors caused by the limitations of the times. This book fully absorbs the research results of the academic community, takes social change as the starting point, and systematically discusses and analyzes the basic historical process of the transformation of ethnic minority society in northwest China from tradition to modernity during the Republican period. Social change is a sudden, sharp, evolutionary or slow change in social structure and social behavior, which is a dynamic manifestation of society. During the Republican period, due to unprecedentedly sharp ethnic and class contradictions, Chinese society underwent drastic changes in the face of the strong pressure of advanced Western civilization and the inherent requirements of Chinese society for modernization. Driven by the modernization trend in the eastern and central Han ethnic regions, the northwest ethnic regions began to transform from traditional society to modern society. Therefore, this book selects topics such as demographic change, modernity factors in traditional society, oasis agricultural change, educational change, social stratification and mobility, famine and social problems, Northwest warlords and Northwest ethnic society, etc., and generally highlights the aspects of significant social changes and their main problems. In addition, this book adopts a new perspective, and the narration and analysis of the intricate various characters in the northwest region during the Republican period are more in-depth, seeking truth from facts, holding appropriate arguments, and stepping out of the existing mind-set of the study of Republican characters. The research of this book reproduces from different aspects the complex process of tortuous development of ethnic minorities in northwest China under the influence of various epochal forces, in the interaction between tradition and modernity, new and old factors. Through research, we have a deeper understanding of the ethnic society in Northwest China during this period. First, the northwestern ethnic society during the Republican period had two distinct characteristics. First, the ethnic minorities in the northwest experienced an important development process during the Republican period, played an important historical role, and began the transformation from traditional society to modern society under the impetus of the modernization trend in the eastern and central Han areas, but the speed of transformation was relatively slow compared with the hinterland. The early modernization of the northwest belongs to the "late-onset exogenous modernization". Different from the "late-onset exogenous modernization" of China's mainstream society, the "late onset" of China's mainstream social modernization is relative to the time of modernization on a global scale at that time, while the "late onset" of modernization in Northwest China is relative to the more developed areas of China. The "exogenous" of China's mainstream social modernization refers to the Western capitalist world, while the "exogenous" of northwestern modernization refers to the early onset of China's internal modernization. The modernization of mainstream Chinese society began in 1840, while the northwest region began to change society after the reform of the state political system and the modernization trend of the Han region in the east. Both the elements of modern productivity and the elements of modern culture were transplanted or imported from outside. Therefore, compared with the Han areas in the hinterland during the same period, modern social factors are not fully developed, and traditional social factors are extensive, which makes the overall operation of ethnic society in the northwest not harmonious, social development lags behind, and all aspects of society are more complicated than in the hinterland. This difference determines that the early modernization in the northwest region has a low starting point, a late start, and a short time limit, and the transformation of the northwest ethnic society from traditional to modern society is more difficult and slow. Second, the ethnic society in the northwest during the Republican period showed diversified characteristics (including macro pluralism and micro pluralism), but there was a great imbalance in the transition of various ethnic societies from traditional society to modern society. Not only are there great differences between different ethnic groups, but the degree of social change is also inconsistent within the same ethnic group for various reasons. Due to the different ecological environments of various ethnic groups, the uniqueness of history and culture, the diversity of social composition, and the great differences in social consciousness, these factors affect their acceptance, digestion and understanding of modern social factors. The positive and progressive social factors of modern society are not consciously accepted by every nation, so when the transition of various ethnic societies from tradition to modernity, their overall social changes are not consistent. Second, the modernity factors that appeared in the northwest ethnic areas during the Republican period were still very weak, and it can be said that the traditional northwest ethnic society has gradually entered the threshold of modern civilization, but it is after all a sign of new progress, ushering in the dawn of modern civilization for this ancient and silent area, accelerating the process of social transformation of ethnic minorities in northwest China, and making historical preparations for the development and take-off of ethnic minority areas in northwest China after the mid-20th century. Third, although the minority society in the northwest during the Republican period began to move towards a modern society under the governance of the authorities, its development was still extremely slow and sometimes even retrogressive due to its remote location, backward transportation, fragile natural environment, strong traditional heritage, complex ethnic relations, different religious beliefs, frequent wars, frequent disasters and diseases, arbitrary rule by warlords, and the prevalence of nationalism and localism. Therefore, only after the founding of the People's Republic of China and under the leadership of the Communist Party of China and the implementation of the correct ethnic policy did the minority society in the northwest embark on the track of healthy and rapid development.(AI翻译)

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GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文
闫丽娟.民国时期西北少数民族社会变迁及其问题研究[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2012
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MLA 格式引文
闫丽娟.民国时期西北少数民族社会变迁及其问题研究.北京,中国社会科学出版社:2012E-book.
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APA 格式引文
闫丽娟(2012).民国时期西北少数民族社会变迁及其问题研究.北京:中国社会科学出版社
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