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跨媒介的审美现代性:石黑一雄三部小说与电影的关联

Transmedia Aesthetic Modernity:Kazuo lshiguro's Three Novels in Relation to Film

ISBN:978-7-5203-6366-2

出版日期:2020-07

页数:381

字数:331.0千字

丛书名:《社科基金优秀博士论文》

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基金信息: 国家社会科学基金 展开
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图书简介

诺贝尔文学奖获得者石黑一雄(日裔英籍)是当代英国文学代表作家。他的小说具有强烈的电影性和现代性,把握这两种特性对于了解其作品的隐含意义和深层意义有着至关重要的作用。但迄今为止,这两方面都未引起足够的重视,仅有一些零散的评论,且分别关注其中一个方面,忽视了两者在跨媒介意义上的联系,以及建立在此联系基础上的文本的隐含深层意义。鉴于石黑一雄笔下《远山淡影》《被掩埋的巨人》和《别让我走》与电影的关联和与审美现代性的紧密联系,本书深入系统地考察这三部小说与影视相关联的审美现代性问题,通过细致剖析三部小说跨媒介的审美现代性,揭示其如何表达与小说文本表面意义相悖的隐含意义,达到对作者的创作目的更好的把握,对作品的主题意义、人物形象、人物之间的关系和艺术手法更加全面深入的理解。

绪论先梳理了以往的石黑一雄研究,评介了其东方和西方溯源的两个阶段,并以此引入石黑一雄与电影的关联以及石黑一雄与具有反思和质疑特征的审美现代性的关联。然后,以跨媒介的审美现代性为中心线,阐明本书各章的研究思路和基本框架。

第一章首先结合19世纪末以来文学与电影基于审美现代性共性的关联,对本书所涉及的跨媒介的审美现代性加以界定,并说明从这一角度理解石黑一雄小说的重要性。其次,梳理了石黑一雄与电影的关系、与具体导演的具体作品的联系,评介了以往的批评研究,从跨媒介的审美现代性的角度指出以往研究存在的问题和局限性。

第二章聚焦《远山淡影》与小津安二郎电影中的物哀式感伤与留白技巧的关联。本章认为,石黑一雄在小说中借鉴了《东京物语》中的物哀式感伤,来描绘主人公悦子在对女儿、公公和自己这三方面的回忆中表现出的不可靠性。由此,小说体现并发展了两种审美现代性特点:内外世界界限消失的,以凸显现实中隐藏的怪诞和超现实为特点的欧陆式审美现代性特点;以及精神与肉体、情感与理性失联的英美式审美现代性特点。通过这样的分析,本章旨在说明,石黑一雄不但借助现代鬼故事手法和小津电影中的物哀,凸显了人们对回忆和自我认识存疑的审美现代性特点,也揭露了人们尝试与过去和解之难。

第三章通过挖掘石黑一雄的《被掩埋的巨人》与日本导演黑泽明的《罗生门》、沟口健二的《雨月物语》以及俄国导演塔可夫斯基的《潜行者》的关联,分三个方面分析小说中表现的质疑“现实”和“现时”的审美现代性——故事中的主人公对现时中的人、上帝信仰以及现实世界的怀疑,读者对复杂多面的中性叙述眼光的质疑,作者利用电影叙事中的思想实验结构展现对“现实”和“现时”的质疑。通过这一探讨,我们可以达到对作品表达的现代主题意义、现代他者式的人物形象及现代艺术手法更加全面和深入的理解。

第四章结合小说的英国与日本两部同名影视改编分析《别让我走》中凯茜的认识在两方面上的不确定性:对自己私情的认识和对自己记忆的认识。本章依据作者的创作目的,聚焦于批评界倾向于忽视的凯茜与露丝和汤米之间的三角关系。通过深入细致的考察,本章不仅揭示出三个主人公之间复杂又深刻的情感关系,而且也揭示出露丝和凯茜的形象以往被忽略的一些重要方面,以及小说中对即将逝去的信念及旧秩序的怀念和乡愁的同时,又对眼前的认识以及对不得不投身于其中的新秩序充满焦虑和怀疑的审美现代性特点。

