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应用型高校教师专业实践能力提升的制度研究

Institutional Research on the Enhancement of Teachers' Professional Practical Ability in Applied Colleges and Universities

ISBN:978-7-5203-9646-2

出版日期:2022-03

页数:367

字数:329.0千字

丛书名:《国家社科基金博士论文》

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基金信息: 国家社会科学基金 展开
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图书简介

为缓解我国高等教育发展过程中的结构性矛盾,解决高校发展的同质化、同结构化倾向等问题,促进高等教育人才培养的结构、目标、质量适应我国经济结构调整和产业转型升级的要求,自2013年起,政府开始引导地方本科院校向应用型转变。在一系列政策文件、发展举措的推动和支持下,地方本科院校转型发展、高水平应用型高校建设不断向纵深推进。应用型高校介于研究型高校和职业技能型高校之间,兼具高等教育和职业教育的双重属性,是地方经济建设和技术进步的支撑力量,已成为我国高等教育体系中的重要组成部分。作为一种新型的本科层次高校类型,应用型高校的办学定位与职能、人才培养目标与模式、教师专业知识与能力等都应有其自身规律和特有要求。

地方本科高校的转型变革实践,产生了新的办学理念,也对教师专业素质结构提出新的要求,新的教师角色行为应运而生。应用型高校教师应集理论知识与实践能力于一身,兼具“双师”资格和“双能”素质,成为真正能够胜任高素质应用型人才培养的“双师双能型”教师。教师专业实践能力是“双师双能素质”的核心,是开展实践教学、应用研究,培养高素质应用型人才的前提和基础,也是凸显应用型高校办学定位与特色的重要内容。然而,目前应用型高校教师普遍从校门到校门,他们学历水平高、理论素养好,但实践经验缺乏、实践意识薄弱,总体上难以满足应用型高校建设的要求。加之应用型高校多由地方本科院校转型而来,对教师的专业素质要求仍停留于传统的观念和以往的标准,过多地强调理论教学和科学研究能力,对教师专业实践能力建设重视不够、要求不严、措施不力。师资队伍建设问题已成为制约地方本科高校向应用型转变的瓶颈。

基于对全国30多所应用型高校教师和学校管理者的调研发现,现阶段,应用型高校教师专业实践能力的总体水平一般;教师专业实践能力在各维度上相对均衡,实践教学能力得分不高,实践动机评分略低于实践教学能力评分,实践经验得分接近总体均值,应用研究能力评分较低。差异分析方面,教师专业实践能力在教师性别、教龄、工作经历等方面存在一定差异,但不同职称、不同学科教师群体间专业实践能力不存在显著差异。为进一步探究应用型高校教师专业实践能力的影响因素,本书采用扎根理论的方法,对问卷调查和访谈所得资料进行质性分析。研究发现,学校管理制度尤其是教师管理制度是影响职后应用型高校教师专业实践能力的最主要因素。

教师资格制度、教师聘任制度、教师培训制度、职称评审制度、考核评价制度在教师专业素质能力提升方面发挥着激励、引导、规约、管理等重要功能,体现了教师专业发展中的“选、聘、育、升、评”等重要环节,是提升应用型高校教师专业实践能力的核心制度安排。为从总体上了解和把握应用型高校教师管理制度的供给现状,本书从我国东部、中部、西部地区各选择一所应用型高校——Q高校、X高校、T高校,对其教师管理制度进行分析。研究发现,现行应用型高校教师管理制度学术导向、学术考量倾向明显,缺乏对教师专业实践能力提升的明确指向与规范举措,其供给与“双师双能型”教师队伍建设的制度需求不一致、不匹配,总体处于制度非均衡状态。这种非均衡现象使教师专业发展偏离“双师双能素质”导向而向“学术科研”导向倾斜,成为教师专业实践能力提升的掣肘。

办学资源的短缺、复杂利益关系的羁绊、内外部制度环境的影响以及转型发展交易成本的增加,是造成教师管理制度处于非均衡状态的主要原因,这些因素决定着教师管理制度的改革路向,进而决定着应用型高校及教师的行为选择。资源方面,应用型高校有限的办学资源(经费)制约了其办学目标的实现,限制了“双师双能型”教师队伍建设及其相应的制度改革。成本方面,地方本科高校转型发展与教师管理制度改革总交易成本的增加,致使应用型高校教师管理制度改革受阻而进展缓慢。利益方面,教师专业实践能力提升牵涉政府、学校、行业企业、教师等多方利益主体,其各自存在的利益选择与利益诉求,增加了教师管理制度改革的阻力。制度环境层面,外部制度环境诱发应用型高校教师管理制度异化;内在的组织惯性束缚应用型高校教师管理制度创新;“双一流”建设与高校转型发展上的政策冲突,致使应用型高校教师管理制度偏离办学定位要求。

