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(正統)寧夏志

ISBN:978-7-5161-6225-5

出版日期:2015-10

页数:337

字数:353.0千字

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图书简介

胡玉冰

地方舊志在中國傳統的古籍“四分法”中屬於史部地理類,但它所記載的內容遠遠超出了歷史學、地理學範疇,舉凡政治、經濟、語言、文學等亦多有涉及,故舊志往往被稱為一地之全史,其學術研究價值也就不言而喻。對舊志進行規範整理與研究,既有助於準確理解其內容,也有助於客觀分析其價值,從而達到古為今用、推陳出新的目的。規範的舊志整理會為今人研究提供極大的便利,否則就會有誣古人,貽誤後人。開展陜甘寧三省地方舊志整理與研究工作,是以筆者為學術帶頭人的學術團隊長期堅持的學術方向。2012年,筆者著《寧夏地方志研究》由中國社會科學出版社正式出版。該書首次對寧夏舊志進行了系統全面的研究,基本摸清了寧夏舊志的家底,尤其梳理清楚了寧夏舊志的版本情况。同年,筆者主持的“寧夏地方文獻整理與研究”獲批為國家社科基金重點項目。以此為契機,筆者提出了全面整理寧夏舊志的科研設想,計劃用三年左右(2015—2018)的時間,將傳世的寧夏舊志全部規范整理,成果分批出版,匯編為叢書《寧夏珍稀方志叢刊》。

自元迄清,嚴格意義上的寧夏舊志有38種,2444797傳世的寧夏舊志有33種,2444798其中9種為孤本傳世。寧夏舊志中,元代《開成志》成書時代最早,惜已亡佚,完整傳世者最早編修於明代,清代編成者傳世數量最多。傳世舊志中,成於明代者6種,成於清代者20種,成於民國者7種。從舊志編纂類型看,有通志7種,分志(州志、縣志)26種。除中國外,日本、美國等也藏有寧夏舊志。日藏數量最多,種類較全,8家藏書機構共藏有13種原版舊志,其中兩種為孤本,主要通過商貿活動與軍事掠奪這兩種方式輸入寧夏舊志。寧夏舊志整理研究工作主要始於20世紀80年代,在文獻著録、綜合或專題研究、文本整理刊佈等方面取得了一定的成就,2444799為寧夏文史研究奠定了資料基礎。但也要實事求是地認識到,隨着各種與寧夏有關的新資料的不斷發現,尤其是多學科研究視角的不斷創新,已有成果中存在的諸多不足越來越明顯。如在文獻著録時因部分舊志未能目驗,或者學術見解不同,致使著録內容存在分歧甚至錯誤。研究成果多為概括性、提要式介紹,多角度、多學科深入分析的成果缺乏。整理成果只是部分解决了舊志存在的文字或內容問題,整理方法不規範、質量不高的現象較為突出。學術發展的需要,要求舊志整理要更加規範化,整體質量要進一步提高。整理研究寧夏舊志,需要科學的理論與方法來指導。在充分吸收他人學術經驗的基礎上,通過整理研究實踐工作,我們也形成了一些自己的認識,在此想總結出來,與大家一起探討。

一 整理前的準備工作

整理舊志,前期需要全面了解整理對象,對其編修者、編修經過、主要內容、文本的語言風格、版本傳世情况等要深入研究。規范整理舊志,要以扎實的研究成果為基礎,以便選擇最佳底本,準備合適的參校文獻,制定規範的整理方法。

(一)確定整理對象

為保證舊志整理工作的順利開展,提高工作效率,確定整理對象是正式開始舊志整理前首先要做的,也是必須要做的工作。確定整理對象時,要綜合分析其學術價值、史料價值、傳世情况及今人閱讀理解該對象的困難程度等,一方面要認真通讀原作,另一方面,要同步查檢古今目録文獻對原作的著録情况。

通讀原作,有助於全面了解志書的內容及其史源、結構體例及其語言特點等情况。對內容及其史源的了解,可以幫助我們確定該志有無整理的必要。如傳世的民國十四年(1925)朱恩昭修纂6卷本《豫旺縣志》一直被學界當作寧夏同心縣重要的地方文獻在利用。實際上,這部舊志是撮抄之作,並非編者獨立編修。編纂者直接把(民國)《朔方道志》中與同心縣前身鎮戎縣有關的內容撮抄出來,參考《朔方道志》的體例,再雜以(光緒)《平遠縣志》的部分內容,把資料匯為一編,取名《豫旺縣志》行世。在明晰了《朔方道志》與《豫旺縣志》的關係後,我們認為沒有必要再整理《豫旺縣志》,只需將《朔方道志》整理出來即可。

對舊志結構體例的了解有助於對舊志存真復原。如天津古籍出版社1988年版《寧夏歷代方志萃編》、海南出版社2001年版《故宮珍本叢刊》等叢書都影印出版了明朝楊壽等纂修的(萬曆)《朔方新志》,所據底本原有補版現象,某些版面的內容重複,特别在卷二有幾處嚴重的錯頁、錯版現象,天津、海南的影印本都未能給予糾正。這些問題若不能發現,整理成果就會出現內容錯亂現象。

每種舊志的編修都有其具體的時代背景,舊志的語言與內容一樣具有時代性,通讀舊志,了解其語言特點,掌握其語言規律,有助於更好地開展標點、分段工作。凡古籍,遣詞造句都有一定的時代風格和特點,只要其內容或文字無誤,就不能按當代行文習慣或理解對原文進行增、删、改等,否則就是替古人寫書。有些舊志語句原本就是通順的,符合特定時代的語言規範,若整理者在原志語句中隨意增加“之”“於”“以”等字,看似符合當代人的閱讀習慣了,實則畫蛇添足。

同步查檢古今目録文獻對舊志原作的著録情况,將著録內容與通讀舊志時了解的情况相對照,一方面,可以加深對舊志基本情况的了解,使得對舊志的了解更具條理性。另一方面,可以驗證著録是否準確,糾正存在的問題,以求對舊志基本信息的了解更符合實際。如朱 編修的《寧夏志》,明朝周弘祖編《古今書刻》上編中就有著録,這是目録學著作中最早著録《寧夏志》的。張維1932年編《隴右方志録》時,據(乾隆)《寧夏府志》所載內容著録《寧夏志》,由於他未經眼《寧夏志》,以為該書已佚,故著録其為佚書,且將書名誤著録為《永樂寧夏志》,《寧夏地方志存佚目録》《稀見地方志提要》等,都沿襲了張維的錯誤。較早披露日藏《寧夏志》信息的是《日本主要圖書館研究所所藏中國地方志總合目録》,但將“朱 ”誤作“朱 ”。《中國地方志聯合目録》《寧夏地方文獻聯合目録》《甘肅省圖書館藏地方志目録》《中國地方志總目提要》《寧夏志》重刻時間定其書名為《萬曆寧夏志》,巴兆祥《中國地方志流等對《寧夏志》也作了著録或提要。其中《中國地方志聯合目録》以播日本研究》下編《東傳方志總目》沿襲此說。

