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新中国甲骨学七十年:1949—2019

The 70-Year Study on Oracle Bone Inscription in Comtemporary China

ISBN:978-7-5203-4984-0

出版日期:2019-10

页数:783

字数:742.0千字

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王宇信

2019年,是哺育我们这一代学人成长的伟大祖国母亲——中华人民共和国七十华诞。参与、经历和感受、见证了祖国母亲七十多年来,在党的领导下拼搏奋斗,使历尽艰辛的中华民族,实现了由站起来,到富起来、强起来的慨而慷的奋斗历程,感受了中华民族自立于世界民族之林的自豪和担当。就在全国各行各业聚精汇力,把中国制造和中国经验充分总结、弘扬,作为向伟大母亲七十华诞献礼的时候,中国哲学社会科学界也在积极行动。中国社会科学出版社贯彻中国社会科学院领导的安排,决定出版一套“‘当代中国学术思想史’大型丛书”,以便展示1949年新中国成立至今七十年来,中国哲学社会科学界在学科体系、学术体系、话语体系建设方面所取得的巨大成绩,把习近平新时代的中国智慧、中国思想、中华优秀传统文化展现给世界各国人民。承蒙中国社会科学出版社垂青,拙著《新中国甲骨学七十年(1949—2019)》,有幸参列这套“大型丛书”之中。有此殊荣,实是“具有重要文化价值和传承意义的绝学、冷门学科”的甲骨文等古文字传承的中华基因,在实现驱动性转化和创新性发展中,打造中华文化自信和丰富并夯实社会主义核心价值观重大价值的肯定。也是对新中国培养的几代学人守护、传承和弘扬冷门学科甲骨文化所做出成绩的表彰与充分肯定。

按出版社的要求,即在拙著《新中国甲骨学六十年(1949—2009)》的基础上,再增订、补充近十多年来的甲骨学研究成果,就以“新中国甲骨学七十年(1949—2019)”为书题出版。应该说,自《新中国甲骨六十年(1949—2009)》出版以来至今,甲骨学界发生了不少可圈可点的大事,即我们在1999年以《甲骨学一百年》《合集补编》等著作为甲骨学所经历的“草创时期”(1899—1928)、“发展时期”(1928—1949)、“深入发展时期”(1949—1979)、“全面深入发展时期”(1979—1999)的百年辉煌作了总结,并开始了再创甲骨学研究新世纪再辉煌的新阶段。

甲骨学研究是在不断总结中发现,在发现中创新,在创新中发展,在发展中继承的。新世纪的甲骨文研究,国际学术交流有了进一步的加强,不仅中国学者以其真知灼见,在海内外召开的国际学术会议上,取得了话语权,讲好中国故事;而且让刻在甲骨上的文字“活”起来,表现在甲骨书法家把文字考释成果用于书法创作,使深奥的甲骨文走入寻常百姓家。为引领甲骨书法健康发展,甲骨学家与书法家互动,并在“回归甲骨,走出甲骨”的创作原则上达成了共识。不仅如此,常年被锁在库房“深闺”的甲骨真品,在博物馆的展厅中与广大人民群众见面,使其近距离地接触国之瑰宝,并在怡情养志中感受中华文化的博大精深。特别是甲骨文作为文化交流的使者走出国门,使不少外国朋友领略了甲骨文深厚的文化底蕴和从片片甲骨上,感知了汉字的源头和对推动人类文明所做出的巨大贡献。特别是2018年10月甲骨文入选“世界记忆文化遗产”名录,标志着甲骨文的保护、传承和弘扬,由国家层面上升为世界级层面,成为民心相通的媒介和连心桥。

就在甲骨文普及和推介方面取得新成就的同时,甲骨学家精细化整理甲骨,又“发掘”出了一些新字。文字学家利用新著录编纂字汇,将不识字等集中于“附录”,为集甲骨学界之力,破译未识文字指明了主攻方向。在把甲骨文蕴含的历史文化信息发挥到极致的《商代史》的写作过程,也时有不识文字而使甲骨材料遭到舍弃,因而影响了有关问题研究的更深入开展。正因为成就与不足同在,甲骨文字破译的困难,就成了障碍甲骨文更进一步向深层次、全方位发展的瓶颈。可以说,甲骨学家们目标明确,未雨绸缪,准备着向破译甲骨难字的高峰冲击。

