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不羁的普罗米修斯:马克思哲学革命的实践本体论解读

ISBN:978-7-5161-5329-1

出版日期:2014-12

页数:316

字数:330.0千字

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本论文主旨是根据对西方哲学本体论、辩证法逻辑进路的梳理,结合对马克思主要哲学文本的解读,阐释马克思哲学革命的实践本体论,即实践唯物主义的思想来源、理论意义和当代价值;恢复主体性在马克思哲学中的主导地位;恢复马克思哲学应有的贴近生活现实,解释世界与改造世界并举的本来面目;消解所谓马克思哲学是“人学空场”、“经济决定论”、“物质决定论”、“机械论”等误解和扭曲;还原能动的和实践的马克思哲学。马克思哲学是关于人类自由解放和共产主义历史必然性的学说,而人类自由解放和共产主义历史必然性都必须建立在将劳动——人的本质力量这个“本体”、这个最大的“私有财产”归还给劳动者,使劳动者真正占有属于自己的劳动和成果这个本体论基础之上。这里涉及对马克思哲学本体论的正确解读,也由此产生了持久的争议。其实“本体”在西方哲学史中不指具体事物,也不指世界由什么物质元素构成,而是指决定事物“是其所是”的那个普遍性原理、法则,即决定事物是此物而非彼物的内在必然性和规律性。从古希腊自然哲学同时发源了三条逐层递进的本体论进路——笔者概括为:元素始基—物质本体论、理念实体—知识本体论、人本主义—实践本体论。马克思哲学实现了本体论革命,在人本主义基础上创立实践的唯物主义,马克思哲学处于本体论发展的最高阶段。马克思哲学本体论革命表现为对费尔巴哈的直观唯物主义物质本体论和黑格尔的客观理念知识本体论的扬弃和超越。在对马克思哲学本体论的解读上,正如高清海先生所说:“所谓本体之争,归结起来不外是‘物质’或‘理性’何者为‘本体’之争,实践在这里正是二者矛盾的统一和解决。225762”旧唯物主义指认客体性物质元素为本体,唯物地排除本体中能动的主体性因素,这是最为人诟病之处。马克思实践的唯物主义本体论不是这样的本体,而是将黑格尔抽象的“实体即主体”原则充实上升为以人的感性实践创造历史的实践本体论,它深深地根植于西方哲学的历史传统中。任何哲学体系的产生都是真理发展的一个环节、一段路程,都是对以往的哲学体系的继承与扬弃,其中遵循的还是哲学思想史内在的本体论逻辑进路。马克思哲学作为对黑格尔思辨哲学的继承、扬弃和超越,完全可以在西方哲学史中找到自己思想展开的源头,形成自己超越形而上学本体论的逻辑进路和发展。论文分为章。第一章讨论本体论的历史、现状以及与马克思哲学的关系。古希腊自然哲学家在探究世界“本原”时已经出现思想路线分野,分别形成元素始基、数字本原、理性存在、以人为本等思想路线。由于本体论是人类用思维把握客观世界及人类社会终极本性和依归的逻辑概念,它最终涉及人与自然的关系,而人是自然界的最高产物;人区别于动物之处:一方面在于他利用自然,造福社稷;另一方面在于他探索伦常,安身立命。因此古希腊自然哲学家在对自然的本质力量展开追问的同时,必然也对人类自身的本质力量展开追问。伴随着物质本体论和知识本体论思想路线的分野,古希腊还发源了第三条人本主义思想路线——以普罗泰戈拉的“人是万物的尺度”和苏格拉底的“认识你自己”为代表的人本主义。马克思实现的哲学本体论革命,就是对普罗泰戈拉和苏格拉底开创的人本主义的提升和发展。通过回顾三十年来国内外学者对马克思哲学本体论的重要阐述和争论,笔者得出一个结论:“本体”即“本质力量”。从逻辑与历史统一的观点看,从自然的本质力量向人的本质力量转换,乃是本体论以及社会历史发展的必然规律:人的本质力量日益取代自然的本质力量,人的主体性地位就日益提高,人就日益真正占有自己的劳动成果,实现个性的自由发展。这就是人类在生产实践中实现自我,是其所是,在历史进程中为臻于“至善”(共产主义历史必然性)开辟道路。正是在这个意义上,马克思称“实践的唯物主义者即共产主义者”;马克思哲学因此被解读为“实践的唯物主义即共产主义学说”;马克思哲学本体论被解读为“实践本体论”。第二章解读黑格尔的“实体即主体”与“马克思哲学之本”的关系,后者为赵敦华先生225763提出,具体表现为人本主义、实践唯物主义和自由解放学说。赵敦华先生所说的“马克思哲学之本”,乃是马克思对“实体即主体”原则的实践本体论诠释和升华:马克思在苏格拉底人本主义基础上将黑格尔抽象的“实体即主体”原则充实提升为实践本体论,创建实践的唯物主义并提出人类自由解放即共产主义学说。例如,马克思用“实体即主体”原则阐释苏格拉底人本主义的实践本体论意义,指出:苏格拉底是实体的模型,借助这个模型实体本身就消失在主体中。……这个主体说出关于应有,关于目的的判断。这样一来,主观精神本身成了实体的规定本身,成了实体的谓语……实体性的应有是表现它的主观精神的真正规定;所以世界的目的是主观精神自己的目的,传授这一目的是它的使命。所以它无论在自己的生活中或学说中都体现了目的——善。它是进入了实际运动的哲人。主观性在它的直接承担者身上表现为他的生活和他的实践活动,表现为这样一种形式,通过此种形式他把单独的个人从实体性的规定性引到自身中的规定;如果撇开这种实践活动,那么他的哲学内容就仅仅是善的抽象规定。他的哲学就是,他促使实体上存在着的表象、差别等转化为自身的规定。225764这段话语既是马克思对黑格尔“实体即主体”原则的阐释,又是对苏格拉底人本主义的升华和发展——将人的感觉提升为感性实践;将人本主义提升为“实践的唯物主义”或“实践本体论”。实践本体论是马克思对苏格拉底开创的“以人为本”思想路线的继承和发展,具有重要的本体论与方法论意义。通过对西方哲学史本体论进路的梳理,笔者提出:从柏拉图到黑格尔的理念本体论,在本质上是一条追问“绝对知识”的本体论进路,而马克思哲学革命表现在对古希腊的人本主义做实践本体论升华——用人的感性实践作为本体,既超越了黑格尔抽象的客体知识本体论,又扬弃了费尔巴哈直观的自然物质本体论。与此同时,马克思借用古希腊思想史中主体性“努斯”(nous)和客体性“逻各斯”(logos)这一对范畴,以伊壁鸠鲁的原子论(原子的自由意志任意偏斜运动不断打破逻各斯秩序,产生永恒运动变化的世界)作为辩证法矛盾双方对立统一的内在规定,用来统摄主体与客体、思维与存在的辩证运动,破解了“存在”之谜和历史之谜,实现了唯物主义历史观、辩证法、认识论在实践本体论中的统一,完整地把实践的唯物主义即实践本体论的现代意义呈现出来。第三章解读《黑格尔法哲学批判》、《1844年经济学哲学手稿》、《神圣家族》、《关于费尔巴哈的提纲》等文本,证明实践(本质力量对象化运动)是马克思哲学本体论的灵魂。马克思哲学革命是本体论意义的革命,这个“本体”区别于形而上学的“本体”之处,在于它是人的感性劳动、人的自由自觉的活动——本质力量对象化运动。人的本质力量并不是单纯的主观意识的东西,而是包括思想、活动、劳动、创造等主观见之于客观的实践;是一个能动的、具有自我意识、自由意志的创造性力量;是令自然界向人类社会生成的实体即主体。为了纠正旧唯物主义敌视人的机械论倾向,马克思提倡以人为本体,以人的感觉、激情为本质力量的驱动,以劳动、实践为本质力量的对象化。因此,马克思哲学的“本体”,既不是脱离了实践的抽象的物质,也不是处于彼岸世界的抽象的绝对理念或绝对知识,而是包括物质生产、精神生产和人类本身生产的实践。马克思用自然的本质力量和人类的本质力量分别解读自然之谜和历史之谜,强调物质的原始“形式”是事物内部固有的、活生生的、本质的力量。物质是一切变化的主体。