(二)了解整理對象的研究現狀

確定整理對象,並對其有基本的認識和了解後,還需要梳理、分析整理對象的學術研究現狀,主要包括目録著録、研究論著、整理成果等三方面的信息。

1.目録著録

查檢古今目録的著録內容,可以對舊志修纂者、卷數、流傳、內容、館藏、版本等情况有基本的了解。對著録的每一條信息,都要結合原志進行核查,發現問題,一定要深入研究。如《中國地方志聯合目録》《甘肅省圖書館藏地方志目録》均著録了一部(乾隆)《平凉府志》,為“清乾隆間修,光緒增修,抄本”。2444800此書孤本傳世,原抄本藏於南京圖書館,甘肅省圖書館有傳抄本,筆者在開展陝甘舊志中寧夏史料輯校工作時,最初設想把此志作為重要的參校文獻。國家圖書館出版社2012年版《南京圖書館藏稀見方志叢刊》第十五和第十六册即為《平凉府志》。筆者通過研究發現,古代目録書中沒有著録過乾隆時期編修的《平凉府志》,且乾隆以後的平凉各舊志的編纂者也未曾提到過乾隆時期編修《平凉府志》一事,通過對比發現,南圖藏本實際上是撮抄(乾隆)《甘肅通志》中的平凉府部分而成,且成書時間不會早於同治十三年(1874),故其雖為孤本,但無校勘整理價值,所以我們放棄了以此書做參校本的最初設想。

2.研究論著

充分梳理、分析他人對整理對象的研究成果,一方面,可以使我們清晰地看到學界對整理對象研究的角度及深入程度,避免重複勞動。另一方面,發現已有成果中存在的問題,結合自己的研究糾正這些問題,提高對整理對象的研究水準。如現藏於日本東洋文庫的海內外孤本(光緒)《寧靈廳志草》是研究寧靈廳的一手材料,張京生最早撰文研究,2444801巴兆祥研究最為詳實,2444802胡建東、張京生提供了整理文本。2444803各家整理研究各有優長,部分整理研究成果亦多值得商榷之處。通過研究,我們的結論是:該本係編纂者稿本,正文內容有67頁。是書類目設置上全同《甘肅通志》,撰寫方法及輯録內容則多同(嘉慶)《靈州志蹟》。因其非定稿,故編修體例、內容、文字等方面尚需進一步完善、充實、修訂,但其在研究寧靈廳歷史、地理、經濟、教育、語言等方面的價值還是應該值得肯定。

3.整理成果

充分重視研讀已有的整理成果,可以幫助我們了解目前整理所達到的水準,明確重新整理所要達到的目標。如《寧靈廳志草》出版過兩種整理本,通過比較研究,我們發現,兩種整理本在整理體例、整理方式、整理結論等方面都存在缺憾。兩書出現多處標點錯誤,誤識原抄本文字,任意剪接原書內容,變亂原書體例,校勘粗糙,原稿中的多處錯誤未能校出,注釋不嚴謹,出現多處誤注現象,等等。有鑒於此,儘管《志草》已出版了兩種整理本,但我們决定還是要重新整理它。

(三)確定底本,選擇參校本及其他參考文獻

通過查檢目録著録,實地開展館藏調查,將目驗的各本進行分析比較,梳理出舊志的版本系統後,最終確定一種為工作底本。原則上,底本當刊刻或抄録質量較優,內容最全。底本確定後,還要確定一批參校本和他校資料。一般而言,若舊志版本系統不複雜,建議將傳世各本都列為參校本,以最大限度地發現底本中存在的問題,整理出最優的文本。

他校資料的選擇,在通讀舊志時就開始着手進行。整理者可在通讀原本的基礎上,將舊志中明確提到的他書文獻進行梳理,列為基本參考文獻,並在其後的整理實踐中不斷充實、完善。他校資料的確定,有的可以根據舊志本身提供的信息來選擇。如《弘治寧夏新志·凡例》言:“宦蹟在前代者據正史,在國朝者序其時之先後而不遺其人,備參考也。”這就提示我們,校勘《弘治寧夏新志》的《人物志》《宦蹟》時,一定要以正史如《史記》《漢書》等為他校材料。《凡例》又說:“沿革、赫連、拓跋三《考證》,悉據經史及朱子《通鑒綱目》、本朝《續綱目》摘編。”這提示我們,《弘治寧夏新志》的三卷考證內容,必須要以宋朝朱熹、趙師淵撰《資治通鑒綱目》、明朝商輅撰《續資治通鑒綱目》為基本的對校資料。《凡例》之後的《引用書目》列舉了編修《弘治寧夏新志》所引的42種文獻,基本按引書成書時代排序。這些文獻,只要有傳世,就一定要將其列入參考文獻之中,因為它們都是《弘治寧夏新志》最直接的史料來源。

選擇他校資料時,切不可畫地為牢,只關注某一地區,而是要結合一地的地理沿革情况,擴大他校資料的搜集范圍。歷史上,西北地方陝甘寧三地的地緣關係和政治、文化等關係都非常密切。寧夏在明朝隸屬陝西布政使司管轄,在清朝則隸屬甘肅省管轄,成於明清時期的陝西、甘肅地方文獻特别是舊地方志中,散見有非常豐富且重要的寧夏歷史資料。(嘉靖)《陝西通志》、(萬曆)《陝西通志》、(康熙)《陝西通志》等三志是陝西舊通志中寧夏史料最豐富者。(嘉靖)《平凉府志》所載明朝固原州、隆德縣史料非常系統、豐富。(乾隆)《甘肅通志》、(宣統)《甘肅新通志》是甘肅舊通志中寧夏史料最豐富者。上述六種陝甘舊志中的寧夏史料,為明清寧夏舊志編纂提供了最豐富、最系統的基本史料。明清寧夏舊志多因襲陝甘通志的材料和編纂體例。如寧夏(萬曆)《朔方新志》自(嘉靖)《陝西通志》取材,嘉靖、萬曆《固原州志》自(嘉靖)《平凉府志》取材,(光緒)《花馬池志蹟》自(嘉慶)《定邊縣志》取材,(乾隆)《寧夏府志》、(民國)《朔方道志》從體例到內容分别受(乾隆)《甘肅通志》、(宣統)《甘肅新通志》的影響,等等。同時,明清時期的寧夏舊志也是研究陝甘文史、整理陝甘舊志的重要資料,如明朝正德、弘治、嘉靖三朝《寧夏志》成書時間均早於(嘉靖)《陝西通志》,都可為整理後者提供重要的參校資料。所以,整理陜、甘、寧任何一省的舊志,尤其是通志及相鄰地區的舊志,確定他校資料一定要同時關注另外兩省的舊志資料。