为了落实习近平同志对“事关文化传承的问题”的甲骨文等古文字学科要“确保有人做,有传承”的讲话精神,国家社科基金办为了推动甲骨学研究的发展,顶层设计了“大数据、云平台支持下的甲骨文释读研究”的重大交办10个子课题,力图以破译文字为抓手,突破障碍甲骨文研究前进的文字瓶颈。以《光明日报》2016年10月28日发表的关于征集甲骨文释读优秀成果《奖励公告》为标志,开启了“政府推动下的甲骨文研究全面深入发展与弘扬新阶段”。在这一“新阶段”,国家社科基金办的“重大委托项目”的10个子课题与教育部语信司“甲骨文等古文字研究与应用专项”25个课题互相补充,相得益彰,必将把新阶段的甲骨学研究推向更新的辉煌。如此等等。习近平新时代的甲骨文研究,把《新中国甲骨学六十年(1949—2009)》所能达到的水平,又继续推向了《新中国甲骨学研究七十年(1949—2019)》的发展新高度,从而为中华文化伟大复兴的中国梦做出更大的贡献。

由以上概要的叙述就可以看出,这部《新中国甲骨学七十年(1949—2019)》,就是在《新中国甲骨学六十年(1949—2009)》的基础上,融入新百年“新阶段”的时代特点打造成功的。而拙著《建国以来甲骨文研究》又是《新中国甲骨学六十年(1949—2009)》的起点和初级阶段。之所以如此,是在新中国的甲骨学深入发展阶段的1949—1979年,学者们努力接受并学习马克思主义,力图用历史唯物主义指导自己的甲骨文研究,难免有理论理解的片面和不准确之处,因而研究商代历史时有错误理解或误用史料的缺陷,研究也多限于经济基础和上层建筑、社会形态和阶级矛盾与斗争等;进入1979—2009年的“甲骨文全面深入发展阶段”以后,学者们对马克思主义的理解更加系统、准确、全面,用历史唯物主义史观点指导甲骨文研究,更加自觉和熟练,也就极大地扩大了前三十年,即《建国以来甲骨文研究》深入发展时期的甲骨学商史研究范围,涉及甲骨学商史的各个方面,因而《新中国甲骨学六十年(1949—2009)》的“全面深入发展时期”的甲骨学研究,较新中国的前三十年有了全方位、深层次、多角度的全景式发展。

千里之行,始于足下。我无限感激地说,本人是在共和国母亲哺育、培养下成长起来的。我在1959年考入北京大学历史系考古专业,即在甲骨文发现60周年之时,从此才知道并开始学习甲骨文知识。虽然我1964年大学毕业,即甲骨文发现65周年时考上了甲骨学商史专业研究生,但真正学习和研究甲骨文是1973年从河南信阳东岳的“五·七干校”“毕业”开始,即在恢复《合集》编纂工作后边干边学,那已是继甲骨文1899年被发现后经历的第74个年头了。因此,从我投身甲骨文学习研究到今年2019年的甲骨文发现120周年,我经历了其中的46个年头学习、研究,攻关、攀登甲骨文高峰的历练。因而我和我的不知老之将至的同道可以自豪地说,甲骨文120年的发展历程,有我们46年(可能今后还要多若干年)的努力和贡献!这46年,我从《建国以来甲骨文研究》(1981年版)开始步入甲骨文堂奥,并步向《甲骨学一百年》(1999年版)辉煌的前台前进。“耳顺之年”退而不休,继续关注和追踪着《新中国甲骨学六十年(1949—2009)》的时代风云。天假我年,有幸在耄耋之年见证和参与了《新中国甲骨学七十年(1949—2019)》的发展历程,并能以本人对这一辉煌历程所取得成就的学习、理解和弘扬、彰显,迎接甲骨文发现120周年纪念。因此之故,十分幸运的我,是非常看重使我步入学术之门的《建国以来甲骨文研究》一书的。特别是甲骨学一代宗师胡厚宣教授和亦师亦友的李学勤教授,在我刚步入甲骨学研究之门的1979年,就为我的《建国以来甲骨文研究》作“序”并加以鼓励,而对我本人和对中国甲骨学的发展和研究人材的成长,寄予了无限期望。与此同时,他们在“序”中还对甲骨学的未来发展进行了展望,并给甲骨学研究的发展,提出了一系列前瞻性的课题,诸如甲骨分期、卜辞排谱、文字的考释、《商代史》的撰著等。如今,有的题课已经完成,有的课题仍在进行深入探索中,有的课题仍鲜有人问津……虽然统揽甲骨学发展全局,并追求对甲骨文“进行全面总括之彻底整理”的胡厚宣师在1995年4月驾鹤西归,而颇具挑战意识和前瞻精神的李学勤教授也在甲骨文发现120周年到来前夕的2018年12月永远离开了我们,但他们为《建国以来甲骨文研究》所写的“序”却永存于世!虽然二“序”至今已经历了40多个春秋的岁月沧桑,但其深邃的学术思想,至今仍对甲骨学的发展有启示意义。我将其置于《新中国甲骨学七十年(1949—2019)》书首,以示其对我本人,对我的同代学者,对我的学生和甲骨新秀们来说,依然是历久弥新的“鼓励与期望,起点和追求”!

