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中国纺织产业节能减排制度绩效评价研究

Research on Performance Evaluation of Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction System in China's Textile Industry

ISBN:978-7-5203-7484-2

出版日期:2020-10

页数:217

字数:201.0千字

点击量:4645次

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基金信息: 国家社科基金重大项目《完善推进绿色创新的市场型环境政策体系研究》(20ZDA088);国家自然基金重点项目《“食品、能源、水”互馈系统模型的构建和模拟》(41961124004);浙江省社科规划课题《浙江纺织产业节能减排制度供给及其绩效评价》(19NDJC235YB);浙江理工大学学术著作出版资金资助(2020年度);浙江省哲学社会科学重点研究基地——浙江省生态文明研究院和浙江省丝绸与时尚文化研究中心 展开
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在中国各大产业发展中,制造业地位举足轻重,而制造业中的纺织产业在国民经济发展中始终发挥着无可替代的作用,具有“永恒产业”的特征。中国是全球最大的纺织品生产国和出口国,目前约有12万家纺织企业,是全国32个制造业中的第三大行业。根据国家统计局数据,2017年规模以上纺织企业累计实现主营业务收入68935.6亿元,实现利润总额3768.8亿元。与此同时,纺织行业发展面临的不确定因素仍然较多,各种风险问题仍需加强关注与应对,环保监管措施更趋严格,纺织企业环保投入负担较重,部分地区仅以停产为单一监管手段,企业生产、投资活动受限,成为纺织全行业平稳发展的瓶颈制约。降低纺织产业的资源消耗和控制污染排放对我国纺织产业,特别是浙江地区纺织产业的持续健康发展至关重要。这是浙江省乃至全国纺织产业可持续发展的必由之路,也是保持浙江省纺织产业和社会环境协调发展的紧迫需求。纺织产业节能减排,技术是基础,制度更是保障。为进一步明晰纺织产业节能减排制度改革面临的问题与发展思路,有必要梳理与之相关的理论文献,阐述这个领域研究的进展、不足和问题。节能减排的制度体系研究较为丰富,从依法治理,到发挥市场决定性作用,再到价值观念转变形成自愿性减排降污,不同的政策工具在实现节能减排方面能够发挥不同的功效。浙江理工大学王晓蓬副教授所著的《中国纺织产业节能减排制度绩效评价研究》一书,就是回应纺织产业发展存在的重大问题,对纺织产业节能减排制度的绩效评价进行研究和阐述,为读者更好理解纺织产业节能减排制度提供了参考。

本书涵盖以下主要内容:在第一章会给出相应的研究背景及意义,第二章则基于转型升级理论、环境规制理论、制度演化理论等三大理论基础,对相关文献进行了回顾,并在后面的章节中按照政府强制性制度、市场激励性制度、公众参与性制度将367项纺织产业节能减排制度进行分类,分别以纺织产业园区、纺织企业上市公司、纺织产品为典型案例进行探讨。第三章是在上一章的文献回顾基础上,从市场失灵的视角剖析了节能减排制度的经济学动因,在此基础上进行了纺织产业节能减排制度的博弈均衡分析,并分析了纺织产业节能减排制度的敏感度。第四章针对生命周期不同阶段的纺织产业,研究了国家节能减排政策的实施对于纺织企业节能减排绩效的影响。第五章、第六章中运用生命周期评价方法、仿真模拟法和碳足迹核算法等三种研究方法,研究得出有关制度供给与环境、经济、生态绩效之间的互动关系和内在影响机理。同时,通过制度供给的研究,设计更加适合纺织产业发展的制度环境资源,进而推动纺织产业转型升级,更好地服务于制造业健康有序发展。

