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信仰与道路的抉择:中国马克思主义与无政府主义论战研究

作者: 王烨
出版日期:2017-01-01
浏览次数:0次
简介: Thecontroversy between Marxism and Anarchism in China is a major ideological debate on the development of socialist ideological trend in modern China.This paper tries to put the two socialist ideological trends under the background of China’s new-democratic revolution,examining how they are affecting alternately the process of Chinese revolution.Astwo socialist ideological trends,the Anarchism and the Marxism were both introduced into China in the early 20th century.From 1900 or so to 1907,with all kinds of western ideological trends pouring into China,the socialist thoughts were warmly welcomed by the progressive intellectuals and the revolu-tionaries as a new ideological trend of revolution against the feudal autocracy at that time,then was widely advertised and introduced,among which there were the Marxism and the Anarchism;but they were only introduced and publicized as a theory failing in forming any movements or faith.In 1907,influenced by domestic and international factors,the socialist ideological trend in China began to swing to the Anarchism.From 1907 to the eve of theoretical controversy between Marxism and Anarchism,the spread of Anarchism gave priority to the socialism movements in China.During this period,the Anarchism was considered as the representative thought of the socialist ideological trend,which bred the Anarchism genres of“Days”,“New Age”and“Shi Fu”followed by the Anarchist movements.Affected by the second international Democratic Socialism,Marxism was not accepted by the revolutionaries in all nations,hence hardly affected China.Chinese Anarchists had done much work in enlightenment,pub-licity and class-consciousness cultivation and launching civilian-and-worker campaigns and so on,which made necessary preparations for the New Culture Movement,the May 4th Movement and the Marxist Movement.The victory of the OctoberRevolution in Russia in 1917 and the outbreak of the May 4th Movement in China in 1919 started a new campaign of socialism in China again.With the help of the Communist International and Russian bolsheviks,Marxism,silents for years,took the fighting form of Leninism theory and stimulated the Chinese revolutionary activists again and prompted communist organizations and movements in China.Concerning the needs of realistic revolutions and their own developments,Chinese Anarchism and Russian bolsheviks conducted“Cooperation between Anarchism and Bolshevism”.Chinese Marxists and Anarchists had also maintained mutually supportive for each other.The Communist International and revolutionary messagers from Russia made a series of activities to spread Bolshevism in China,jointly established the revolutionary“Socialist Alliance”and helped the Communist groups found their organizations and directed the cooperative revolution movements.In the process of cooperation,however,there appeared theoretical disagreements between the Marxism and the Anarchism,particularly tit for tat on such issues like the organizational principles of the party construction and the dictatorship of the proletariat.The debate inevitably happened between Chinese Anarchists and the Chinese Marxists.The two sides had thorough discussions and debates on some major issues.With great theoretical selfconfidence,each side tried to refute or persuade the other one,but ended with no agreement.The“Socialist Alliance”were dissolved worldwidely owing to the devotional and theoretical dis-putes.Yet separate Marxists and independent Anarchists then continued to keep contact and cooperated over a period of time.All of the above facts rendered the complex relationship between the Marxism and the Anarchist in controversial period.Theclash process of Chinese Marxism and Anarchism is roughly divided into four stages:the prelude,the start,the climax,and the continuation.The prelude and starting of the debate is a controversy about“the Axiom Against the Power”in May and June,1920.The thesis,On politics,which was published by Chen Tu-hsiu in September 1920,triggered a direct confrontation between the Marxists and the Anarchists.Both sides discussed and expressed their views on“Nation,Politics and Law”,and posed some important problems like“Chinese anarchist”.They reached consensus partly and kept some principle differences.The climax of controversy occurred in early 1921 when Chen Tu-hsiu delivered a speech on the criticism of“Socialism”in Guangzhou Public Law School.His speech caused a district backlash among Anarchists.Chen Tu-hsiu and Sinpak Au,a famous Ananchist,launched a series of related debates on“Freedom”,“Law”and other topics.From then on,Chinese Marxists and Anarchists continued to clash in European countries,focusing on questions like“whether Russian revolution has failed?”or“how to treat the Marxism”,etc.Thecontroversy between Chinese Marxism and Anarchism was the longest,the most widespread and the most affecting one among the three big debates at that time in China,figuring out the development direction for Chinese socialist revolution movement.Since then Chinese Socialist Ideological trend shifted from the Anarchy to the Marxism-Leninism with Chinese revolutions stepping into the Russian revolutionary road.This controversy even prompted Sun Yat-sen to accept the ideas of the Communist International and the Communist Party of Russia,and put forward the New Three Principles of the People,namely Alliance with Russia,the CCP and Assisting the Peasants and Workers.It was also a critical incident on the path of the development of the Chinese Anarchism and Marxism,which had a profound impact on the development of both sides.The debate made a clear distinction between the two different social-revolutionary theories and expanded influences for both sides,which activated the Marxism movements and Anarchist movements further.It also differentiated revolutionaries among the socialist members.It was more a new starting point of spreading Marxism in China than a controversy of changing from flourish to decadence of Anarchism in its development history.It was also the turning point for the Chinese revolution to change from the“ideological revolution”,which occurred during May 4th New Culture Movement Period,to the realistic“political revolution”influenced by the Russian October Revolution.The controversy not only helped the Marxists draw the boundaries between the Marxism and the Anarchism theories,completed the shift towards Marxism and promoted the process of the foun-ding of the CPC,but also made the Anarchism differentiation in camp and helped quite a number of anarchists realize the transition from the theory transmissions to real revolutions.Key words:Chinese Marxism;Anarchism;socialism;controversy;Cooperation between Anarchism and Bolshevism.