国外应用型高校产生较早,发展相对成熟,较为典型的有“升格模式”下的德国应用科学大学与英国多科技术学院、“新建模式”下的日本科学技术大学等。它们在职业资格、入职条件、岗位培训、职务晋升、考评管理等方面对教师专业实践能力都有较为系统性的规范要求,积累了十分宝贵的经验,对我国应用型高校教师专业实践能力提升具有一定的启发和借鉴价值。具体而言,一是注重教师实践经历要求;二是重视兼职教师队伍建设,发展专—兼职相结合的教师队伍;三是发挥政府立法在师资队伍建设中的作用;四是重视教师实践培训,加强教师考评管理;五是享有充分的高校教师管理权。

应用型高校教师专业实践能力的提升是一个复杂的、影响面广的系统工程,应遵从国家、地方、院校等多重制度改革逻辑,遵循协同推进、激励相容、循序渐进的制度改革原则。国家层面,应建立普通本科高校分类评价管理机制;在研究型高校与应用型高校之间设立有效隔离机制;制定应用型高校建设标准;加大中央对应用型高校建设的专项财政投入。地方层面,应构建地方政府与应用型高校的新型政校关系;加强应用型高校建设的省级统筹,深入落实地方本科高校转型发展的职责和方案,扩大应用型高校教师管理自主权;加大对应用型高校的财政投入,转变财政拨款方式;建立“双师双能型”教师职业资格制度,把好教师入口关。高校层面,改革教师聘任制度,调整师资结构;建立政、校、企、师“四位一体”的教师企业培训制度;调整应用型高校教师职称评审指标体系;健全完善教师考核评价制度,对教师实施分类考评。

关键词:应用型高校;教师专业实践能力;教师管理制度;“双师双能型”教师

Abstract

In order to alleviate the structural contradictions of higher education and the homogenous structural tendency of the development of colleges and universities in China,and to promote the structure,objectives and quality of higher education personnel training to meet the requirements of China's economic restructuring and industrial transformation upgrading,the government began to guide the local undergraduate colleges to transit to applied colleges and universities since 2013.Under the promotion and support of a series of policy documents and development initiatives,the transformation of local undergraduate colleges and the construction of high-level applied colleges and universities got further developed.The applied colleges and universities,between research-type universities and vocationalskills colleges,with dual attributes of higher education and vocational education,is the supporting force for local economic construction and technological progress,and have become an important part of China's higher education system.For the applied colleges and universities,as a new type of undergraduate university,the orientation and function of running schools,the mode and goal of training talents,and the construction of teachers'professional knowledge and ability should all meet their own laws and unique requirements.

The educational transformation and reform practice of local undergraduate colleges and universities produced new school running ideas and put forward the new higher requirements for the teachers'professional quality structure and brought new teacher role behavior.The applied colleges and universities teachers should combine theoretical knowledge and practical ability,and have both“double-position teacher”qualification and“dualability”quality,and become a“double-position &dual-ability”teacher who can truly compete for high-quality applied talents.The professional competence of teachers is the core of the“double-skilled and dual-ability”,is the premise and basis for carrying out practical teaching,applied research,and training high-quality applied talents,and highlights the important content of the orientation and characteristics of the applied colleges and universities.However,at present,the teachers of applied colleges and universities are usually selected directly from fresh graduates,with high academic qualifications and good professionalism,but lack of practical experience and practical consciousness,who are not qualified for the construction of the applied colleges and universities.In addition,these colleges and universities are mostly transformed from local undergraduate colleges.The ability requirements for teachers still remain in the traditional concepts and past old standards,over-emphasizing on theoretical teaching and scientific research capabilities,while paying insufficient attention to the construction of teachers'professional practice ability,lack of strict requirements,and with weak measures.This short slab of teacher team has become a bottleneck restricting the transformation of local undergraduate colleges into the applied ones.

Based on the survey of teachers and school administrators in more than 30 applied colleges and universities across the country,at this stage,it is discovered that the overall level of professional practice ability of applied colleges and universities teachers is in the average position;the professional practice ability of applied colleges and universities teachers is relatively balanced in all dimensions,the score of practical teaching ability is relatively low,the score of practical motivation is slightly lower than the practical teaching ability,the score of practical experience is similar to the overall average,and the score of application and research ability is low.In terms of differences analysis,the professional practice ability varies in teachers'gender,teaching age and working experience,while there is no significant difference in the title and subject category.In order to further explore the influencing factors of professional practice ability of applied college teachers,this study,adopting the grounded theory method,after qualitative analysis of the data collected from questionnaires and interviews,reveals that the management system,especially teacher management system is the main factor affecting the professional practice ability of post-service teachers in applied colleges and universities.