本书将文献研究与实地调研相结合、问卷调查和专家会议相结合、理论模型分析与定量分析相结合、比较分析与归纳总结相结合,主要采用以下几种研究方法:首先是生命周期评价方法(LCA),文中取丝绸产业这一典型的纺织产业生产过程,采用面向工艺过程的LCA 分析方法对产品制造的全生命周期进行分阶段、分环节研究,从原料生产出发到产品生产完成对整个产品生产的工艺过程的环境负荷进行分析,来确定生产阶段的主要环境压力,并编制从生产制造各阶段的环境排放清单和总体生命周期清单。根据生产过程中各阶段的污染排放和环境负荷的评价结果,来确定纺织产业生产污染排放特征及其环境影响,并为纺织产业生产的环境管理提供改进意见和决策支撑。其次是水足迹核算方法,运用工业水资源消耗以新鲜用水计量,而废水排放含有污染物,两者的性质不同,应用碳足迹的方法可以使两者折算成统一量纲,把“水资源”“水环境”两个因素复合成“水资源环境”一个因素,实现与工业经济增长的耦合分析。然后在第六章中运用案例分析法,根据国内外纺织产业节能减排制度演进规律,结合近年来,中国纺织产业节能减排政策,剖析纺织产业节能减排制度供给对纺织产业转型升级的影响因素,提出具有针对性的对策建议。

由于作者调研充分,思考深入,因此本书形成了一些创新性观点和见解。从国内外同类研究成果来看,本研究具有以下几方面的特色与创新:

一是从全产业链和全生命周期的视角剖析节能减排制度对于企业绩效影响,研究视角更加全面和系统。相较于以往研究,本书的研究视角由制度的单一作用转向了其对于全产业链和全生命周期研究的全新视角。传统研究大都聚焦于产业中的某单一环节,就该环节的单一制度作用进行有效的探讨。众多政策的制定缺乏一定的战略和系统性,使得政策的平均力度不但没有增加反而逐渐降低。本书则从更加系统的角度,从全产业链和全生命周期视角出发,来探究节能减排制度对于处于产业链不同层次以及不同生命周期的企业具有怎样的作用效果,进而为节能减排制度体系的进一步完善提供经验依据,这一做法不仅可以突破目前学术界仅从单一角度来研究纺织产业污染治理问题的局限性,同时也将丰富和提升我国产业环境管理和循环经济研究的理论水平与现实应用。多角度综合分析的方法使得本研究的科学性和系统性全面提高。

二是对我国节能减排制度对于纺织产业的综合作用进行探究,拓展了制度理论框架体系。本书所使用的拓展3×3矩阵的理论框架体系表明,制度研究不仅要从单一环节、单一制度出发,更要有全局视野、全产业链、全生命周期的系统论视角,形成制度合力,进行综合研究,并构建起制度体系的工具箱,对制度体系工具箱内的制度和制度之间、制度和全产业链之间的关系进行逐一分析。这一拓展理论框架体系基于转型升级理论、环境规制理论和制度演化理论三大理论基础,运用生命周期评价方法、碳足迹核算法和仿真模拟法等三种研究方法,构建了强制性制度、市场激励性制度、公众参与性制度三大制度体系,并最终汇合形成了本书的拓展理论框架体系。

三是研究中小民营纺织企业所面临的节能减排制度压力,与现实难题相贴切。对于处在纺织产业链不同层次以及生命周期不同阶段的纺织企业来说,节能减排制度直接或者通过诱致性技术变迁以及诱致性制度变迁等间接的作用途径,对企业生产能耗和污染排放的影响具有不同的作用。这些研究成果对于中国节能减排制度更加精准有效地作用于不同的纺织企业,更好地缓解纺织企业所面临的节能减排制度压力都将具有一定的政策启示。