225765这种将“实体即主体”阐释为事物的本质力量(形式、真理、本体)活生生地自我展开,阐释为以物质生产为基础的主体性实践,正是马克思哲学区别于“从前的一切唯物主义”和黑格尔思辨唯心主义之根本所在。第四章解读《德意志意识形态》的“圣布鲁诺”篇、“圣麦克斯”篇、“费尔巴哈”篇,澄清一些长期争论的问题:马克思哲学本体论是古代自然哲学“始基”意义上的物质本体论,还是近代哲学机械唯物主义本体论的延续,或是对从前的一切唯物主义和唯心主义本体论的扬弃和超越?正是在这个问题上产生了对马克思哲学理解的严重分歧。事实上,马克思一贯秉持将自然史与人类史分开处理的立场——把作为“始原”即原则的原子同作为“元素”,即基础的原子区别开来;把成为现象基础的作为“元素”的原子与存在于虚空中的作为“始原”的原子区别开来;225766将物质世界看作“积极地展示自己并实现自己的多样性的自然”。225767通过对布鲁诺的“自我意识”、施蒂纳的“唯一者”和费尔巴哈的“直观唯物主义”的彻底清理和批判,马克思和恩格斯把黑格尔抽象的“实体即主体”原则充实提升为唯物主义的实践本体论,在自然、客体方面保留了物质统一性和先在性的合理内核;在社会、主体方面将实践提升为“本体”,去设定和中介自然向社会的生成。马克思就这样扬弃、解决了近代哲学悬而未决的“物质与理性(精神)何者为本体”的争论。马克思和恩格斯进一步从物质生产力和生产关系的矛盾,从普遍联系、相互作用的社会有机体的结构关系出发,透过纷繁的现象世界的“感性直观”去探求现象世界背后的复杂的社会总体发展进程。马克思所关注的历史发展主体不是处于彼岸世界的精神实体及其外化——“自我意识”和“唯一者”,不是脱离于现实生活的直观的“自然”或抽象受动的“物质”,而是以人的物质生产为基础,以人的社会生活为主体的能动的感性实践。这就是历史唯物主义的实践本体论基础。正是在此基础上马克思完成了哲学革命,实现了主体与客体、思维与存在、自然与历史的辩证统一。第五章解读共产主义的本体论意义,解读马克思共产主义思想渊源、马克思和恩格斯对“真正的社会主义”的批判以及《共产党宣言》,证明马克思哲学是本体论意义上对人类古老而深邃的“理想国”的无限趋近的物质运动的系统论证;而在这一运动中趋近目标的“实体即主体”,就是人类自己的本质力量对象化实践。共产主义无论是作为一种理想、作为一种政治纲领或作为一种政治制度,都是人类设计的最美好的社会蓝图,都必须通过人的本质力量诉诸实践来展开。这是典型的以实践为本体,面向未来的生成、创造、发展过程。这与巴门尼德的“万物是其所是”,与亚里士多德的“万物趋向一个至善”,是同样的本体论图式。马克思的共产主义学说与柏拉图的《理想国》理念,与基督教各种“福音书”、《使徒行传》中宣扬的伦理共产主义教义,与莫尔、康帕内拉、摩莱里、欧文、圣西门、傅立叶等人前赴后继对私有制的批判和对和谐之城“乌托邦”的实验,与康德、费希特、黑格尔强调自我意识、自由意志的本体论哲学息息相关。这种共产主义将柏拉图的《理想国》、基督教的伦理、达尔文的进化论、黑格尔的宇宙理性与唯物主义历史观和否定性辩证法共冶一炉,以对社会历史发展规律的揭示为共产主义的历史必然性提供历史观即本体论证明。马克思发起的现代共产主义运动是对西方资本主义文明的批判,它有力地促进了历史的发展。历史发展与逻辑展开(实体即主体)是一致的,历史是事物内在矛盾在对立中不断打破原有秩序,达到新的更高层次统一的螺旋上升的发展过程。资本主义的合理性存在中预先包含了不合理因素,并且打破这些不合理因素的动因也已经包含在其中了。事物从合理到不合理,不断被内部新的合理因素打破原有的统一,上升到更高层次的形态,这就是事物发展不可逾越的否定之否定规律。马克思所说的共产主义(Communism)是指公社、共同体、社区模式下人们和谐相处,共同占有生产资料,共同创造社会财富,按需分配。其目的是消除生产资料私有制中劳动及其产品与劳动者对立并反过来统治劳动者的异化现象,将劳动者最大的私有财产——他的本质力量及其产品归还给劳动者占有,实现人的本性复归,个性自由发展。因此,共产主义是给每个人平等的机会创造属于自己的财富,而不要求平分属于个人劳动所得的财产。共产主义是由人的本质力量对象化实践所决定的历史进程,这个进程表现为自然的本质力量在实践中日益转化为人的本质力量,成为改造社会生活,为人的自由和解放做准备的强大工具,尽管它必须首先经过非人化的历史过程。共产主义作为私有财产的扬弃就是对真正人的生活这种人的不可剥夺的财产的要求,就是实践的人道主义的生成。225768马克思用“实践的人道主义”、“实践的唯物主义即共产主义”这样的本体论命题证明每个人的生命权利都是平等的。这一基于自然法即本体论的要求,是由生产力高度发达阶段所决定的历史的必然归属,是人类社会向着“应许之福地”无限趋同的实践运动。共产主义不是一种既定的制度或状态,不是单纯的道德或伦理要求,而是一种社会物质运动,即人的本质力量对象化实践的漫长过程。只有通过工具理性的力量,借助资本主义大工业和自动化生产,人类才能实现对自己本质力量的真正占有,个性获得自由发展。关键词:实践唯物主义、实践本体论、辩证法、主体性、马克思哲学革命。

The purpose of this thesis is based on combing the logic approach of ontology and dialectics in Western philosophy,to elaborate source of ideas,and contemporary meaning and value of Practical Ontology as well as Practical Materialism of Marx's philosophy revolution;to restore the principle of subjectivity on the dominant position in Marxist philosophy;to restore Marxist philosophy to be close to the reality of life;to get rid of the concepts that Marxist philosophy has been long misunderstood and distorted as so-called Humanity Empty,Economic Determinism,Material Determinism,Mechanism,etc. and to restore a real,rational,active Marxist Practical Philosophy. Marxist philosophy is the theory of human freedom and liberation,However,human liberation and the historical inevitability of communism must be based on labor —— essential power of the largest “private property be returned to workers,let workers truly occupy his nature forces based on ontological foundation.Marxist Philosophy achieved ontological revolution,which expressed as the sublation and transcend to Feuerbach's substance ontology of intuitive materialism and Hegel's knowledge