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天道天行与人性人情:先秦儒家“性与天道”论考原

ISBN:978-7-5161-5247-8

出版日期:2015-12

页数:421

字数:442.0千字

丛书名:《江苏师范大学哲学社会科学文库》

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本书深研孔孟荀的天道论、人性论,探赜索隐,正本清源,新意迭出,创见纷呈,如提出:孔子精通天文与历数,其天道论是基于天体运行的“阴阳五行”易道哲学;孟子持伦理本体化的天人贯通论,将人德本性化与天道化,故就历数性天道五行说以张人德五行说;荀子持理智的天文学天道观,弓荀学派天道论实是对孔子易学天道论的正确继承与发展。本书对“道—易—阴—阳”等字义的辨正,对“五行”本义及“五材”如何附会到“五行”的破解,对思孟学派将五种人德附凑到天道五行而言德性五行并推崇“圣-聪-闻”等的揭示,对《孟子》“天下之言性也则故而已矣”章含义的考定,对子弓非孔子弟子冉雍仲弓乃楚人馯臂子玄并“厷”字衍作弓、弘、宏等的厘证,对《荀子•性恶》篇“性恶”命题由“性不善”而讹(讹于西汉末刘向之误改)及荀子不持性恶论而持性朴论、习伪论的辨原,对荀子性朴论之理论结构、学说源流、价值意义的分析,对弓荀、思孟学派思想分歧的解剖,皆极富创见及详证,可谓有“括囊大典,网罗众家,删裁繁诬,刊改漏失”之功,先秦儒学“性与天道”的一些重大问题或疑难问题由此得到了辨正澄清。