沈满洪

浙江农林大学党委书记

中国生态经济学学会副理事长

In the development of China's major industries, the manufacturing industry plays an important role, and the textile industry in the manufacturing industry has always played an irreplaceable role in the development of the national economy, with the characteristics of "eternal industry". China is the world's largest textile producer and exporter, currently with about 120,000 textile enterprises, the third largest industry among the country's 32 manufacturing industries. According to the data of the National Bureau of Statistics, in 2017, textile enterprises above designated size achieved a cumulative main business income of 6.89356 billion yuan and a total profit of 376.88 billion yuan. At the same time, the development of the textile industry is still facing many uncertainties, various risk problems still need to strengthen attention and response, environmental protection supervision measures are becoming more stringent, textile enterprises environmental protection investment burden is heavier, some areas only stop production as a single regulatory means, enterprise production, investment activities are restricted, has become a bottleneck for the stable development of the textile industry. Reducing the resource consumption of the textile industry and controlling pollution emissions are crucial to the sustainable and healthy development of China's textile industry, especially the textile industry in Zhejiang. This is the only way for the sustainable development of the textile industry in Zhejiang Province and even the whole country, and it is also an urgent need to maintain the coordinated development of the textile industry and social environment in Zhejiang Province. Energy conservation and emission reduction in the textile industry, technology is the foundation, and the system is the guarantee. In order to further clarify the problems and development ideas faced by the reform of the energy conservation and emission reduction system in the textile industry, it is necessary to sort out the related theoretical literature and explain the progress, shortcomings and problems of research in this field. The institutional system of energy conservation and emission reduction is relatively rich, from governance according to law, to playing a decisive role in the market, to the transformation of values to form voluntary emission reduction and pollution reduction, different policy tools can play different effects in achieving energy conservation and emission reduction. The book "Research on Performance Evaluation of Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction System in China's Textile Industry" written by Associate Professor Wang Xiaopeng of Zhejiang Sci-Tech University is to respond to the major problems in the development of the textile industry, study and elaborate the performance evaluation of the energy conservation and emission reduction system of the textile industry, and provide a reference for readers to better understand the energy conservation and emission reduction system of the textile industry. This book covers the following main contents: in the first chapter, the corresponding research background and significance will be given, the second chapter is based on the transformation and upgrading theory, environmental regulation theory, institutional evolution theory and other three theoretical foundations, the relevant literature is reviewed, and in the following chapters, 367 textile industry energy conservation and emission reduction systems are classified according to the government compulsory system, market incentive system and public participation system, respectively taking textile industry parks, textile enterprise listed companies, and textile products as typical cases for discussion. The third chapter analyzes the economic drivers of the energy conservation and emission reduction system from the perspective of market failure on the basis of the literature review in the previous chapter, and analyzes the game equilibrium analysis of the energy conservation and emission reduction system of the textile industry on this basis, and analyzes the sensitivity of the energy conservation and emission reduction system of the textile industry. Chapter 4 studies the impact of the implementation of national energy conservation and emission reduction policies on the energy conservation and emission reduction performance of textile enterprises for the textile industry at different stages of the life cycle. In Chapters 5 and 6, three research methods, including life cycle assessment method, simulation method and carbon footprint core algorithm, are used to study the interaction relationship and internal impact mechanism between institutional supply and environmental, economic and ecological performance. At the same time, through the research of institutional supply, the institutional environmental resources that are more suitable for the development of the textile industry are designed, so as to promote the transformation and upgrading of the textile industry and better serve the healthy and orderly development of the manufacturing industry. This book combines literature research with field research, questionnaire survey and expert meeting, theoretical model analysis and quantitative analysis, comparative analysis and inductive summary, mainly using the following research methods: first of all, life cycle assessment method (LCA), the paper takes the silk industry, a typical textile industry production process, and uses process-oriented LCA analysis method to study the whole life cycle of product manufacturing in stages and links. From the production of raw materials to the completion of product production, the environmental load of the entire product production process is analyzed, the main environmental pressure in the production stage is determined, and the environmental emission inventory and overall life cycle inventory from