ontology of objective idealism. Ancient Greek originated three main ontological approaches-author summarized as follows:substance ontology,knowledge ontology,practice ontology. Marxist philosophy is in the highest practical ontology stage. However,the interpretation of Marxist Philosophy Ontology attributed to the dispute between substances (natural) and ration (human),and the practice is just the unity and resolve of the dispute. Old materialism always recognized entity from the material elements,they excludes active and subjective factors in the entity which is the most criticized. Marx's ontology of Practical materialism certainly is not this kind,but Hegel abstract principle that entity is subject which to be upgraded to emotional practical ontology that creates history. It is deeply rooted in the traditions of Western philosophy history. Generation of anyphilosophy is a part and a journey of truth development. And the inheritance and abandonment to the old systems of the past philosophy,which follow logical inevitability in the history of philosophy thinking. Marxist philosophy as Inheritance and sublation to Hegel Speculation Ontology can find it own sources in the history of Western philosophy.The thesis is divided into five chapters.Chapter one discusses ontological history,status and relationship with Marxist philosophy. Natural philosophers of ancient Greece had disputes on ideology when explored the “primitive” world. Respectively there were ontologies of elements,digital,rational being,people-oriented and other ideological lines. Since ontology is human's ideas to grasp the ultimate nature of the objective world,and the logic of the concept in mind,it ultimately involves the relationship between man and nature,man is a natural product of the highest,people can take advantage of the natural,make benefit to the society,explore family relations,and settle down themselves,ancient Greek natural philosophers necessarily at the same time would question not only natural primitive,but also the essential power of the human beings. Accompanied by substance ontology and knowledge ontology,the ancient Greek origin of the third ideological line:Protagoras “man is the measure of all things” and Socrates “Know thyself” were represented as the beginning of humanism. By reviewing the expositions and debates from domestic and foreign scholars in three decades toward Marxist Philosophy Ontology,the authors come to a conclusion:“Ontologies” means “essential power”. From the point of logic and history is unified,the essential power of nature converse to the essential power of human,is the ontological inexorable law in its development as well as in social history. When human's nature force increasingly replaces the natural essential strength,the people increasingly really possess their own nature,and the personality free development really realize. This is human as the entity in practice to open its way for communism inevitability.Chapter two studies the principle “entity is subject” and its relationship with essential parts of Marxist philosophy. The latter Mr. Zhao Dunhua refers to Humanism,Practical Materialism and the Theory of Freedom and Liberation. Author proposes that all essential parts of Marxist philosophy are practice