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国际劳动和世界变革

ISBN:978-7-5161-6019-0

出版日期:2015-04

页数:535

字数:563.0千字

丛书名:《中国社会科学院老学者文库》

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党的十八大以来,实现中华民族伟大复兴的“中国梦”,在中国大地汹涌澎湃,势不可挡,震撼着世界。写这本书的目的,就是要告诉读者,中国梦是个伟大、系统、长期的工程,它要靠全国人民用勤劳的双手,用艰苦、扎实的劳动来托起。如习近平同志所说的:“‘功崇惟志,业广惟勤’。我国仍处在并将长期处于社会主义初级阶段,实现中国梦,创造全体人民更加美好的生活,任重而道远,需要我们每一个人继续付出辛勤劳动和艰苦努力。”习近平还说:“人们创造历史,劳动开创未来。劳动是推动人类社会进步的根本力量。幸福不会从天而降,梦想不会自动成真。实现我们的奋斗目标,开创我们的美好未来,必须紧紧依靠人民、始终依靠人民,必须依靠辛勤劳动、诚实劳动、创造性劳动。我们说‘空谈误国,实干兴邦’,实干首先就要脚踏实地劳动。”

人世间的一切财富和奇迹,都是由劳动者的辛勤劳动所创造,这也许无人再怀疑。然而,在阶级、剥削、压迫存在的社会里,劳动者却只占有财富的很少一部分。而且直到今天,世界的大多数劳动者所从事的还都是被人看不起的笨重的体力劳动。其中一部分生活还很苦,甚至很悲惨。对于这些劳动者来说,劳动伟大,劳动光荣,只是一句空的口号。这本书就是想从历史和现实的结合中,以大量的事实说明劳动的伟大和光荣,说明劳动者的伟大和光荣,说明世界的一切变革,都孕育在劳动关系的变革之中。在虚拟经济在全球泛滥的当今,期望读到这本书的人,都会有所触动,都会情不自禁由衷地发出呼喊:应当把世界最美的歌,献给实体劳动,献给实体劳动者。

历史实践使人们逐渐懂得,人类社会发展的一切奥秘,都隐藏在劳动之中。劳动作为人的本质,不仅是人类社会产生和发展的基础和动力,而且是人类自身产生和发展的基础和动力。在一定意义上说,人和人类发展和进步的历史,都无非是劳动和劳动关系发展的历史。解开人类发展一切秘密的钥匙,都应当从劳动中去寻找。马克思正是在对劳动的研究中,揭示了剩余价值的奥秘,揭示了资本和资本主义社会的本质,揭示了它的历史进步性和必然灭亡的发展规律。同样,了解当今一切国际问题奥秘的钥匙,也必须从研究国际劳动关系入手,从国际劳动发展和变革中去寻找。

当今的时代,已经是劳动全球化的时代。劳动的资源和要素,劳动产品的生产和销售,都已经溢出国家的限界,在全球流动中寻找着自己最有利的场所。由于劳动全球化和世界市场体系的形成和发展,民族的片面性和局限性日益成为不可能,一切国际的生产和消费都成为世界性的了,物质的生产是如此,精神的生产也是如此。劳动全球化不仅是人类社会发展的重要阶段,也是劳动者解放进程中的重要阶段,在此阶段,全世界劳动者联合起来进行争取自身解放的最后的斗争,将会变为现实并逐步展开。

坚持对外开放,积极发展国际劳动,全面融入世界劳动体系,是实现中国梦的唯一正确道路。过去30多年来,中国正是毫不动摇地坚持了这条道路,才取得了举世瞩目的奇迹。特别是中国在这一过程中所开创的中国特色社会主义道路,还为全世界劳动者的解放斗争,提供了切实的借鉴。这条道路核心是劳动为本,共同富裕。我想,在当今世界性的轻视劳动,投机赌博狂热,投机赌博取代劳动,贫富差别悬殊的“金钱就是一切”的时代里,“劳动为本,共同富裕”这一追求,不仅应当成为中国劳动者的追求和旗帜,而且应当成为全世界劳动者的追求和旗帜。