Zigong(子贡)says:“The Master’s speaking on the subjects of art and literature may be heard,while his discourses about human nature and heaven way not.”Human nature and heaven way have become one of the basic issues in the history of Chinese philosophy due to its importance as well as Confucian Philosophy. The Confucian“human nature and heaven way”in history actually has more than one focus:the three well-known philosophers Kongzi(孔子),Mengzi(孟子),and Xunzi(荀子)represent three distinctive phrases respectively. Their Confucianism,to be more specific,human nature and heaven way,especially that from Mengzi,and Xunzi,has both inherited from and departed with their earlier predecessor Kongzi. These distinctions or departures may well demonstrate the similarities and differences of the core value among these three philosophical systems.There is a time when Zigong says“Not hearing Kongzi’s lectures on heaven way”does not necessarily mean that Kongzi does not understand it or does not lecture on it or unable to express it clearly.“Tao”(道)also written as“衟/衜”,deriving its meaning from the Chinese character“行”,which refers to the act of walking.“天道”refers to the ways the heaven does things,and“天行”refers to the walk of the heaven,not any other abstract noumenon or divinity.“Three generations above from now,everyone knows about astronomy”.According to Lunyu,Zuozhuan,Shiji,Jiayu,collected and displayed on bamboo books at the Shanghai Museum Zhonggong and Yizhuan and some others,it’s known that Kongzi is proficient and knowledgeable at astronomy,astrology,and calendar. His concept of“Heaven Way”does not necessarily approach Mengzi’s ethics of the integration of heaven and people,or his connotation of the sacred religion. Instead,his conceptual thought of“Heaven Way”,as recorded in Yizhuan,the silk book,virtually is astronomical,whose core content is about the increase and decrease of ying-yang and changes of Wuxing. Meanwhile,those who understand yitao(易道)are heavenly men who can understand human activities by observing changes of the heaven and the earth with theories of gains and losses. In other words,they understand human activities by studying astronomical changes.The two Chinese characters“阴阳”are also written as“陰陽”or“侌昜”in ancient Chinese characters. The literal meaning of the Chinese character“侌”is the gathering of vapors and clouds,and that of the Chinese character“昜”is the beam of the sunrise. The basic meaning of“侌”is water,and“昜”is heat or energy. The character“易”inscribed on bones and tortoise shells are spelt as“、、”,which are not from the Chinese characters“日+月”,but shape like an on-going rain with the sun clouded,meaning climatic changes. The core content of ying-yang and“Heaven Way”goes that the revolving earth round the sun in the obliquity of the ecliptic emits heat and water in an alternating cycle in time and space,resulting in“the cycle of the four seasons and the growth of things”.“Heaven way”is most closely related to human beings and things on the earth,thus is the change of the surface energy and water under the system of the sun,the earth,and the heaven. This change is the increase and decrease of ying-yang,i.e.“water causes wetness and fire sustains dryness”,and“the interchange of coldness and hotness results in a year”as stated in Yizhuan.Kongzi in Yizhuan proposes that Heaven way changes and so does ying-yang,and the seasons,and the living things. Such theory grounded on basic astronomic rules is neither conceived by ying-yang experts whose job is to observe astronomic changes and serve the people on earth,nor Taoists who“widely and wisely learn from ying-yang,nor Confucianism,Mohism,or any other prominent philosophy school”. Rather,it’s mutually conceived and accepted by all schools in earlier Qin Dynasty.“Astronomy and calendar have long been the mainstreams of Confucianism”,Yizhuan says“look up to observe the heaven,and look down to study the earth”,Yiwenzhi of Hanshu says“Confucians are those government officers who help the emperor to balance ying-yang and educate its people”. All these quotes indicate that early Confucians study and understand astronomy and heaven way.Kong Yinda(孔颖达)says:“A superior heaven way is a full circle going on continuously all day and all night with no break or retreat.”When there is nothing wrong,“the four seasons alternate,and the living beings grow”,the sun and the moon take its due turns,and so do summers and winters. When Zheng Xuan zhu(郑玄注)explains the sentence“There is no chance to hear Kongzi talk about human nature and heaven way”,he uses“vigor”to explain“human nature”and the move of celestial body to explain“heaven way”. Human nature is related both to the physical body sap and the mental spirit. Kongzi’s remarks of“similarities of nature and differences of education”put human nature and human nurture in opposite positions,which proves that nature is inborn and nurture is habit,in other words,he believes in that human nature is born to be similar,while human behaviors are different for different people because they are learned. Kongzi says“it’s not possible to change the wise and the stupid”. His comments are about differences in human habits rather than human nature. Such differences are sometimes bigger than those between simians and primitive men. He also says“An experienced and sophisticated young man is supposed to be born like that,but actually it’s a cultivated habit”,which also indicates that well-formed habits can gradually become part of human nature. His theory of physical