《资本论》中的历史观研究

作者: 刘忠友
出版日期:2017-01-01
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简介: 唯物主义历史观与政治经济学批判的关系,是近几年马克思主义哲学研究中的热点问题之一。本书探讨的正是马克思对资本主义社会深刻的经济解剖和哲学分析,展示了马克思所开辟的哲学与经济学携手并进的互动式发展道路和研究道路。本书以《资本论》及其《经济学手稿》为主要研究对象,结合马克思的思想转变、发生哲学革命及唯物史观创立时期的相关著作进行分析,探索马克思哲学革命与经济学革命的内在关联,以及马克思是怎样运用唯物主义历史观来分析和研究资本主义社会的,《资本论》又是如何丰富和发展他的唯物史观的,此外,书稿对《资本论》中历史观的当代价值进行了分析,对于推进唯物史观在当代的发展具有一定的意义。

抗战时期马克思主义大众化研究

作者: 田福宁
出版日期:2013-10-01
浏览次数:10次
简介: 中国共产党对马克思主义大众化的探索,并非始于抗战时期,但从中国抗日战争的发展进程、中国广大军民的觉悟程度及大众实践、中国共产党人的理论水平及思想状况来看,抗战时期的马克思主义大众化确实得到深入探索并取得显著成就。为更好地展现抗战时期中国共产党探索马克思主义大众化的历史画卷,本书从抗战时期中国共产党探索马克思主义大众化的背景、历史进程、理论贡献、基本经验及当代启示等方面进行了概括、梳理和分析,力争达到回顾历史、总结经验、继承传统、提炼精神以服务当代的目的。
关键词: 马克思主义  大众化  中国  1937—1945  

坚持 发展 研究 创新马克思主义:靳辉明教授执教50周年暨75华诞...