另外,出土文獻和檔案材料也是重要的他校資料,過去的研究者均未予重視。如慶靖王朱 之名,文獻中還出現過“朱栴”“朱旃”等兩種寫法,筆者據出土於寧夏同心縣的《慶王壙志》,結合明清傳世文獻,考證認為,慶王之名當為“朱 ”而非“朱栴”,更非“朱旃”。再如,《寧夏府志》卷十三《人物》載,寧夏鄉賢謝王寵“壽七十三卒”,而據寧夏靈武出土的《清通義大夫謝觀齋墓志銘》載,謝王寵生於康熙十年(1671),卒於雍正十一年(1733),享年六十三(虚歲),故可據以改正《寧夏府志》記載的錯誤。

(四)編寫校注說明

校注說明的主要作用有二,一是規範整理方法,二是方便利用整理成果。校注說明要扼要、準確,方法力求易於操作,切忌繁瑣。一篇規範的校注說明是需要反復完善的。舊志正式整理之前,可先據常規的古籍整理規範,就標點、注釋、校勘等工作草擬出基本的校注要求,選擇部分舊志內容先開展预备性整理工作。再結合遇到的具体问题,對校注說明不斷完善。凡多人合作開展舊志整理工作,或在相對固定的時間內整理多部舊志時,校注說明的這些完善步驟尤其重要。必要時,可選擇典型問題,集體討論,形成統一意見。待整理方法合乎規範、易於操作之後,再最後定稿校注說明,让它成為大家都要遵守的原則要求,不能輕易改變。

二 整理的具體環節及方法

整理的前期準備工作結束後,就進入具體的整理環節了。下面主要從“録文”“標點”“校勘”“注釋”等幾方面談談具體的整理方法。

(一)録文、標點

具體整理舊志的第一個環節就是録文。高質量地將底本文字轉録為可以編輯的文檔,可以有效减少由出版機構照原手稿重新録排造成的錯誤。一般來說,録文要求在內容上一仍底本原貌(包括卷帙、卷次、文字、分段等),不改編,以保持內容的原始性、完整性和獨立性,便於整理者與底本對校。將以繁體字出版的舊志,特别需要重視底本存在的異體字、俗體字、通假字、古今字等用字現象,除因特殊的出版要求外,志書原字形不當以意輕改。如有的整理者改“昏”為“婚”,改“禽”為“擒”,改“地里”為“地理”,等等,均顯係誤改。利用軟件進行繁簡字轉换時,要注意其識别率。有些簡體字,軟件無法將其轉换成繁體字,有些甚至會轉换錯誤,如動詞“云”誤轉作“雲”,地支“丑”誤轉作“醜”,職官名“御史”誤轉作“禦史”,表示距離的“里”誤轉作“裏”。因出版要求,還要注意新舊字形問題,如“戶”“呂”“吳”“黃”“彥”等為舊字形,相對應的新字形則是“户”“吕”“吴”“黄”“彦”。舊志用字,常有字形前後不一現象,如“强、彊、強”“蹟、跡、迹”“敕、勅、勑”“為、為”等幾組字,可能會在同一部舊志中交替出現,這類字的字形統一當慎重。整理時原則上遵從舊志原版的用字習慣,盡量用原書字形(俗字或異體字)。多種字形混用者,可統一為出現頻次較多的字形。但有的整理者將“並、幷、竝、併”“采、彩、綵、採”“升、陞、昇”三組字分别統改為“並”“采”“升”,就很值得商榷了。

不同的字形,若有其特殊的用途或意義,就不能隨意地合并統改。特别是地名用字,一定不能以今律古。如寧夏平羅縣之“平羅”係清朝開始使用的地名用字,(萬曆)《朔方新志》卷一《地理》中作“平虜”,(康熙)《陝西通志》卷二《疆域·寧夏衛》避清朝諱改作“平羅”。整理時不能將《朔方新志》的“平虜”改為“平羅”,因為明朝原本就叫“平虜”,清朝因避諱而改,因此不能因其今名而改動明朝舊志的地名用字。同樣,整理清朝舊志,就需要把明朝的地名回改為當時的用字。如《乾隆寧夏府志》卷二《地里·疆域·邊界》 “北長城”條“雖有平虜城”“以故於平虜城北十里許”兩句,“平虜”原均作“平羅”,當據《朔方新志》卷二《外威·邊防》回改為“平虜”。

整理者録文時對文稿要做一定的文檔編輯工作,認真閱讀原志,合理區别內容層次及隸屬關係,規範標注各級標題。舊志常用不同的版式風格和大小字體來區分不同類型的內容,録文時要給予充分的考慮。舊志常用不同類型的符號來標示內容的層級隸屬關係,充分理解了這一點,有助於録文時對內容進行分段。舊志原版中多雙行小字,有的雙行小字是補充說明性質的文字,有的雙行小字是解釋性文字。録文排版舊志原版中的雙行小字,若字體、字號同正文文字,就有可能使讀者不能正確判斷原志內容的隸屬關係,有的還可能造成標點符號的混亂,影響對文意的理解。故録文時,最好以不同的字體、字號把舊志原版雙行小字與正文區别開來。

處理舊志中的地圖等圖像文獻時要注意,舊志往往不用一整幅版面來呈現完整的圖像,而是分兩個半版來呈現,今人整理時最好能將其合二為一。合成後的圖像文獻盡可能保持版面清晰,必要時可將原版中模糊不清的字蹟、綫條等修飾清晰,以便他人的正確利用,但有一個原則,那就是不能以意亂改。不要改變原字體,不能改變原綫條走向等,盡量保持原版原貌。有些整理者會請專業的繪圖人員照舊圖另外繪制新圖,上述原則也應該遵守。修飾原版中模糊不清的文字時,盡量結合正文中的相應內容如《疆域》《城池》等內容,避免出錯。

舊志標點,可根據現行標點符號的用法,結合古籍整理的通例,進行規範化標點,具體可參考中華書局編寫的《古籍校點釋例(初稿)》(原載《書品》1991年第4期)。為統一舊志的標點工作,某些要求可以細化。如整理寧夏舊志時統一規定,凡原書中用以注明具體史料出處的“通志”“府志”“郡志”“縣志”“新志”“舊志”之類,能考證確定所指文獻者,在正文中均加書名號,標點作《通志》《府志》《郡志》《縣志》《新志》《舊志》,並腳注說明具體所指文獻。如:“府志:指(乾隆)《寧夏府志》。”凡不能確定具體所指者,則不加書名號,亦腳注說明。如:“縣志:具體所指文獻不詳。”