过去对国际经济问题的研究,基本上是局限在货币金融和商品交换领域,主要表现为国际贸易、国际金融、国际市场这三大块。在书店里的书架上,我们可以看到,有关国际贸易、国际金融、国际市场、国际经济学、国际政治经济学、国际关系学等国际经济方面的著作,琳琅满目,可唯独看不到一本关于专门论述国际劳动或劳动全球化的书。然而,国际劳动却是所有这些关系的基础。世界经济发展历史和现实,都告诉我们,没有对国际劳动的深入研究,这些研究将缺乏根基。尤其在充满金融危机、环境危机、政治动荡的当今世界,多么需要一部专门研究国际劳动、反映劳动者地位、利益和作用的著作啊!为了填补这一空白,本书作为开创性的尝试,从劳动创造古文明切入,围绕国际劳动的产生、发展和历史作用,国际劳动分工的历史演变和新特点,劳动全球化和全球劳动力市场体系形成,劳动全球化和劳动者的解放,劳动全球化与未来社会,虚拟资本的全球化和全球经济泡沫,投机、赌博取代劳动和全球金融危机,国际劳动与中国的复兴等问题,进行了初步的研究和阐述,以求能抛砖引玉。

劳动和劳动者是本书的主人公。劳动关系的前进和变革,推动着整个人类社会的前进和变革,是本书的灵魂。这本书的写作,不仅是智力的付出,同时也是感情的付出。每天清晨走在大街上,张目四处望去,那急匆匆的车水人群,东南西北,川流不息。其中有城市工人、有农民打工者,有管理者、有知识分子、有国家干部、也有科学工作者,有白领,也有蓝领,还有清洁工,他们虽然方向不同,身份不同,但他们的目标都是一个,奔向劳动,奔向历史的创造。也许只有此时此刻,人们才会真正感觉到生命的存在和生命的意义。

劳动是人类生存和发展的前提,是人类社会存在和发展的基础,因此也是政治经济学的基础。无论资产阶级的政治经济学,或马克思主义的政治经济学,都是建立在分析特定的劳动、劳动生产、劳动关系和劳动产品分配这个基础上的。亚当·斯密的《国富论》,马克思的《资本论》,都无不如此。亚当·斯密的《国富论》奠定了劳动价值论的基础,提出一切财富的本原都是劳动,商品的价值是由生产这种商品所耗费的劳动决定的,增加财富的重要条件是提高劳动生产率。不过,他虽然分析了使用价值和交换价值的区别,但没有认识到劳动和劳动力的区别,因而没有揭示出工人工资的本质,把使用价值和利润混为一谈,从而掩盖了资本家剥削工人劳动者的本质。而马克思在《资本论》这部旷世巨著里,正是从分析劳动入手,发现了劳动的二重性,发现了在商品意义上劳动和劳动力的区别,从而揭示出了剩余价值是如何创造出来的秘密,实现了政治经济学的伟大革命。

无论是春夏秋冬,无论走在什么地方,你都会看到劳动者进行艰苦劳动的情景。为了能够生活得更好,为了追逐伟大的梦想,他们不畏严寒,不怕酷暑,在冰天雪地里,在烈日炎炎下默默进行着艰苦、繁忙的劳动。他们有多辛苦、心灵有多美、精神有多伟大,也许那满天的星星可以告诉你。我敢说,每当看到劳动者劳动,看到那令人震撼的劳动场面,人们都会肃然起敬,都会强烈感觉到:应当为劳动歌唱,因为劳动是人类的生命;应当向劳动者致敬,因为劳动者是人类社会的太阳。人类社会只要还没有完全围绕着劳动者这个太阳旋转,那就不能消除黑暗。更值得我们讴歌和敬仰的是先进劳动或创新劳动,因为人类的发展和进步,始终是由先进劳动或创新劳动所引领的。