简介: 本书是靳辉明先生的论文集,共六十余篇论文分上、中、下三篇。上篇是靳辉明教授各个时期的代表论著和诗词。中篇是坚持发展研究创新马克思主义。下篇介绍靳辉明学术思想研究。本书不仅是靳辉明先生坚持、发展、研究、创新马克思主义的人生轨迹和治学精神,也展现了马克思主义在当今世界和当代中国的历史进程和丰硕成果。
关键词: 马克思主义  靳辉明  文集  

科学技术时代的人文精神反思:马克思主义辩证法的深层探索

作者:
出版日期:2011-01-01
浏览次数:2次
简介: 古希腊德尔斐神庙上有一行字句亘古弥新:“人,认识你自己”。人类对自我的认识不是一次性完成的,往往在历史似乎不再有重大变化的时期、往往在人们自以为已经完全了解和把握自身的时刻,自然、社会或生活中的意外事件或现象会悄然降临,逼迫人们在无奈中重新认识自我,今天,恰恰在人们最需要理论的时刻,理论却不能完满地回答‘人是什么’这一问题。当一种理论无法对现实进行解释和指导时,我们只能延迟,却永远不能阻止它被遗弃的命运。面向实践是哲学的必然选择,但是把哲学观念与社会现实相联系并非轻而易举,它需要思维的穿透力,否则只能得到外在的、表层的“理论联系实际”。本书立足于自然科学的新成果与科学技术实践,提出了“时空进化论”,并对传统人文精神进行了较为彻底的反思,是创新马克思主义哲学辩证法的一次有深度的尝试。作者认为,知识分子不能凭想当然的批判去寻找救世的捷径,不能只是按照人们乐于接受的信条积累自己的文化资本,而应回归本体论辩证法,从对科学技术与社会实践的外部反思转到内部反思,摆正人的位置,摆脱主体形而上学的束缚,在否定之否定中开辟出一条新的生存之路。

马克思主义理论与实践研究.第1集

作者: 马福元
出版日期:2011-01-01
浏览次数:2次
简介: 《马克思主义理论与实践研究》内容简介:马克思主义是无产阶级思想的科学体系,其内容涵盖了人类社会政治、经济、文化、军事、历史等在内的诸多领域以及社会与自然界的关系等各个方面,是极其深刻而丰富的思想宝库;是马克思主义者认识世界的科学理论与努力改造世界的指导思想、科学的世界观和方法论。它既有深远的社会历史意义又有鲜明的时代精神和现实意义,在整个理论体系中贯穿着要将理论与实践高度统一的主线与品质。它作为博大精深的科学体系覆盖面广,涉及人类历史跨度长,对社会复杂现象透析力深,而且在社会科学史上具有重要的学术价值。马克思主义理论研究的主要任务,是对马克思主义经典作家的论著的研究。由于马克思、恩格斯、列宁以及毛泽东和邓小平等老一辈马克思主义者给当今的马克思主义者遗留下了丰富多彩的精神财富,故当代的马克思主义者需要做全面深入的钻研,真正地领会其基本思想、主要内容和精神实质。

马克思主义经济学的经典理论与现代观点

作者: 于金富
出版日期:2008-01-01
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简介: 本书是笔者关于马克思主义经济学研究的一部专著,其主要内容有两大方面:一是对于马克思主义经济学经典理论的解读;二是基于时代特征而提出马克思主义经济学的现代观点。马克思主义经济学的经典理论包括古典资本主义生产方式理论与经典社会主义生产方式理论。本部分的重点在于阐明哪些是马克思主义经济学关于资本主义生产方式与社会主义生产方式本质特征的基本原理,指出哪些是马克思主义经济学关于古典资本主义生产方式与经典社会主义生产方式的具体结论。马克思主义经济学的现代观点主要是运用马克思主义经济学的基本原理与科学方法论来研究现代资本主义生产方式与现代社会主义生产方式所提出的创新观点,其内容包括关于现代社会生产方式与现代社会生产关系的马克思主义观点。本部分的重点在于根据时代特征与实际国情来阐明现代资本主义生产方式与现代社会主义生产方式的基本特征,从而实现马克思主义经济学理论的与时俱进与创新发展,更好地指导建设中国特色社会主义的伟大实践。

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