结语总结本书通过探讨石黑一雄小说与电影的审美现代性的关联,所揭示的小说隐含的主题意义和深层立场,并简要讨论了一个世纪以来文学与电影的联动对现当代小说创作的影响。最后总结本书从跨媒介的审美现代性角度考察石黑一雄的小说与电影的关联,在石黑一雄研究的框架中,以及在文学与电影研究的整体框架中所具有的研究价值。

关键词:石黑一雄;小说与电影;审美现代性;跨媒介研究

Abstract

The Japanese-British novelist Kazuo Ishiguro was awarded the 2017 Nobel Prize in Literature for his ability to reveal the abyss beneath our illusory sense of connection with the world.His novels that touch on memory,time,and self-delusion present a strange amalgam of literary and cinematic modernist techniques.Attending to both is criti cal for understanding his rich,multi-layered texts.While scholars have mentioned the connection between Ishiguro’s novels and cinema,they have not criti cally examined the interrelation between these two media.This project fills this gap by exploring Ishiguro’s references to films with a particular focus on the representation of aesthetic modernity in his novels.It asks,what other connections,besides explicit references to cinematic works,do Ishiguro’s novels have with films?And,most importantly,how can such connections help the readers discover the implicit themes and undisclosed characteristics of his protagonists?

On a larger s cale,this book demonstrates a new way to address the relationship between literature and film.Employing the category of“aesthetic modernity”,whichMatei Calinescu delineates as a motif against“Bourgeois idea of Modernity,”casting doubt on the way knowledge is acquired and reality is perceived,I claim that modern filmmakers and novelists seek to embody this aesthetic modernity from their separate media.My argument is that Ishiguro,inspired by cinematic culture and its ways of simultaneously presenting and questioning the world,casts doubt on the nature of reality in his novels and shares this motif with several postwar directors he admires:Yasujiro Ozu,Akira Kurosawa,Kenji Mizuguchi,and Andrei Tarkovsky.On a smaller s cale and in the context of Ishiguro’s work,this study also executes close readings of the author’s novels on the topic of aesthetic modernity to show that Ishiguro is a writer who has taken cinema inside his prose by either making various textual references to films or else transmitting cinematic effects to novelwriting.Under this frame,this study eventually aims at uncovering the hidden meanings of Ishiguro’s texts and shedding light on some crucial aspects of the author’s style.

Ishiguro’s close relation to cinema has opened the back door for a priori knowledge by demanding a conscious,sophisticated reader who reads the text forward and backward and who makes use of outside knowledge to analyze texts.In this study,I attend to the relationship between Ishiguro’s A Pale View of Hills(1982),The Buried Giant(2015),and Never Let Me Go(2005),and Yasujiro Ozu’s Tokyo Story(1953),Kenji Mizoguchi’s Ugetsu Monogatari(1953),Akira Kurosawa’s Rashomon(1950)and Andrei Tarkovsky’s Stalker(1979).Specifi cally,I explore how through aesthetic modernist tools,such as neutrality,elliptic style,non-linear narrative,reinventing myth,turning toward emotions rather than reasons,each chapter addresses key themes in Ishiguro’s novels,including the role of memory,unreliability,self-illusion of the world,and blurring of the real and fantastic,dream and reality,present and past.

I begin this book with an introduction that surveys the existing criticism of Ishiguro’s works along two contrasting tracks:first,reading Ishiguro in relation to eastern traditions;and second,reading Ishiguro in relation to western thoughts.I then move along to discuss the connection between modernity and Ishiguro’s writing and films.

In the first chapter,I introduce the concept of transmedia aesthetic modernity as a liaison that connects modern fiction and film,and explain how examining Ishiguro from this new perspective would yield to a fresh understanding of his work.I end Chapter 1 with a survey of the connection between Ishiguro’s novel-writing and the filmmakers and their masterpieces this study involves.After establishing a specific histori cal,biographi cal,and intertextual frame for the texts under discussion here,I discuss how each of Ishiguro’s three novels engages with film in the following three chapters.