劳动不仅是财富的源泉,而且是人的本质和人生的根本价值。然而,自打人类进入到以私有制为基础的阶级社会后,人们却都如命似地酷爱财富,但却不喜欢劳动,劳动成为被迫、被厌恶的事情。原因何在?马克思回答了这个问题,那就是因为劳动的异化。由于劳动异化,本应自己享受的劳动成果,反而成为压迫剥削自己,使自己贫困的工具。异化劳动使劳动的本性发生了扭曲,也使人的本性发生了扭曲。马克思主义者为其奋斗的,就是消灭了私有制,消灭了劳动异化,使劳动者得到解放,使劳动的本性和人的本性得到复归。消除劳动异化,实现没有剥削,没有压迫,劳动不再是奴役的手段、而成为劳动者发展自己的手段的那样的社会,是全人类的梦想。

本书的重点,是国际劳动关系,包括国际劳资关系和国际劳动分工关系。而这两种关系,都通过跨国公司的全球性发展体现了出来,所以跨国公司也是本书研究的重要内容。在国际劳动分工的研究中,重点是研究国际劳动分工的新发展和新变化,国际劳动分工中的优势和利益分配,国际劳动分工结构的升级和国际劳动分工秩序的改革。特别是分析了发展中国家为改变自己在国际劳动分工中的不利地位,必须改变发展方式,必须进行产业结构调整和升级,必须在发展创新劳动、发展核心高端技术、发展教育方面狠下工夫。

基于当今的实践,本书用比较多的篇幅论述了虚拟资本和虚拟经济问题,阐述了虚拟资本和实体资本、虚拟经济和实体经济的本质和相互关系。特别是结合新的世界金融危机的实践,本书在阐述虚拟资本和虚拟经济时,花了比较大的篇幅阐述马克思关于投机、赌博取代劳动是资本主义金融特性的理论。分析和阐述了金融资本家在这种投机、赌博中所表现出来的自私、贪婪、欺诈和寄生的本性。以历史和实践中的大量事实阐明了,投机、赌博取代劳动,正是资本主义世界金融危机的根源和一切罪恶的渊薮。西方有学者把虚拟资本的收益称之为幻想的货币,把金融寡头们自私、贪婪、欺诈的本性,称之为“动物精神”。其实人的那种贪婪却是无度的贪婪,这种贪婪有着社会制度的根源。并从社会制度范畴,分析了资本主义金融危机更深层次的根源,以新的视角,分析了危机的救治与劳动者解放的关系。结合这次资本主义金融危机所引发的劳动者的罢工游行运动,分析了劳动者解放斗争的新阶段和道路的选择。

在国际劳动和中国复兴梦部分,则从理论和实践的结合中,阐明了以改革开放发展国际劳动为基本内容的中国特色社会主义道路,是中国复兴的康庄大道。实行对外开放,学习国外一切先进的东西,大胆引进国外的先进技术和设备,大力发展国际劳动,积极融入国际劳动分工体系,这是30多年来中国高速发展,不断取得奇迹的重要原因。在总结经验教训的基础上,从多个方面分析了实现中国梦所面临的严峻挑战,提出了应对这些挑战的具体对策。

在这一部分的论述中,还特别强调了,在这一发展过程中,作为中国的一大创造——农民工,是功不可没的。大量农民工进城务工,他们在为国家工业化作贡献的同时,也为家庭致富,这是中国在改革开放中创造的实现工业化的独特道路。以引进外资兴办大量工厂和大量基础设施建设工程,为农民工提供大量工作岗位。他们怀着脱贫致富的热情,到城市打工,这就满足了工业化所需要的大量劳动力。抛下老人和子女,到城市从事着最重、最脏、最苦而又是最伟大的劳动,忍受着最艰苦的生活条件,所得到的又是最微薄的工资和待遇,可农民工们却无怨无悔,始终在苦干着、实干着、坚持着。看看我国遍地那高楼大厦、密网式的公路、机场、码头和运往世界各地的商品,无论哪一项成就中,都能看到他们辛勤劳动的身影。我国之所以能成为“世界工厂”,能取得今天的成就,其中他们流了多少汗,付出了多少辛苦,贡献有多大,30年来他们为国家创造了多少财富,有谁能计算得清呢!