谨志于安阳师范学院甲骨文研究院

2019年4月30日

Wang Yuxin: In 2019, it is the 70th birthday of the great motherland mother of the People's Republic of China, who nurtured the growth of our generation of scholars. I have participated, experienced, felt and witnessed the motherland's motherland's hard work under the leadership of the Party for more than 70 years, so that the Chinese nation, which has experienced hardships, has realized the course of struggle from standing up to becoming rich and strong, and felt the pride and responsibility of the Chinese nation to stand on its own feet among the nations of the world. Just when all walks of life in the country are gathering their efforts to fully summarize and carry forward China's manufacturing and Chinese experience as a gift to the 70th birthday of the great mother, the Chinese philosophy and social science community is also actively taking action. Implementing the arrangement of the leadership of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, the China Social Sciences Publishing House decided to publish a set of "A Large Series of Books on the History of Contemporary Chinese Academic Thought" in order to display the great achievements made by Chinese philosophy and social sciences in the construction of discipline system, academic system and discourse system in the 70 years since the founding of New China in 1949, and to show Xi Jinping's Chinese wisdom, Chinese thought and excellent traditional Chinese culture in the new era to the people of all over the world. Thanks to the favor of China Social Sciences Press, he wrote "Seventy Years of Oracle Osteology in New China (1949-2019)", and was honored to participate in this "large-scale series". With this honor, it is actually the Chinese gene inherited by oracle bone script and other ancient characters with "great cultural value and inheritance significance", and in the process of realizing driving transformation and innovative development, building Chinese cultural self-confidence and enriching and consolidating the great value of socialist core values. It is also a recognition and full affirmation of the achievements of generations of scholars trained in New China in guarding, inheriting and promoting the Oracle bone culture of the unpopular discipline. According to the requirements of the publishing house, that is, on the basis of the book "Sixty Years of Oracle Osteology in New China (1949-2009)", and then updating and supplementing the research results of oracle osteology in the past ten years, it was published under the title of "Seventy Years of Oracle Osteology in New China (1949-2019)". It should be said that since the publication of "Sixty Years of Oracle Bone in New China (1949-2009)", many remarkable events have taken place in the field of oracle bone science, that is, in 1999, we used "One Hundred Years of Oracle Osteology" and "Collection Supplement" as the "initial period" (1899-1928), "development period" (1928-1949), "in-depth development period" (1949-1979), "comprehensive in-depth development period" (1979- 1999) summed up the centennial glory and began a new stage of re-creating the new century of oracle bone research. Oracle bone research is discovered in continuous summary, innovation in discovery, development in innovation, and inheritance in development. In the new century, international academic exchanges have been further strengthened, and not only Chinese scholars have gained the right to speak and tell Chinese stories well at international academic conferences held at home and abroad with their true insights; Moreover, the words engraved on the oracle bone are "alive", which is manifested in the fact that the oracle bone calligrapher uses the results of the text interpretation for calligraphy creation, so that the esoteric oracle bone script enters the homes of ordinary people. In order to lead the healthy development of oracle bone calligraphy, oracle bone scientists interacted with calligraphers and reached a consensus on the creative principle of "returning to oracle bones and walking out of oracle bones". Not only that, the genuine oracle bones that have been locked in the "purdah" of the warehouse for many years meet with the broad masses of the people in the exhibition hall of the museum, so that they can get close to the treasures of the country and feel the breadth and depth of Chinese culture in the pleasant and nurturing mind. In particular, as a messenger of cultural exchanges, Oracle has gone abroad, allowing many foreign friends to appreciate the profound cultural heritage of Oracle and perceive the origin of Chinese characters and their great contributions to promoting human civilization from pieces of