(二)注釋

以往舊志整理,多注重對疑難字詞、典故、人名、地名等的注解,為進一步提高舊志的利用價值,還應加強以下幾方面內容的注釋工作:

1.史料出處的注釋。舊志於行文中有時會注明史料出處,但無定制,如朱 《寧夏志》卷上《河渠》所引史料出處包括:“酈道元水經”“周禮”“西羌傳”“唐吐蕃傳”“李聽傳”“地理志”“會要”“元和志”“元世祖紀”“張文謙傳”“郭守敬傳”等,考諸其文,分别指酈道元《水經注》、《周禮·地官司徒·遂人》、《後漢書》卷八七《西羌傳》、《新唐書》卷二一六下《吐蕃傳》、《新唐書》卷一五四《李晟傳附李聽傳》、《新唐書》卷三七《地理志》、《唐會要》、《元和郡縣圖志》、《元史》卷五《世祖本紀》、《元史》卷一五七《張文謙傳》、《元史》卷一六四《郭守敬傳》,如果整理者不對其引文細加考究並給予注明,讀者恐怕很難判斷引文的具體出處。

2.原文體例中資料互見者的注釋。地方舊志行文時,常常會出現“見前”“見《進士》”“見《藝文》”“詳見《人物》”“詳見《鄉賢》”等字樣,對這些內容進行注釋,一方面可以驗證原志記載是否可信,另一方面,省去讀者查檢之勞。

3.干支紀年及缺省内容的注釋。舊志紀年多以干支為主,有的会承前省略帝王年号,有些行文中常常不出现人物全名,只称某公,或只称其职官名,具體年代及人物在原文中沒有交代,故整理者當結合上下文來注釋,以幫助讀者正确理解。如多種寧夏舊志中均收録有唐朝楊炎《靈武受命宫頌并序》一文,其中有“丁卯,廣平王俶、太尉光弼、司徒子儀、尚書左僕射冕、兵部尚書輔國”句。“丁卯”指何時,廣平王等具體指何人,若不熟悉該序寫作時間及歷史背景的話,很難搞清楚。整理者通過查檢文獻注明,“丁卯”即唐玄宗李隆基開元十五年(727),人物分别指廣平王李俶、太尉李光弼、司徒郭子儀、尚書左僕射裴冕、兵部尚書李輔國,這樣的說明顯然有助於更好地理解原文。

(三)校勘

以往寧夏舊志的整理本中,有價值的校勘成果非常少見,由此更說明,舊志整理一定要加強校勘工作。校勘的方法,常用的是校勘四法,即對校、本校、他校、理校,此四法往往需要综合运用,不能只是简单地运用其中的某一种方法。筆者校勘《寧夏志》卷上《祥異》“永樂甲戌歲金波湖產合歡蓮一”句,查明成祖“永樂”年號紀年干支名(自癸未至甲辰,1403—1424)中無“甲戌”。《寧夏志》卷下《題詠》録有凝真(朱 之號)七律《戊戌歲金波湖合歡蓮》一首,所詠即為永樂年間金波湖出“祥瑞”合歡蓮一事。故知“永樂甲戌歲金波湖產合歡蓮一”句中“甲戌”當作“戊戌”,永樂戊戌歲即永樂十六年(1418)。

古籍整理要充分吸收已有研究成果,以最大限度地减少原始文本中存在的錯誤,避免利用者以訛傳訛。朱 編修《寧夏志》卷下録有兩篇重要的西夏文獻,其中《大夏國葬舍利碣銘》有“大夏天慶三年八月十日建”句,朱 考證後認為,葬舍利時間“乃夏桓宗純佑天慶三年、宋寧宗慶元二年丙辰也”。寧夏舊志編者甚至許多當代學者都認同這一結論。據牛達生《〈嘉靖寧夏新志〉中的兩篇西夏佚文》考證,“天慶三年”句當作“大慶三年”,故朱 的考證結論當改作“乃夏景宗元昊大慶三年、宋仁宗景祐五年戊寅也”。

校勘所用他校資料不能失之過簡,亦不能失之過濫,某些關係明確的他書資料當作為重要的他校資料重點利用,如《寧夏府志》大量內容來自(萬曆)《朔方新志》和(乾隆)《甘肅通志》,我們就要將這兩種舊志作為《寧夏府志》最主要的他校資料。關於這一點,可以結合整理前要進行參校文獻篩選工作來理解。校勘成果的表達要規範、簡練,術語使用要準確。校勘時凡改必注,改動一定要有堅實的證據,否則只出異文即可。

三 整理研究舊志規範

(一)整理力求存真復原

整理舊志,不能變亂舊式,隨意在原文中增加原本沒有的文字內容,切忌以今律古。舊志,特别是明清舊志,都有一定的編修體式,不應隨意去變亂它。如許多舊志每條凡例之前都會有“一”這一符號,以使凡例眉目清晰,可有的整理者誤認為其為序號,將其改成阿拉伯數字或漢語數目字等。有舊志整理者為便於讀者統計,往往在山名、河名、人名、詩題、文題等之前添加序數詞,看似眉目清晰了,實則違反了古籍整理的原則。實際上,古人在刻舊志時,往往有一套符號系統表示層次及隸屬關係,今人的隨意增加,實在有畫蛇添足之嫌。更有甚者,會調整原書內容的次序、位置,任意删併原志,這就完全變成是當代整理者編修的地方志了。宋人彭叔夏在其《文苑英華辨證自序》中記載:“叔夏嘗聞太師益公先生(指宋人周必大)之言曰:‘校書之法:實事是正,多聞闕疑。’”舊志整理要力求做到存真復原,按照一定的整理原則對舊志進行規範的整理。