因为国际劳动是一个全新的研究领域,所以在本书的分析和论述中,不仅给国际劳动以明确的界定,而且提出不少新的概念。比如创新劳动、劳动全球化、劳动品质、有尊严劳动、国际劳动分工结构、抵押劳动消费等。更值得一提的是,本书的研究始终都坚持着以马克思主义为指导。有些理论,比如金融理论,甚至可以说是在新历史时代对马克思主义的解读。也就是说,本书对联系实际普及宣传马克思主义,推动马克思主义的发展和与时俱进,也有重要意义。

作者

2013年6月于北京

Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the "Chinese Dream" of realizing the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation has surged and unstoppable in the land of China, shaking the world. The purpose of writing this book is to tell readers that the Chinese dream is a great, systematic and long-term project, which depends on the people of the whole country to use their hardworking hands and hard and solid labor to hold it up. As Comrade Xi Jinping said: "'Meritorious and dedicated, extensive and diligent'." Our country is still in the primary stage of socialism and will remain for a long time, and realizing the Chinese dream and creating a better life for all the people is a long way to go, and each and every one of us needs to continue to make hard work and hard work. Xi Jinping also said: "People create history, and labor creates the future." Labor is the fundamental force that promotes the progress of human society. Happiness does not fall from the sky, dreams do not automatically come true. To achieve our goals and create our bright future, we must closely rely on the people, always rely on the people, and rely on hard work, honest work and creative labor. We say that 'empty talk misleads the country, and practical work rejuvenates the country', and practical work must first be done in a down-to-earth manner. "Perhaps no one doubts that all the wealth and miracles of the world are created by the hard work of laborers. However, in societies where class, exploitation, and oppression exist, laborers own only a small fraction of wealth. And to this day, most of the world's laborers are engaged in cumbersome manual labor that is despised by others. Some of these lives are still very difficult, even miserable. For these laborers, great labor and glorious labor are just empty slogans. This book wants to illustrate the greatness and glory of labor with a large number of facts from the combination of history and reality, explain the greatness and glory of laborers, and explain that all changes in the world are bred in the transformation of labor relations. In today's global flood of virtual economy, anyone who expects to read this book will be touched, and they can't help but shout from the bottom of their hearts: the world's most beautiful song should be dedicated to physical labor and to physical workers. Historical practice has made people gradually understand that all the mysteries of the development of human society are hidden in labor. As the essence of human beings, labor is not only the basis and driving force for the emergence and development of human society, but also the foundation and driving force for the emergence and development of human beings themselves. In a certain sense, the history of human development and progress is nothing more than the history of the development of labor and labor relations. The key to unlocking all the secrets of human development should be found through labor. It was in the study of labor that Marx revealed the mystery of surplus value, the nature of capital and capitalist society, and the law of development of its historical progress and inevitable demise. Similarly, the key to understanding the mysteries of all today's international issues must also start from the study of international labor relations and find it from the development and change of international labor. Today's era is already an era of globalization of labor. The resources and elements of labor, the production and sale of labor products, have all transcended the boundaries of the country, and they are looking for their most favorable place in the global flow. Due to the globalization of labor and the formation and development of the world market system, the one-sidedness and limitations of the nation have become increasingly impossible, and all international production and consumption have become universal, as is the case with material production and spiritual production. The globalization of labor is not only an important stage in the development of human society, but also in the process of emancipation of workers, in which the final struggle of workers all over the world to unite for their own liberation will become a reality and gradually unfold. Persisting in opening up, actively developing international labor, and fully integrating into the world labor system is the only correct way to realize the Chinese dream. Over the past 30 years, China has unswervingly adhered to this path and achieved miracles that have attracted worldwide attention. In particular, the path of socialism with Chinese characteristics pioneered by China in this process has also provided practical reference for the liberation struggles of working people all over the world. The core of this road is labor-oriented and common prosperity. I believe that in today's world era of contempt for labor, speculative gambling mania, speculative gambling replacing labor, and the disparity between the rich and the poor, the pursuit of "labor-oriented, common prosperity" should become not only the pursuit and banner of Chinese workers, but also the pursuit and banner of workers all over the world. In the past, the research on international economic issues was basically limited to the fields of monetary finance and commodity exchange, mainly manifested in the three major areas of international trade, international finance and international market. On the shelves in the bookstore, we can see that there are many books on international economics such as international trade, international finance, international markets, international economics, international