Chapter 2 concentrates on Ishiguro’s A Pale View of Hills(1982)in relation to Yasujiro Ozu’s Tokyo Story(1953)and explores the expression of Mono no aware and the use of ellipsis.I examine the novel with references to Ozu’s film to reflect on Ishiguro’s protagonist’s unreliability from three aspects—her relationship with her daughter,with her father-inlaw,and with herself.Through the analysis,I claim that the novel,on one hand,combines the characteristics of modern ghost story narratives with Ozu’s style of Mono no aware to express the protagonist’s unsaid guilt toward her daughter’s death,urging the readers to reflect on the unreliable way we require knowledge of oneself and the others.On the other hand,the novel borrows the relationship between the daughter and father-in-law portrayed in Ozu’s film to reflect on the protagonist’s inappropriate resort to emotion when dealing with Japan’s past wrongs.

Chapter 3 discusses The Buried Giant(2015)in relation to Mizoguchi,Kurosawa and Tarkovsky’s films,revealing that the novel conveys the typi cal characteristics of aesthetic modernity that doubt present reality and present knowledge in the following three aspects:1)the protagonist casts doubt on the knowledge of others,on the belief of God,and on the present reality itself;2)the reader casts doubt on the sophistication and neutralization of the narrative itself,especially on the narrative perspective;3)the narrator destabilizes the novel’s plain of reality through thought-experiment narrative.I first claim that Ishiguro integrates the ghost story plots in Mizoguchi’s Ugetsu(1953)and Greek mythology to portray the ferryman and female ghost’s ambiguous appearance in the novel,establishing a latent narrative of the fantastic that continuously undercuts the novel’s realistic design.Furthermore,I examine the novel’s use of the mythi cal method and neutral free indirect speech in reference to Tarkovsky’s Stalker(1979)to bring irony to the reality it presents.Lastly,I argue that Ishiguro uses the thought experiment structure often used in films to reveal his idea of guarding the contemporary generation against the repetition of the history of meaningless violence and the collective and,sometimes,problematic perception of the world.

Chapter 4 examines Never Let Me Go(2005)in connection to its eponymous cinematic adaptations,bringing to the fore the issue of the firstperson narrator Kathy’s unreliability regarding her memory and narration of her best friend Ruth and her love affair with Tommy.Different from the existing investigations dealing with the novel’s biotechnology,unfair social scheme,or dehumanizing ideologi cal education,this chapter,inspired by the author’s clarification of his creative intention,pays specific attention to the overlooked triangle-relationship among the three main clone characters.Overall this chapter not only aims to reveal some significant aspects in Ishiguro’s characterization of Ruth and Kathy,but also tries to disclose the novel’s modernist nostalgia.It is a nostalgia for the passing order of the old world while feeling compelled and doubtful to move on to the new world.

As a conclusion,I summarize the significance of the present study on Ishiguro’s novels in relation to films under the framework of transmedia aesthetic modernity.This approach helps to shed light on some implicit themes and misinterpreted plots in Ishiguro’s works.After a brief discussion of the value of such a study may bring to contemporary literary studies in general,I end the book on a note of its contribution respectively to Ishiguro criticism and to the research on the relationship between literature and film.

Key Words:Kazuo Ishiguro,Fiction and Film,Aesthetic Modernity,Transmedia Study

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引文

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GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文
沈安妮.跨媒介的审美现代性:石黑一雄三部小说与电影的关联[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2020
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MLA 格式引文
沈安妮.跨媒介的审美现代性:石黑一雄三部小说与电影的关联.北京,中国社会科学出版社:2020E-book.
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APA 格式引文
沈安妮(2020).跨媒介的审美现代性:石黑一雄三部小说与电影的关联.北京:中国社会科学出版社
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