(二)研究需要實事求是

評價舊志,一定要事實求是,充分了解舊志編纂的時代性特點,不可苛求古人、求全責備。評價一部舊志的價值,常常從體例、內容兩方面着手,而內容猶重。譚其驤先生曾說過:“舊方志之所以具有保存價值,主要在於它們或多或少保留了一些不見於其他記載的原始史料。”2444804這實際上要求我們,在評價舊志內容價值時,要區别看待,只有獨見於志書的內容價值才更高些,而那些因襲其他志書,或者自其他史書中摘抄的內容,其價值就要另當别論了。如寧夏舊志,其科舉、賦稅、公署、學校、藝文等資料多獨見於志書者,而人物類資料多自他志承襲,評價內容價值時,就要慎言人物類資料的價值。另外,寧夏舊志承襲前代史料時多未加以辨别考證,致使其中的錯誤也被承襲,甚至錯上加錯。如隋朝人柳彧徙配地在“朔方懷遠鎮”,自明朝《弘治寧夏新志》始,一直被作為流寓寧夏的歷史名人而載之史册。明朝胡侍《真珠船》“懷遠鎮”條考證認為,柳彧徙配地“朔方懷遠鎮”在遼東,與今寧夏無關。《弘治寧夏新志》《嘉靖寧夏新志》《嘉靖陝西通志》《朔方新志》等均誤以為柳彧流放在今寧夏故地,故載柳彧為寧夏流寓者。(乾隆)《甘肅通志》亦襲其說。過去研究寧夏舊志者都僅限於舊志本身談其價值,沒能從史料流傳上分析其價值。如評價《銀川小志》內容及學術價值時,有學者認為該志幾乎將與寧夏有關的歷代詩文全部輯録在志書中,所輯録的水利、學校、風俗等資料都很有研究價值,等等,這些觀點值得進一步商榷。實際上,《銀川小志》相當多的內容都是照録明朝人所編寧夏舊志,並非汪繹辰的獨創。從內容的完整性和全面性來看,該志尚不能與明朝所編的寧夏舊志相比。有學者認為,寧夏舊志中以資料而論有三條最為珍貴,其中的一條就是《寧夏府志》中的《恩綸記》。可事實上此段史料最早出自《平定朔漠方略》,《寧夏府志》還將左翼額駙“尚之隆”誤抄作“尚之龍”。

加強舊志的比較研究,會有助於提升舊志的研究水準。比如,以往從事西北古代文史研究特别是寧夏古代文史研究者常將寧夏舊志當作第一手資料來利用,而從史源學角度看,這些資料實際上並非“一手”,而多是從陝甘地方志中輯録的。從現有的寧夏舊志整理成果看,學者也多沒有把陝甘方志資料當作必需的參校資料來利用,致使寧夏舊志沿襲自陝甘方志的文字錯訛衍倒、內容遺漏及新增的文字、內容錯誤問題都沒有得到糾正,使後人以訛傳訛。同時,從事陝甘古代文史研究、開展陝甘舊方志整理研究,也要注意借鑒寧夏舊志的整理研究成果。辨明史料正誤,以避免以訛傳訛。

(三)成果確保完整呈現

一部完整的舊志整理之作,至少要包括五部分內容:第一,前言。主要介紹舊志的整理研究現狀、編修始末、編修者、版本、內容、價值等方面。第二,校注說明。說明底本、校本等選擇情况,列舉標點、注釋、校勘等原則。第三,新編目録。舊志一般都有原編目録,但不便今人利用,故要據整理成果編輯眉目清晰、層次分明、使用方便的新目録。第四,舊志正文。第五,參考文獻。目前出版的舊志中,有些不列舉參考文獻,有些參考文獻或按文獻出版時間排序,或按在文中出現的順序排序,或按書名、作者名首字的音序排序,這些都起不到指導學術研究的作用。參考文獻要便於按圖索驥,最好能分類編排。依四庫法進行排列,就是很好的選擇。某些舊志,可根據需要增加索引、附録等內容。編索引可方便使用者查找相關專題資料,附録可在一定程度上彌補舊志正文內容不足的缺點。如民國時期寧夏地區對土地、資源等進行過較為詳細地調查,形成的調查報告是最原始的檔案資料,這些資料往往散見且不能單獨成書,但它們對有關舊志而言具有很好的補充作用,故應該在附録中予以保留。

作為《寧夏珍稀方志叢刊》主編,筆者非常感謝對本叢書出版給予支持的各位學界同仁、學校領導、研究生、責任編輯及家人們。劉鴻雁、柳玉宏、邵敏、蔡淑梅等寧夏大學人文學院青年教師作為本叢書首批成果的作者,盡心盡力,不厭其煩,堅持不懈,保證了書稿的學術質量,為完成好本項目帶了個好頭。按計劃,田富軍、安正發等老師將會在本叢書計劃框架內陸續出版整理成果,期待他們也能推出高質量的學術成果。2011年為寧夏大學“學科建設年”,感謝何建國校長、謝應忠副校長,感謝部門領導王正英、李建設、陳曉芳等老師的大力支持,在他們的直接推動下,以筆者為學術帶頭人,配合學校開展的學科基層組織模式改革試點工作,組建了“寧夏地方民族文獻整理及阿拉伯伊斯蘭文化研究”學術團隊。寧夏大學提供的制度保障和經費支持促成本學術團隊不斷推出新成果,步入了良性發展階段,本叢書順利出版,當是本團隊對學校的最好回報。人文學院研究生在本叢書出版過程中也貢獻良多。孫佳、韓超、孫瑜、曹陽等是本叢書首批成果的作者,張煜坤、何玫玫、馬玲玲、魏舒婧、穆旋、徐遠超、孙小倩、李甜、李荣、张倩、曲絨、張娜娜、劉紅、蒲婧、王敏等同學在舊志整理、書稿校對過程中也付出了辛勤的勞動。這些同學中有的已畢業離校,有的還將繼續求學。無論他們將來身處何方,從事何種工作,大家共同追求學術的這段經歷應該是難忘的。研究生同學的青春朝氣讓我更加堅信:薪火相傳,學術常新。出版社張林等責任編輯的精心審讀,也讓本叢書學術質量得到了提升。本叢書的順利出版,也要感謝各位作者家人的理解與支持——你們默默無聞的奉獻精神,已幻化成萬千文字,在作者的成果中熠熠生輝。學術成績從來就不是無源之水,無本之木。有了巨人的肩膀,我們才會看得更高、更遠。在寧夏,有一批從事地方文獻整理與研究的學者,他們的探索和努力為我們今天的成績奠定了堅實的基礎,吴忠禮、陳明猷、高樹榆等老一輩學者更為我們樹立了治學的榜樣。因篇幅所限,對學界各位同仁,恕不一一列舉大名。

此次全面整理寧夏地方舊志,主要由我策劃並組織實施。舊志整理的每一個環節,由我提出具體建議,各舊志底本的選擇、《總序》《前言》《校注說明》的撰寫等也皆由我完成。具體整理過程中,各團隊成員所取得的注釋或校勘等學術成果大家互享,這也體現了我們團隊合作的特色。宋朝沈括在《夢溪筆談》卷二五《雜志二》記載:“宋宣獻博學,喜藏異書,皆手自校讎,常謂 ‘校書如掃塵,一面掃,一面生。故有一書每三四校猶有脫謬。’”宋绶(謚曰“宣獻”)家藏萬卷,博校經史,猶有“校書如掃塵”的感概,我輩於整理寧夏地方舊志而言,只能說:“盡心而已!”更如《诗經·小雅·小旻》所詠:“战战兢兢,如临深渊,如履薄冰。”我們從主觀上力求圓滿,但因學識水平所限,成果中訛誤之處肯定在所難免,敬請學界同仁批評指正。