each stage of manufacturing are compiled. According to the evaluation results of pollution emissions and environmental load at each stage of the production process, the characteristics of pollution emissions and their environmental impact in the textile industry are determined, and suggestions and decision-making support are provided for the environmental management of textile industry production. The second is the water footprint accounting method, the use of industrial water resources consumption to measure fresh water, and wastewater discharge contains pollutants, the nature of the two is different, the application of carbon footprint method can convert the two into a unified dimension, the "water resources" and "water environment" two factors into "water resources environment" a factor, to achieve coupled analysis with industrial economic growth. Then, in Chapter 6, the case analysis method is used to analyze the influencing factors of the supply of energy conservation and emission reduction system in the textile industry on the transformation and upgrading of the textile industry in recent years according to the evolution law of the energy conservation and emission reduction system of the textile industry at home and abroad, combined with the energy conservation and emission reduction policies of China's textile industry in recent years, and put forward targeted countermeasures and suggestions. Because the author has researched and thought deeply, this book has formed some innovative ideas and insights. From the perspective of similar research results at home and abroad, this study has the following characteristics and innovations: First, the impact of energy conservation and emission reduction system on enterprise performance is analyzed from the perspective of the whole industry chain and the whole life cycle, and the research perspective is more comprehensive and systematic. Compared with previous research, the research perspective of this book has shifted from the single role of the system to its new perspective on the whole industry chain and the whole life cycle. Most of the traditional research focuses on a single link in the industry and effectively discusses the role of a single system in that link. The formulation of many policies lacks a certain strategy and systematic, so that the average strength of policies not only does not increase, but gradually decreases. This book explores the effect of energy conservation and emission reduction system on enterprises at different levels and different life cycles from a more systematic perspective, from the perspective of the whole industry chain and the whole life cycle, and then provides an empirical basis for the further improvement of the energy conservation and emission reduction system system, which can not only break through the limitations of the current academic community to study the pollution control of the textile industry from a single perspective, but also enrich and enhance the theoretical level and practical application of China's industrial environmental management and circular economy research. The multi-angle comprehensive analysis method makes the scientific and systematic nature of this study comprehensively improved. The second is to explore the comprehensive role of China's energy conservation and emission reduction system on the textile industry, and expand the institutional theoretical framework system. The theoretical framework system used in this book to expand the 3×3 matrix shows that institutional research should not only start from a single link and a single system, but also have a system perspective of the overall vision, the whole industry chain and the whole life cycle, form a joint force of the system, carry out comprehensive research, and build a toolbox of the institutional system, and analyze the relationship between the system and the system and the whole industrial chain in the toolbox of the institutional system one by one. Based on the three theoretical foundations of transformation and upgrading theory, environmental regulation theory and institutional evolution theory, this extended theoretical framework system uses three research methods, including life cycle assessment method, carbon footprint core algorithm and simulation method, to construct three institutional systems, namely mandatory system, market incentive system and public participation system, and finally converge to form the extended theoretical framework system of this book. Third, the research on the pressure of energy conservation and emission reduction system faced by small and medium-sized private textile enterprises is relevant to practical problems. For textile enterprises at different levels of the textile industry chain and different stages of the life cycle, the energy conservation and emission reduction system has different effects on the impact of production energy consumption and pollution emissions directly or through indirect, such as induced technological changes and induced system changes. These research results will have certain policy enlightenment for China's energy conservation and emission reduction system to act more accurately and effectively on different textile enterprises, and better alleviate the pressure of energy conservation and emission reduction system faced by textile enterprises. Shen Manhong, Secretary of the Party Committee of Zhejiang A&F University, Vice Chairman of the Chinese Society of Ecological Economics(AI翻译)

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GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文
王晓蓬.中国纺织产业节能减排制度绩效评价研究[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2020
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MLA 格式引文
王晓蓬.中国纺织产业节能减排制度绩效评价研究.北京,中国社会科学出版社:2020E-book.
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APA 格式引文
王晓蓬(2020).中国纺织产业节能减排制度绩效评价研究.北京:中国社会科学出版社
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