vigor and health maintaining is also about forming good habits. After Kongzi,Xunzi advocates“cognition from physical vigor”. Xunzi’s theory is far away from the Si-meng school,whose focus is on“destiny”,“life”,“good nature”and the like.Mengzi’s proposal that“human nature is born to be good”is not grounded on empirical research or induction of experience,rather,it’s based on transcendental experience and belief in destiny according to ethics of heaven way. Such religious spirits of heaven way are conventional concepts in the time of Shang Dynasty and Zhou Dynasty,as written in Shangshu,and such convictions from the perspective of heaven are the keys to a thorough understanding of Mengzi’s theory of“human nature and heaven way”. The books Wuxing in bamboo and silk copies,and the silk version of Sixing are documents of the Si-meng school. Si-meng philosophers do not approach heaven way by way of celestial bodies,instead,they attach transcendental and noumenonal ethical connotations to it,explaining“heaven way”with“morality”,“honesty”or“holiness”. Those who can have a good mastery of“heaven way”are labeled as wise men,as indicated by sentences like“Honesty is the way of heaven”,“Morality is the way of heaven”,“Holy men know about heaven ways”. Si-meng argues that morality is internal,leading to inner peace and happiness;they also hold that only holy men or sages know about“heaven way”,and also that holy men“hear and know”,therefore,they pay special attention to issues like“intelligence”and“happiness”. When Duanyucai(段玉裁)is reading Mengzi’s“holy men to heaven way”,with no other available documents for reference,he understands it as“holiness to heaven way”,which is far earlier than the proofreading for the silk book Wuxing by Pangpu as recorded . To achieve higher theoretical prestige for their beloved morality of heaven way,the Si-meng philosophers creatively put the five moralities of“kindness,loyalty,courtesy,wisdom,and holiness”together with the well-established theory of Wuxing of the physical universe,i.e.“metal,wood,water,fire,and earth”,thus,formulating a new theory of the five ethical elements. In doing so,they synthesize the popular astronomic heaven way with human nature and integrate heaven with humans. Also for this original integration,they are harshly criticized by Xunzi who strongly takes the side of the astronomic heaven way about physical vigor and kindness of human nature. Modern men conventionally interpret“五行”as water,fire,metal,wood,and earth,but actually,“Wu xing”is a 10-month system of calendar,adopted to describe heaven way,not the physical material concept. It is Mengzi’s follower,Zouyan(邹衍)’s contribution to compare the five moralities to the five period of physical universe,and specify the recurrence of heaven way. Zisi initiates the doctrine of the inter-consistency between the five moralities of“kindness,loyalty,courtesy,wisdom,holiness”and the five period of heaven way. It’s between Zouyan and Dongzhongshu(董仲舒)that the five human moralities,the five earthly elements,and the five heavenly ways are integrated into a singular“Wuxing”,which is very popular in Han Dynasty.Xunzi’s heaven way theory is purely astronomic,derived from Yizhuan.He says“He who is proficient at Yizhuan needs not to practice divination”;he also says“The heaven has its own rules to follow,so it does not change for anyone powerful or prominent,even the greatest emperors like Yao or Jie”;he says“The stars,the sun,the moon,the seasons,the ying-yang,the wind,the rain,everything in the universe needs to be harmonious with others in order to grow things”;he also says“The heaven and the earth are balanced,the sun and the moon are bright,the four seasons are in order,the stars are rotating,the rivers and seas are running,everything in the universe is prosperous”.The above quotes confirm his recognition that among the universal movements,the north pole is the centre of the celestial sphere around which all stars are revolving;the sun walks through the remote background of the fixed star;the stars journey around annually(revolution of the earth)or daily(rotation of the earth);the corner of the ecliptic and the equator exists;coldness and hotness shift in a loop in the atmosphere and the earth,so do the wetness and dryness;so the four seasons change,the living things prosper and fade in a non-stop circle,forever and ever. Xunzi’s heaven way from Yizhuan is supposed to be from Zigong(子弓)in the ancient country of Chu. It’s an astronomic theory of heaven way,or we can say its knowledge on the orbits and movements of celestial bodies.Zigong is not Zhonggong(仲弓). Zigong is also known as 臂子弓,子厷,or 子弘. He studies the knowledge of Yi from Kongzi’ disciple 商瞿子木,a man from the country of Lu,and spreads it too. Zihong(子厷)is the authentic disciple of Kongzi’ knowledge of Yi,sometime between Kongzi and Xunzi,serving as a transition of their respective theory of heaven way,a somewhat new thinking pedigree. The empirical“Kongzi﹣Zihong﹣Xunzi”pedigree is different from the rational“Kongzi﹣Zisi﹣Mengzi”one,with the former being non-ontological,non-metaphysical,and non-religious,while the latter,taking in ethical principles and ontological ideas that are learned and preached by those officers who worry about the decline of ethics at Han,Wei,Tang,Song dynasties,later gradually developed into Confucianism of Taoism.The concept that“Human nature is born to be evil”is actually not Xunzi’s own idea. He doesn’t believe in human’s evil nature,rather,he thinks that human nature is born