2015年7月23日於寧夏銀川

Hu Yubing's local old history belongs to the category of geography of the history department in the traditional Chinese ancient book "Tetrachotomy", but the content it records is far beyond the scope of history and geography, and there are many references to politics, economics, language, literature, etc., so the old history is often called the complete history of a place, and its academic research value is self-evident. Standardizing and studying the old journals not only helps to accurately understand their content, but also helps to objectively analyze their value, so as to achieve the purpose of using the past for the present and pushing out the new. The collation of the old chronicles of the norms will provide great convenience for the study of today's people, otherwise there will be discredit for the ancients and mistrust for future generations. Carrying out the work of sorting out and researching old local chronicles of Shaanxi, Gansu and Ningxia provinces is an academic direction that the academic team with this writer as the academic leader has adhered to for a long time. In 2012, the author's book "Research on Local Chronicles in Ningxia" was officially published by China Social Sciences Press. For the first time, the book conducted a systematic and comprehensive study of Ningxia Old Zhi, basically found out the family background of Ningxia Old Zhi, especially sorted out the version of Ningxia Old Zhi. In the same year, the "Ningxia Local Literature Collation and Research" presided over by the author was approved as a key project of the National Social Science Foundation. Taking this as an opportunity, the author put forward the scientific research idea of comprehensively sorting out the old Ningxia Zhi, and planned to use about three years (2015-2018) to standardize all the inherited Ningxia Old Zhi, publish the results in batches, and compile them into a book "Ningxia Rare Fangzhi Journal". Since the Yuan Dynasty to the Qing Dynasty, there have been 38 kinds of Ningxia Old Zhi in the strict sense, and there are 33 kinds of Ningxia Old Zhi that have been handed down 2444797, 2444798 9 of them are unique inheritances. In the old records of Ningxia, the Yuan Dynasty's "Kaichengzhi" was written at the earliest, but it has died, and the complete inheritors were first edited in the Ming Dynasty, and the Qing Dynasty compilers had the largest number of inheritors. In the old chronicles, there are 6 kinds of those who became in the Ming Dynasty, 20 kinds who became in the Qing Dynasty, and 7 kinds who became in the Republic of China. Judging from the types of compilation of old chronicles, there are 7 kinds of general chronicles and 26 sub-chronicles (prefecture chronicles and county chronicles). In addition to China, Japan, the United States, and other countries also have old Ningxia aspirations. Eight collection institutions have a total of 13 original old records, two of which are unique copies, which are mainly imported into Ningxia old records through commercial activities and military plunder. The research work of collating old records of Ningxia mainly began in the 80s of the 20th century, and certain achievements were made in the aspects of literature collection, comprehensive or special topic research, text collation and publication, etc., which 2444799 laid a data foundation for the study of Ningxia literature and history. However, it is also necessary to realistically realize that with the continuous discovery of various new data related to Ningxia, especially the continuous innovation of multidisciplinary research perspectives, the many deficiencies in the existing achievements are becoming more and more obvious. For example, when writing the document, because some of the old books cannot be visually examined, or the academic views are different, there are differences or even errors in the content of the papers. The research results are mostly generalized and synopsis, and the results of multi-angle and multi-disciplinary in-depth analysis are lacking. The results of sorting out only partially solved the problems of writing or content existing in the old journal, and the phenomenon of irregular sorting methods and low quality is more prominent. The needs of academic development require that the sorting out of old aspirations be more standardized and the overall quality should be further improved. Sorting out and studying the old history of Ningxia requires scientific theories and methods to guide. On the basis of fully absorbing the academic experience of others, through the collation of research practice, we have also formed some of our own understanding, which I would like to summarize and discuss with you. First, in the early stage, it is necessary to comprehensively understand the objects of sorting out, and in-depth study of its editors, edited scriptures, main content, the language style of the text, and the inheritance of versions. The standard sorting of old journals should be based on solid research results, so as to select the best base, prepare suitable reference literature, and formulate standardized sorting methods. (1) Determining the objects of sorting out the old journals is to ensure the smooth development of the work of sorting out the old journals and improve work efficiency, and determining that the objects of sorting out the old journals are the first and necessary work to be done before officially starting the sorting out of the old records. When determining the object, it is necessary to comprehensively analyze its academic value, historical value, inheritance situation, and the difficulty of reading and understanding the object today; on the one hand, it is necessary to carefully read the original work, and on the other hand, it is necessary to simultaneously check the original work by ancient and modern documents. Reading through the original work will help to fully understand the content of the chronicle, its historical sources, its structure and its linguistic characteristics. An understanding of the content and its historical sources can help us determine whether the journal needs to be organized. For example, in the 14th year of the Republic of China (1925), Zhu Enzhao revised the 6-volume "Yuwang County Record", which has always been regarded by scholars as an important local document in Ningxia Tongxin County. In fact, this old journal is a copy, not an independent editor of the editor. The compilers directly copied out the contents related to Zhenrong County, the predecessor of Tongxin County, in the (Republic of China) "Shuofang Daozhi", referred to the style of "Shuofang Daozhi", and then mixed with (guangxi) part of the "Pingyuan County Record", compiled the data into one compilation, and named it "Yuwang County Record". After clarifying the relationship between the "Shuofang Daozhi" and the "Yuwang County Record", we believe that there is no need to sort out the "Yuwang County Record", just sort out the "Shuofang Daozhi". An understanding of the structure of the old will help to restore the old history. For example, the 1988 edition of "Ningxia Dynasty Fang Zhi Compilation" by Tianjin Ancient Books Publishing House, and the 2001 edition of "Rare Books of the Forbidden Palace" by Hainan Publishing House have photocopied and published the (Wanli) "Shuofang Xinzhi" edited by Yang Shou and others in the Ming Dynasty. If these problems are not discovered, the collation of results will lead to content chaos. The language of the old journal is as contemporary as the content, and reading through the old journal, understanding its language characteristics, and mastering its language rules will help to better carry out punctuation and segmentation. All ancient books, words and sentences have certain era styles and characteristics, as long as their content or words are correct, they cannot add, delete, modify, etc. the original text according to contemporary writing