oracle bones. In particular, in October 2018, Oracle was inscribed on the Memory of the World Cultural Heritage List, marking the protection, inheritance and promotion of Oracle, which has risen from the national level to the world-class level, becoming a medium and bridge connecting people. While making new achievements in the popularization and promotion of oracle bones, oracle osteologists refined and sorted out oracle bones and "unearthed" some new words. Linguists used the new bibliography to compile the vocabulary and concentrate illiteracy in the "appendix", which pointed out the main direction of attack for the deciphering of illiterate characters by pooling the efforts of oracle bone scholars. In the writing process of the History of the Shang Dynasty, which maximizes the historical and cultural information contained in the oracle bones, there are sometimes illiterate words and the oracle bone materials are abandoned, which affects the further development of research on related issues. It is precisely because of the achievements and shortcomings that the difficulty of deciphering oracle bone script has become a bottleneck that hinders the further development of oracle bone script to a deeper and all-round level. It can be said that oracle osteologists have clear goals, plan ahead, and prepare for the peak of deciphering oracle bone characters. In order to implement the spirit of Comrade Xi Jinping's speech on "ensuring that someone does it and has inheritance" in Oracle bone and other ancient writing disciplines that are "related to cultural inheritance", the National Social Science Foundation Office has designed 10 major sub-projects of "Oracle bone interpretation research supported by big data and cloud platform" at the top level in order to promote the development of oracle bone research, and strive to break through the bottleneck of writing that hinders the progress of oracle bone research. Marked by the "Award Announcement" published by Guangming Daily on October 28, 2016 on the collection of excellent achievements in oracle bone interpretation, it opened a new stage of comprehensive and in-depth development and promotion of oracle bone research promoted by the government. In this "new stage", the 10 sub-projects of the "Major Commissioned Project" of the National Social Science Foundation and the 25 projects of the "Oracle Bone and Other Paleography Research and Application Project" of the Department of Language and Information of the Ministry of Education complement each other and complement each other, which will surely push the new stage of oracle bone research to a new brilliance. And all that. Xi Jinping's Oracle bone research in the new era has pushed the level that "Sixty Years of Oracle Osteology in New China (1949-2009)" can achieve to a new height of development of "Seventy Years of Oracle Bone Research in New China (1949-2019)", thus making greater contributions to the Chinese dream of the great rejuvenation of Chinese culture. From the above summary description, it can be seen that this "Seventy Years of Oracle Osteology in New China (1949-2019)" is based on "Sixty Years of Oracle Osteology in New China (1949-2009)" and integrates the characteristics of the era of the "new stage" of the new century. The book "Oracle Bone Research Since the Founding of the People's Republic of China" is the starting point and initial stage of "Sixty Years of Oracle Osteology in New China (1949-2009)". The reason for this is that from 1949 to 1979, when the oracle bone science of New China was in the stage of in-depth development, scholars tried hard to accept and study Marxism, and tried to use historical materialism to guide their Oracle bone research, which inevitably had one-sided and inaccurate theoretical understanding, so when studying the history of the Shang Dynasty, there were defects in misunderstanding or misuse of historical materials, and the research was mostly limited to the economic foundation and superstructure, social formation, and class contradictions and struggles; After entering the "comprehensive and in-depth development stage of oracle bones" from 1979 to 2009, scholars have a more systematic, accurate and comprehensive understanding of Marxism, and use the historical perspective of historical materialism to guide oracle bone research, which is more conscious and skilled, which greatly expands the scope of research on oracle bone science and business history in the first thirty years, that is, the period of in-depth development of Oracle bone research since the founding of the People's Republic of China, involving all aspects of oracle bone science business history, so "Sixty Years of Oracle Bone