ontologicalinterpretation to principle “entity is subject”. I.e. Marx on the basis of humanism enriched and upgraded the abstract “entity is subject” to practical ontology which made contribution to practical materialism,and then Marx proposed Communist Doctrine of Human Freedom and Liberation. For example,Marx explained the practice ontological significance of “entity is subject” as:Subjectivity in Socrates embody as his life and his practice. If we do not count his practice activities,then Socrates philosophy is just good abstract provisions. This is the full affirmation Marx gave Humanism,Practice Ontology and Socratic philosophy,which has important theoretical and practical significance. Through combing history of philosophy,author suggests that,essentially,from Plato to Hegel's philosophy,ontology followed an approach of questioning knowledge. Meanwhile Marxist Philosophy Revolution gave a re-interpretation to the tradition of old humanism – It toke “practice” as entity,both overcame Hegel's absolute knowledge ontology,discarded the material ontology of Feuerbach. At the same time,Marx extracted subjectivity (nous) and objectivity (logos) in history of ancient Greek as a dialectic contradiction of two parties to unify in opposites. Which unify the subject and object,thought and existence in the dialectical movement. Marx came to crack the mystery of Being and history,therefore materialist history view,dialectics,epistemology unified in practical ontology,a complete look of practical materialism,the modern sense of the theory presented.In chapter three,through an interpretation to Hegel's “Philosophy of Right Criticism”,“ 1844 Manuscripts”,“The Holy Family”,“Feuerbach outline” etc. Author attempts to prove that practice is the soul of Marxist philosophy ontology. Marxist Philosophy Revolution is an ontological Revolution,what ontology difference from metaphysics,is emotional labor or practice,I.e. human's free and conscious activities,his essential strength objectification. Forces of human nature is not a purely subjective awareness of something,but thought,labor,and creation of the subjective into the objective in practice,a dynamic,self-awareness creative force of free will,the “entity as subject” that generates nature to human society. In order to correct the tendency of hostility to human from Mechanistic Materialism,Marx promoted people-oriented attitude,to take people's feelings,passion as essential power,to take labor,practice as objectified essential powers. Therefore,the “Entity” of Marxist philosophy is neither substance away from practice,not abstract and absolute idea or absolute knowledge behind other side of the world,but human productive practice including material production,spiritual production and human self-production. Marx used separately the natural forces and human essential power to interpret the mystery of nature and history,stressed that the original “form” of substance is things inherent,living,essential forces. Substance is subject to make all the changes. This subject and objectification emphasizing is Marx's philosophy different from the old materialism and Hegel's objective idealism.Chapter four gives an interpretation to “San Bruno articles”,“Shan Max articles”,and “Feuerbach chapter” of “The German Ideology”,to clarify some long-debated issues:Marxist philosophy ontology is on the plain meaning of the primordial substance,or the mechanical materialism ontology continuation,or the sublation of all previous materialism and idealism ontology? It is on this issue that serious differences occur on the understanding to Marxist philosophy. In fact,Marx has been upholding the position that natural history and human history should deal separately:—to make “primitive” atomic elements different from atom as “principle”;to distinguish “atoms exist in the void” with atomic elements in the beginning of the world. Marx takes material world as “positively to show themselves and achieve their own diversity in nature. By thoroughly cleaned and criticized Bruno's “self-awareness”,Stirner's “unique” and Feuerbach's intuitive materialism,Marx,Engels,gave Hegel's abstract entity an enrichment as practical ontology of materialism. This will not only retain the material uniformity and first existence;but also enhance practice as “entity”,to set and intermediate nature to society. Marx and Engels from the contradictions of material productive forces with productive relations,from the universal connection and structure of the social organism interaction through numerous appearances world “intuition” to explore overall development process behind the complex social phenomenon world. What Marx concerned about the historical development subject,not the spirit entity in the other side of the world,not the incarnation of “self-awareness” and “only-self”,not the isolation of intuitive nature from real life,but based on the production of substances,and to take social life as subject I.e. human emotional practice. This is the base of Historical Materialism—Practical Ontology. It is on this basis Marx completed the philosophical revolution,realized the dialectical unity of subject and object,thought and existence,natural and history.Chapter five inspects communism ontological significance (both history of ideas and religion origins) and gives an interpretation to “Communist Manifesto”,then comes to conclusion:Marx's communism is ontologically human eventual realization of its ancient and deep dream of “Utopia”,is a historic movement infinitely approaching. However,the entity and subject approaching toward the target is the essential power objectification of mankind in his practice. Communism no matter as an ideal,as a political program,or as a political system,is the finest social blueprint human-designed. It must resort through the essential power in practice. This is typical practice ontology,future-orientated,generative,creative,developing process. Parmenides said everything is what it is,Aristotle said,everything tends to be a “perfection”.They are all the same ontological schema. Marx's communism has a close relation with Plato's “Utopia” philosophy,with Christian Gospels,and the Acts of the Apostles preached ethics,with Mohr,Campanella,Mo Laili,Owen,Saint-Simon,Fourieret all followed one after another-critique of private ownership and experiment of harmony utopian. Kant,Fichte,Hegel emphasized ontological philosophy of self-consciousness,free will,is also closely related. This communism is a bland of Plato's “Utopia”,Christian