habits or understanding, otherwise it is to write books for the ancients. Some of the old Zhi sentences were originally smooth and conformed to the linguistic norms of a specific era, and if the organizer arbitrarily added the words "of", "in" and "to" to the original Zhi sentences, it seems to be in line with the reading habits of contemporary people, but in fact it is a snake. Simultaneously checking the writing of the original works of the old records in ancient and modern Muzi documents, and comparing the content of the papers with the situation understood when reading through the old records, on the one hand, we can deepen the understanding of the basic situation of the old records and make the understanding of the old records more organized. On the other hand, it is possible to verify whether the zizi is accurate and correct the existing problems, so that the understanding of the basic information of the old journal is more realistic. Such as Zhu The edited "Ningxia Zhi" was compiled by Zhou Hongzu in the Ming Dynasty, and there was a zi in the compilation of the "Ancient and Modern Book Carvings", which is the earliest "Ningxia Zhi" in the works of Mingzi. When Zhang Wei compiled the "Ningxia Zhizhi" in 1932, according to the contents of (Qianlong) "Ningxia Fuzhi", because he did not look at the "Ningxia Zhi" and thought that the book was gone, he wrote it as a non-book, and mistakenly wrote the title of the book as "Yongle Ningxia Zhi", "Ningxia Local Records Cun Anonymous Zhi", "Synopsis of Rare Local Records", etc., all of which followed Zhang Wei's mistakes. The earliest to disclose the information of the Ningxia Chronicles of the Japanese Collection was the "General Compilation of Chinese Local Chronicles Collected by Major Japanese Libraries and Research Institutes", but the "Zhu." "Misplaced" Zhu ”。 The "Joint Catalogue of Local Chronicles of China," "Joint Catalogue of Local Literature of Ningxia," "Compilation of Local Chronicles of Gansu Province," "Synopsis of General Chronicles of Local Chronicles of China," and "Chronicles of Ningxia" were re-engraved and named as "Wanli Ningxia Zhi." Among them, the "Joint Catalogue of Chinese Local Chronicles" is based on the "General Catalogue of the Eastern Transmission Fangzhi" under the "General Catalogue of Japanese Studies," which follows this theory. (2) After understanding the research status of the object of sorting out, determining the object of sorting out, and having a basic understanding and understanding of it, it is also necessary to sort out and analyze the current situation of academic research of the object, mainly including information in three aspects: the eye, the research papers, and the results of the collation. 1. By examining the contents of ancient and modern books, you can have a basic understanding of the old chronicle revisionists, volumes, circulation, content, collections, editions, etc. Every piece of information in the face of Zizi must be checked in conjunction with the original will, and when problems are discovered, we must conduct in-depth research. For example, "China Local Chronicles Joint Muzi" and "Gansu Provincial Library Collection Local Chronicles Muzi" both authored a (Qianlong) "Pingliang Fu Zhi", which is "Qianlong Repair in the Qing Dynasty, Guangxuan Addition, Codex". 2444800 This book is a unique copy handed down, the original copy is stored in the Nanjing Library, there is a copy in the Gansu Provincial Library, the author when carrying out the work of the Shaanxi-Gansu Old Records of Zhongningxia Historical Materials, the author originally conceived of this journal as an important reference document. The 15th and 16th volumes of the 2012 edition of the Nanjing Library Collection of the Rare Fangzhi Volley of the National Library Publishing House are the Pingliang Fuzhi. Through research, the author found that the "Pingliang Fuzhi" edited during the Qianlong period was not published in the ancient books, and the compilers of the old Pingliang records after Qianlong did not mention the editing of the "Pingliang Fuzhi" in the Qianlong period. 2. Research papers fully sort out and analyze the research results of others on sorting out objects, on the one hand, we can clearly see the angle and depth of academic research on sorting objects, and avoid duplication of labor. On the other hand, find the problems existing in the existing results, combine their own research to correct these problems, and improve the level of research on the objects of sorting. For example, the only domestic and foreign book (Guangxuan) "Ningling Hall Zhicao" now in the Japanese Toyo Bunko is a first-hand material for the study of Ningling Hall, Zhang Jingsheng was the first to write and study, 2444801 Ba Zhaoxiang studied the most detailed, 2444802 Hu Jiandong and Zhang Jingsheng provided the text for collation. 2444803 each collation research has its own advantages, and some collation research results are also debatable. Through our research, we concluded that this is the compiler's manuscript with 67 pages of text. It is the same as the "Gansu Tongzhi" in the setting of the book category, and the writing method and content are mostly the same as (Jiaqing) "Lingzhou Zhizhi". Because it is not a final draft, the editing style, content, text and other aspects still need to be further improved, substantiated and revised, but its value in studying the history, geography, economy, education, language and other aspects of the Ningling Hall should still be recognized. 3. Finishing results Pay full attention to the study of existing finishing results, which can help us understand the level achieved by the current organization and clearly reorganize the goals to be achieved. For example, "Ningling Hall Zhicao" has published two collated versions, and through comparative research, we found that the two collated books have shortcomings in sorting out styles, sorting methods, and collating conclusions. The two books have many punctuation errors, misunderstanding the text of the original codex, arbitrarily editing the content of the original book, confusing the original book style, rough proofreading, many errors in the original manuscript that cannot be calibrated, imprecise explanations, and many misannotations, and so on. In light of this, although Shikusa has published two collations, we decided to reorganize it. (3) Determine the original text, select the reference school book and other reference literature, conduct on-site exhibition collection investigation, analyze and compare the visual books, sort out the version system of the old journal, and finally determine one as the working base. In principle, the quality of the engraving or copying of the base book is better, and the content is the most complete. After the base book is determined, it is also necessary to determine a batch of reference books and other school materials. Generally speaking, if the old version system is not complicated, it is recommended to list all the heirloom books as reference books to maximize the discovery of problems in the original books and sort out the best texts. The selection of materials for his school began when reading through the old books. On the basis of reading through the original, the collator can sort out the other books explicitly mentioned in the old journal as basic reference literature, and continue to enrich and improve it in the subsequent collation practice. The determination of other school information can be selected according to the information provided by the old journal itself. For example, the "Hongzhi Ningxia Xinzhi Fan Case" said: "The eunuchs in the previous generation are based on the correct history, and those in the dynasty are in the order of the time without leaving other people, and they are also prepared for reference." This reminds us that when proofreading the "Character History" and "Eunuch" of the "Hongzhi Ningxia New Record", we