political economy, international relations, etc., but we can't see a book dedicated to international labor or labor globalization. International labor, however, is the basis of all these relationships. The history and reality of world economic development tell us that without in-depth study of international labor, these studies will lack a foundation. Especially in today's world, which is full of financial crises, environmental crises and political turmoil, what a need for a book that specializes in international labor and reflects the status, interests and role of workers! In order to fill this gap, this book, as a pioneering attempt, starts from the ancient civilization created by labor, and conducts preliminary research and elaboration on the generation, development and historical role of international labor, the historical evolution and new characteristics of international division of labor, labor globalization and the formation of the global labor market system, labor globalization and the liberation of laborers, labor globalization and future society, the globalization of virtual capital and the global economic bubble, speculation, gambling replacing labor and the global financial crisis, and the rejuvenation of international labor and China. In order to be able to throw bricks and lead jade. Labor and laborers are the protagonists of this book. The progress and change of labor relations promote the progress and change of the entire human society, and are the soul of this book. The writing of this book is not only an intellectual effort, but also an emotional effort. Walking on the street every morning, looking around, the hurried traffic crowd, southeast, northwest, the stream is endless. Among them are urban workers, peasant migrant workers, managers, intellectuals, state cadres, scientific workers, white-collar workers, blue-collar workers, and cleaners, although they have different directions and different identities, but their goal is one, to labor, to the creation of history. Perhaps only at this moment will people truly feel the existence and meaning of life. Labor is the prerequisite for human survival and development, the basis for the existence and development of human society, and therefore the basis of political economy. Both the political economy of the bourgeoisie and the political economy of Marxism are based on the analysis of specific labor, labor production, labor relations, and the distribution of labor products. Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations and Marx's Capital are all like this. Adam Smith's "The Wealth of Nations" laid the foundation of the labor theory of value, proposing that the origin of all wealth is labor, the value of commodities is determined by the labor expended in producing such commodities, and that an important condition for increasing wealth is to increase labor productivity. However, although he analyzed the difference between use value and exchange value, he did not recognize the difference between labor and labor power, and thus did not reveal the nature of workers' wages, confused use value with profit, thus concealing the essence of capitalists' exploitation of workers. In this masterpiece "Capital", Marx started from the analysis of labor, discovered the duality of labor, discovered the difference between labor and labor in the commodity sense, thus revealing the secret of how surplus value is created, and realizing the great revolution of political economy. Whether it is spring, summer, autumn or winter, no matter where you go, you will see the scene of laborers doing hard labor. In order to be able to live better, in order to chase great dreams, they are not afraid of the cold and the heat, and silently carry out hard and busy labor in the ice and snow, under the scorching sun. How hard they work, how beautiful their hearts are, how great their spirits are, maybe the stars in the sky can tell you. I dare to say that whenever I see the labor of laborers and the shocking labor scene, people will be in awe and will strongly feel: we should sing for labor, because labor is human life; Tribute should be paid to the laborers, who are the sun of human society. As long as human society does not fully revolve around the sun of labor, it cannot eliminate the darkness. What deserves our praise and admiration is advanced labor or innovative labor, because the development and progress of human beings is always led by advanced labor or innovative labor. Labor is not only the source of wealth, but also the essence of man and the fundamental value of life. However, since mankind entered a class society based on private ownership, people have loved wealth as if they were fateful, but they did not like labor, and labor became a forced and hated thing. Why? Marx answered this question, that is, because of the alienation of labor. Due to the alienation of labor, the fruits of labor that should be enjoyed by oneself have become a tool for oppression, exploitation and impoverishment. Alienated labor distorts the nature of labor, as well as the nature of man. What Marxists struggle for is the abolition of private ownership, the alienation of labor, the liberation of laborers, and the restoration of the nature of labor and human nature. It is the dream of all mankind to eliminate the alienation of labor and to realize a society in which there is no exploitation, no oppression, and labor is no longer a means of slavery, but a means for the laborers to develop themselves. The focus of this book is on international labor relations, including international labor relations and international division of labor relations. These two relationships are reflected through the global development of multinational corporations, so multinational companies are also an important part of the research in this book. In the study of