ethics,Darwin's theory of evolution,materialist concept of history,Hegel's ration and negative dialectics. It revels the law of history development and gives an ontological proof of communism inevitability. That Marx launched the modern Communist movement is a critique to capitalist civilization,which effectively promoted history development. History consists with logic. History is that things inherent contradictions fight each other,so they break original order to achieve a new higher-level unified,a spiral development process. The reasonable existence of capitalism in advance has irrational factors included. Things from reasonable to unreasonable are that internally new reasonable factor will break the original unification,and rise to a new form — this is the development of things,an insurmountable law of negation of negation. Marx's Communism refers tocommunity,a harmony living mode,a common means of production,people work together to create social wealth,to be supplies according to need. Its purpose is to eliminate the private ownership in means of production,where labor's products turn to opposite and rule labor,the alienation of workers. So that let workers take back their private property- the essence of his strength and its products,then reverted to human nature,free personality development. Therefore,communism is to give everyone an equal opportunity to create their own wealth,without requiring equally share property belongs to individual labor income. Communism is a historical process determined by the essential power of object-oriented practice,this process present as natural power increasingly transforms to human forces,and becomes a powerful tool for social transformation,prepares for human freedom and liberation,although it must first go through the process of dehumanization history. Communism as sublation of private property is inalienable property of the people of the real life is the generation of humanitarian practice. Marx used ontological argument here to testify each person's right to life is equal,positive sublation of private property is the inalienable right to life of property. Ontology requirements based on the natural law,historical necessity vesting is determined by the productivity of a highly developed stage of human society toward the “Promised land”,an unlimited Approaching movement. Communism is not an established system or state,but a social materialized movement,a long tern human essential power objectification. Only by instrumental rationality—the power of knowledge,with large industrial and automated production of capitalism,can human-being achieves real possession of its own essential power,I.e. free personality development.Keywords:Practical Materialism;Practical Ontology;Dialectics;subjectivity;Marxist Philosophy Revolution.

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GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文
黄湘中.不羁的普罗米修斯:马克思哲学革命的实践本体论解读[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2014
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MLA 格式引文
黄湘中.不羁的普罗米修斯:马克思哲学革命的实践本体论解读.北京,中国社会科学出版社:2014E-book.
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黄湘中(2014).不羁的普罗米修斯:马克思哲学革命的实践本体论解读.北京:中国社会科学出版社
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