The teacher qualification system,the teacherappoinement system,the teacher training system,the professional title evaluation system,the evaluation system and other institutional arrangements jointly play an important role in the promotion of teachers'professional quality,from aspects such as incentives,guidance,statutes,management,which embodies the important links of“selection,hire,training,promotion and evaluation”in the professional development of teachers,and are the core institutional arrangements for improving the professional practice ability of applied college teachers.In order to know and understand the status quo of teacher management system supply in applied colleges and universities,this study selects three applied colleges and universities—the Q,X,and T from the east,middle and west of China,and analyzes their teacher management system.It is found that,the current applied colleges and universities teacher management systems tend to be academically oriented and academically considered,which lacks clear direction and normative measures for improving the professional practice ability of teachers.The supply and the system requirements of the“double-skilled dual-energy”teacher team are inconsistent and mismatched,and the overall situation is in a state of unbalanced system.This kind of non-equilibrium phenomenon makes teachers'professional development deviate from the“double-skilled dualquality”orientation and leans toward“academic scientific research”,becoming a constraint to the improvement of teachers'professional practice ability.

The main factors causing non-equilibrium state of teacher management system such as the shortage of educational resources,the relationship among the complex interests of different stakeholders,the influence of the internal and external institutional environment,and increase in transaction costs for transformation and development jointly determine the orientation of the reform direction of the teacher management system,and further determine the applied colleges and universities and teachers'behavioral choices.At the resources level,the limited running resources(funding)of applied universities restrict the realization of their educational goals,and limit the construction of the“double-position&dual-ability”teachers and their corresponding institutional reforms;at the cost level,the increase in the total transaction cost of the transformation of local undergraduate universities and teacher management system reform have impeded the reform process of the teacher management system in the applied colleges and universities; at the interest level,the improvement of teachers'professional practice ability involves many stakeholders such as the government,schools,industry,enterprises,teachers,and their respective interest choice and interest appeals,undoubtedly increase the resistance of teacher management system reform;at the institutional environment level,the external system environment leads to the alienation of the applied colleges and universities teacher management system; and the inherent organizational inertia constraint the innovation of teacher management system in applied colleges and universities;the policy conflict between the construction of“double first-class”and the transformation and development of colleges and universities has caused the teacher management system of applied colleges and universities to deviate from the requirements of school-running orientation.

Foreign applied colleges and universities have developed earlier and are relatively mature.The typical ones are the German Applied Science University and the British Polytechnic Institute under the“Upgrading Mode”,the Japanese University of Science and Technology under the“New Model”.They have systematic and standardized requirements for teachers'professional practice ability in terms of professional qualifications,entry conditions,job training,job promotion,and evaluation management.The experience has certain enlightenment and reference value for the improvement of professional practice ability of applied colleges and universities teachers in China.Specifically,the first is to pay attention to the requirements of teachers'practical experience;the second is to attach importance to the construction of part-time teachers,to developing a team of teachers with a combination of full-time and part-time;the third is to wield the function of government legislation in the construction of the teaching staff;the fourth is to emphasis the teachers'practical training and strengthen the management of teacher evaluation;the fifth is to endow colleges and universities with sufficient autonomous management of college teachers.

The enhancement of professional practice ability of applied colleges and universities teachers is a complex and extensive system engineering,which should follow the logic of multiple institutional reforms such as national,local,and academic institutions,following the principle of collaborative promotion,incentive-compatible,step-by-step institutional reforms.At the national level,a classified evaluation management mechanism for ordinary undergraduate colleges should be established; an effective isolation mechanism should be established between research-type colleges and universities and applied colleges and universities; the construction standards of applied colleges and universities should be established; and the special financial input of the central government for the construction of applied colleges and universities should be increased.At the local level,it is necessary to rebuild a new type of government-school relationship between local government and applied colleges and universities;it is also significant to strengthen provincial-level coordination of applied colleges and universities,implement the duties and programs for the transformation and development of local undergraduate colleges,and expand the autonomy of teachers in applied colleges and universities;The financial investment to the applied colleges and universities should be increased and the financial allocation methods transformed; the“double-position &dual-ability”teacher professional qualification system also should be established,maintaining a strict standard for teacher entrance.At the colleges and universities level,the teacher appointment system should be reformed and the teacher structure adjusted; a“quaternity”teacher enterprise training system for government,schools,enterprises and teachers should be established;and the applied colleges and universities teacher title evaluation index system should be adjusted,the teacher evaluation system improved and completed,and the classification evaluation of teachers implemented.

Key Words:Applied colleges and universities;teachers'professional practice ability;teacher management system;“double-position and dualability”teachers

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GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文
侯佛钢.应用型高校教师专业实践能力提升的制度研究[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2022
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MLA 格式引文
侯佛钢.应用型高校教师专业实践能力提升的制度研究.北京,中国社会科学出版社:2022E-book.
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APA 格式引文
侯佛钢(2022).应用型高校教师专业实践能力提升的制度研究.北京:中国社会科学出版社
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