international division of labor, the focus is on the new development and changes of international division of labor, the distribution of advantages and benefits in the international division of labor, the upgrading of the structure of international division of labor and the reform of the international division of labor order. In particular, in order to change their unfavorable position in the international division of labor, developing countries must change their development mode, carry out industrial restructuring and upgrading, and make vigorous efforts in developing innovative labor, developing core high-end technologies, and developing education. Based on today's practice, this book devotes a lot of space to the issues of virtual capital and virtual economy, and expounds the essence and interrelationship between virtual capital and real capital, virtual economy and real economy. Especially in combination with the practice of the new world financial crisis, when expounding virtual capital and virtual economy, this book spends a relatively large part of Marx's theory that speculation and gambling replace labor as the characteristics of capitalist finance. It analyzes and expounds the selfish, greedy, fraudulent and parasitic nature of financial capitalists in this speculation and gambling. A large number of facts from history and practice show that the replacement of labor by speculation and gambling is the root cause of the capitalist world financial crisis and the source of all evil. Some Western scholars call the gains of fictitious capital the money of fantasy, and the selfish, greedy, and fraudulent nature of financial oligarchs as "animal spirits." In fact, the greed of people is unbridled greed, and this greed has the root of the social system. From the scope of social system, the deeper root causes of the capitalist financial crisis are analyzed, and the relationship between crisis relief and labor liberation is analyzed from a new perspective. Combined with the strike and march movement of workers triggered by the capitalist financial crisis, the new stage of the liberation struggle of workers and the choice of road are analyzed. In the part of international labor and the dream of China's rejuvenation, from the combination of theory and practice, it expounds the socialist road with Chinese characteristics with reform and opening up and the development of international labor as the basic content, and is a broad road for China's rejuvenation. Opening up to the outside world, learning all advanced things from abroad, boldly introducing advanced foreign technology and equipment, vigorously developing international labor, and actively integrating into the international division of labor system are important reasons for China's rapid development and continuous miracles over the past 30 years. On the basis of summing up lessons learned, the severe challenges facing the realization of the Chinese Dream were analyzed from many aspects, and specific countermeasures were put forward to deal with these challenges. In this part of the discussion, it is also emphasized that in this development process, as a major creation of China, migrant workers are indispensable. A large number of migrant workers have gone to the cities to work, and while they have contributed to the industrialization of the country, they have also made their families rich, which is a unique path to industrialization created by China in the reform and opening up. A large number of factories and a large number of infrastructure construction projects have been set up by attracting foreign capital to provide a large number of jobs for migrant workers. With the enthusiasm of getting rid of poverty and getting rich, they went to the city to work, which met the large number of labor required for industrialization. Leaving behind the old people and children, they went to the cities to engage in the heaviest, dirtiest, hardest and greatest labor, endured the most difficult living conditions, and received the most meager wages and treatment, but the migrant workers had no regrets, and always worked hard, practically, and persistently. Look at the tall buildings, dense roads, airports, docks and goods shipped around the world in our country, and in whatever achievement, you can see their hard work. The reason why our country can become the "factory of the world" and achieve today's achievements, in which how much sweat they shed, how much hard work they have paid, how much they have contributed, how much wealth they have created for the country in the past 30 years, who can calculate clearly! Because international labor is a completely new field of study, in the analysis and discussion of this book, not only clear definition of international labor, but also many new concepts are proposed. For example, innovative labor, labor globalization, labor quality, dignified labor, international division of labor structure, mortgage labor consumption, etc. It is worth mentioning that the research in this book has always adhered to the guidance of Marxism. Some theories, such as financial theory, can even be said to be interpretations of Marxism in the new historical era. In other words, this book is also of great significance for popularizing and propagating Marxism in connection with reality, promoting the development of Marxism, and advancing with the times. The author was published in Beijing in June 2013(AI翻译)

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GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文
刘国平.国际劳动和世界变革[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2015
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刘国平.国际劳动和世界变革.北京,中国社会科学出版社:2015E-book.
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刘国平(2015).国际劳动和世界变革.北京:中国社会科学出版社
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