Science in New China (1949-2009)" Compared with the first three decades of New China, the Oracle bone study has an all-round, deep-level and multi-angle panoramic development. Great oaks from little acorns grow.. I am infinitely grateful to say that I grew up under the nurturing and nurturing of the mother of the Republic. In 1959, I was admitted to the Department of History of Peking University majoring in archaeology, which was the 60th anniversary of the discovery of oracle bones, and I knew and began to learn about oracle bones. Although I graduated from university in 1964, the 65th anniversary of the discovery of Oracle, I was admitted to the graduate school of Oracle bone science and business history, but the real study and research of Oracle began in 1973 from the "May Seventh Cadre School" in Dongyue, Xinyang, Henan Province, that is, after the resumption of the compilation of the "Collection", which was the 74th year after the discovery of Oracle in 1899. Therefore, from my dedication to Oracle learning and research to the 120th anniversary of Oracle's discovery in 2019 this year, I have experienced 46 years of studying, researching, tackling problems, and climbing Oracle peaks. Therefore, my colleagues and I can proudly say that Oracle's 120-year development has 46 years of hard work and contributions (and probably many more years in the future)! In the past 46 years, I have stepped into Oracle since the founding of Oracle Studies (1981 edition) and moved forward to the brilliant front desk of "One Hundred Years of Oracle Osteology" (1999 edition). The "Year of Ear Shun" retired endlessly, and continued to pay attention to and track the times of "Sixty Years of Oracle Osteology in New China (1949-2009)". I was fortunate to witness and participate in the development of "Seventy Years of Oracle Osteology in New China (1949-2019)" in my old age, and I was able to welcome, with my learning, understanding, promotion and highlighting of the achievements made in this glorious process, to welcome the 120th anniversary of the discovery of Oracle. Therefore, I am very fortunate to value the book "Oracle Research Since the Founding of the People's Republic of China", which brought me into the academic door. In particular, Professor Hu Houxuan, a grandmaster of oracle bone science, and Professor Li Xueqin, who is also a teacher and friend, wrote the "preface" to my "Oracle Bone Research Since the Founding of the People's Republic of China" in 1979, when I first entered the door of oracle bone research, and placed unlimited expectations on myself and the development of Chinese oracle bone science and the growth of research talents. At the same time, they also looked forward to the future development of oracle bone science in the "Preface", and put forward a series of forward-looking topics for the development of oracle bone research, such as oracle bone periodization, the arrangement of words, the interpretation of texts, and the writing of the History of the Shang Dynasty. Today, some topics have been completed, some topics are still being explored in depth, and some topics are still rarely asked... Although Hu Houxuan, who oversaw the overall development of oracle bone science and pursued a "comprehensive and thorough sorting" of oracle bones, returned to the west in April 1995, and Professor Li Xueqin, who was quite challenging and forward-looking, also left us forever in December 2018, on the eve of the 120th anniversary of the discovery of oracle bones, the "preface" they wrote for "Oracle Research Since the Founding of the People's Republic of China" lives on forever! Although the second "order" has experienced more than 40 years of vicissitudes in spring and autumn, its profound academic ideas still have enlightening significance for the development of oracle bone science. I put it at the beginning of the book "Seventy Years of Oracle Bone Science in New China (1949-2019)" to show that it is still a timeless "encouragement and expectation, starting point and pursuit" for myself, for my contemporaries, for my students and oracle bone rookies! Kindly present at the Oracle Research Institute of Anyang Normal University on April 30, 2019(AI翻译)

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引文

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GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文
王宇信.新中国甲骨学七十年:1949—2019[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2019
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王宇信.新中国甲骨学七十年:1949—2019.北京,中国社会科学出版社:2019E-book.
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王宇信(2019).新中国甲骨学七十年:1949—2019.北京:中国社会科学出版社
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