to be blank. The words“evil nature”appear in the book of Xunzi 20 times,all in the chapter of Xing e,and 11 out of 20 are in the sentence of“It’s obvious that human nature is evil,and its goodness is faked”. The reasons for translating“not kind”into“evil”are as follow:Xunzi has very neat concepts and definitions for“human nature”,“kindness”,“badness”,and his statement of“bad nature”is totally different from his basic definition;he mentions that“Human nature is the raw material from which characters are well shaped”;he also says that“One becomes evil because he goes far away from his nature. Only by sticking to and making the best of one’s nature will he be good”;therefore,“plain nature”and“evil nature”are contradictory;the article Xing e is written to refute Mengzi’s concept of good human nature. Due to the reason that the inverse proposition for“good human nature”should be“no-good human nature”,rather than“bad human nature”,the refutation is invalid in itself. In the early Qin Dynasty,the statements of“good”and“no good”are set against each other,but since Han Dynasty,it’s common to oppose“good”with“bad”,along with the opposition of“yin-yang”. As is well known,“not good”does not equal“bad”. These two concepts are very distinctive. His supporting words preceding the sentence“It’s obvious that human nature is evil”are not enough to prove“evil nature”,and his using human sexuality to illustrate evil nature is totally a departure from his consistent definition of“human nature”and“evil”. When declaring that humans need to be educated,Xunzi repeatedly mentions that an erect tree is born to be erect,a bent tree is born to be bent,and a blunt metal is born to be blunt,trying to analogize human nature’s plainness,and use“nature’s plainness”to refute Mengzi’s“nature’s goodness”. Xunzi,Kongzi and some other important philosophers in history use“good”or“bad”to describe the material quality of human nature,which is not the kind of ethical comments like“Rules and regulations lead to peace and harmony,while breaking rules causes riot and turmoil”.Nature’s“plainness”and“badness”are completely incompatible with each other. The misinterpretation of“not good”as“bad”in the article of Xing e is about at the time of Liuxiang(刘向),at Xihan,probably due to careless transcript work or intentional mistranslation under the influence of the prevailing Han mentality. If we restore to the original diction of“not good”throughout the article,the understanding of Xunzi’s concept of human nature will be no hard work. An insightful and consistent understanding of his concepts will be free of obstacles by means of either induction or deduction,which may be fully proved by future literature. Xunzi argues against Mengzi in terms of“human nature”and establishes his own concept concerning human nature,that is,“material-nature-education-habit”. This concept’s theoretical base is that Material is the basis of human nature,and human nature is the function of material;plain material moulds into plain nature,and later education can formulate human habits;the relationship between material and nature is similar to that between structure and function. Original materials are like human talents,acquired education is based on original materials and thus it’s possible to result in both good and bad habits. Xunzi holds the opinion that heaven way is the movement of the universe,the shift of ying-yang. According to him,human nature is the result of one’s physical vigor. It’s the integration of heaven and human,not in the sense of ethics. He says“Do not intent to compete with heaven,for human are human,not heaven”. Human nature is the result of physical vigor,so it can be nourished,and therefore,both education and supervision are indispensible for effective management. The plainness of human nature is the foundation and core for Xunzi’s theoretical system,the correction of Si-meng’s approach,and the continuity and development of Kongzi’s approach,and also,the highest achievement so far in the field of human nature.Xunzi’s theory of“human nature”about human vigor and cognition is a structure-functional one,which states that human nature is born to be plain,neither good nor bad. It goes against the fancy theories about human nature,because it holds that the goodness or badness of human moralities and behaviors is nurture (later learned),rather than nature (inherent). Xunzi’s concept of“heaven way”is astronomic,not illusionary,with faith in divinities’ prophecy. He argues against Mengzi,Zouyan,insisting that“heaven”should not be considered mysterious like witches,ghosts,or spirits. Xunzi’s theory“heaven way and human nature”is the orthodox Confucianism,with no influence from Taoism or Huanglao(黄老). It’s major influence is from Shangshu,the conventional mentality ever since Yin and Shang dynasties,and most obviously,“human law”from Mohism,“complete individuality”from Taoists like Yangzhu(杨朱)and the like. He means to resist Yang’s Mohism,but eventually can’t help falling into it,which should deserve more insightful research work.

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GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文
林桂榛.天道天行与人性人情:先秦儒家“性与天道”论考原[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2015
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MLA 格式引文
林桂榛.天道天行与人性人情:先秦儒家“性与天道”论考原.北京,中国社会科学出版社:2015E-book.
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APA 格式引文
林桂榛(2015).天道天行与人性人情:先秦儒家“性与天道”论考原.北京:中国社会科学出版社
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