must use the official history such as the "Shiji" and "Hanshu" as the materials of other schools. The "Ordinary Cases" also says: "The three "examinations of history, Helian, and Tuoba" are compiled according to the history of the scriptures and the excerpts of Zhuzi's "General Outline of Reference" and the "Continuation of the Outline of the Dynasty." This reminds us that the content of the three-volume examination of the "Hongzhi Ningxia New Record" must be based on the "Outline of the General Examination of Zizhi" written by Zhu Xi and Zhao Shichun of the Song Dynasty, and the "Outline of the General Examination of Continuing the Governance of Resources" written by the Ming Dynasty Shangshu as the basic proofreading materials. The Bibliography of Citations after the "Ordinary Cases" lists 42 kinds of documents cited in the editing of the "Hongzhi Ningxia New Record", basically in order of the era when the books were cited. These documents, as long as they are handed down, must be included in the reference literature, because they are the most direct sources of historical materials of the Hongzhi Ningxia New Record. When choosing materials from other schools, we must not draw a fixed ground and focus only on a certain area, but should expand the scope of data collection of other schools in combination with the geographical development of a place. Historically, the geographical relations between Shaanxi, Gansu and Ningxia in the northwest were very close to politics and culture. Ningxia was under the jurisdiction of the Shaanxi Bu Government Envoy in the Ming Dynasty, and under the jurisdiction of Gansu Province in the Qing Dynasty, and there are very rich and important historical materials of Ningxia in the local documents of Shaanxi and Gansu in the Ming and Qing dynasties, especially in the old local chronicles. (Jiajing) "Shaanxi Tongzhi", (Wanli) "Shaanxi Tongzhi", (Kangxi) "Shaanxi Tongzhi" and other three zhi are the richest historical materials of Ningxia in the old Shaanxi Tongzhi. (Jiajing) The historical materials of Guyuan Prefecture and Lund County in the Ming Dynasty are very systematic and rich. (Qianlong) "Gansu Tongzhi" and (Xuantong) "Gansu Xintongzhi" are the richest historical materials of Ningxia in the old Gansu Tongzhi. The above-mentioned six kinds of Ningxia historical materials in the Shaanxian and Gansu Old Chronicles provide the richest and most systematic basic historical materials for the compilation of the Ningxia Old Chronicles of the Ming and Qing Dynasties. The old Zhi of the Ming and Qing dynasties were mostly due to the materials and compilation of the Shaanxi and Gansu Tongzhi. For example, Ningxia (Wanli) "Shuofang Xinzhi" is taken from (Jiajing) "Shaanxi Tongzhi", Jiajing and Wan Li's "Guyuan Prefecture Zhi" is taken from (Jiajing) "Pingliang Fuzhi", (Guangxuan) "Huamachi Zhizhi" is taken from (Jiajing) "Dingbian County Zhi", (Qianlong) "Ningxia Fuzhi" and (Republic of China) "Shuofang Daozhi" are influenced by (Qianlong) "Gansu Tongzhi" and (Xuantong) "Gansu Xintongzhi" from style to content, and so on. At the same time, the Ningxia Old Records of the Ming and Qing dynasties are also important materials for studying the cultural history of Shaanxi and Gansu and sorting out the old records of Shaanxi and Gansu, such as the Zhengde, Hongzhi and Jiajing dynasties of the Ming Dynasty, all of which were written earlier than the (Jiajing) Shaanxi Tongzhi, which can provide important reference materials for sorting out the latter. Therefore, it is necessary to sort out the old records of any province of Shaanxi, Gansu and Ningxia, especially the old records of Tongzhi and neighboring areas, and make sure that the data of other schools must pay attention to the old records of the other two provinces at the same time. In addition, the unearthed documents and archival materials are also important materials of other schools, which have not been paid attention to by previous researchers. Such as Qingjing Wang Zhu According to the "Qing Wang Zhi" unearthed in Tongxin County, Ningxia, combined with the Ming and Qing dynasty documents, the author believes that the name of King Qing should be "Zhu." "Not "Zhu Li", let alone "Zhu Xuan". For another example, the "Ningxia Fu Zhi" volume 13 "People" contains that Ningxia Xiang Xie Wang Xiao "died seventy-three deaths", and according to the "Epitaph of Xie Guanzhai of the Great Doctor of Qing Tong Yi" unearthed by Ningxia Lingwu, Xie Wang Lian was born in the tenth year of the Kangxi Dynasty (1671) and died in the eleventh year of the Yongzheng Dynasty (1733) at the age of sixty-three (imaginary age), so it can be used to correct the errors recorded in the "Ningxia Fu Zhi". (4) Writing Proofreading Instructions The main functions of proofreading explanations are twofold: one is to standardize the methods of collation, and the other is to facilitate the use of collation results. The proofreading instructions should be concise and accurate, and the method should be easy to operate and avoid cumbersome. A standard proofreading statement needs to be refined. Before the formal sorting of old records, the basic proofreading requirements for punctuation, annotation, proofreading and other work can be drafted according to the conventional norms for sorting out ancient books, and some of the contents of the old journals can be selected to carry out preparatory sorting work first. Combined with the specific problems encountered, the explanation of the proofreading is constantly improved. These steps of perfection are especially important when multiple people collaborate on the work of organizing old journals, or when organizing multiple old journals at a relatively fixed time. When necessary, typical issues can be selected and discussed collectively to form a unified opinion. After the finishing method is standardized and easy to operate, the final proofreading explains that it becomes a principle requirement that everyone must abide by and cannot be easily changed. 2. After the preliminary preparatory work for sorting out the specific links and methods of sorting out, it is time to enter the specific finishing links. The following mainly talks about the specific sorting methods from the aspects of "ziwen", "punctuation", "proofreading", and "annotation". (1) The first link in sorting out the old history in Chinese script and punctuation is the Chinese text. High-quality conversion of the text of the manuscript into an editable document can effectively reduce the errors caused by the publisher re-arranging the original manuscript. Generally speaking, the content is required to remain in the original form (including volumes, volumes, text, segments, etc.), and not to be adapted, so as to maintain the originality, integrity and independence of the content, so as to facilitate the collator and the proofreading of the original text. The old chronicles that will be published in traditional characters need to pay special attention to the phenomenon of using characters such as variants, vulgar characters, common characters, ancient and modern characters, etc. in the original scripts. If some organizers change "dim" to "marriage", "fowl" to "capture", "field" to "geography", etc., it is obvious that they have made mistakes. 利用軟件進行繁簡字轉換時,要注意其識別率。 For some simplified characters, the software cannot convert them into traditional characters, and some even make mistakes, such as the verb "cloud" is mistakenly converted into "cloud", the earth branch "ugly" is mistakenly changed to "ugly", the official name "御史" is mistakenly changed to "禦史", and the "li" indicating distance is mistakenly converted into "inside". Due to publication requirements, attention should also be paid to the problem of new and old glyphs, such as "household", "Lu", "Wu", "yellow" and "Yan" as old glyphs, and the corresponding new glyphs are "household", "Lü", "Wu", "yellow" and "Yan". For example, "strong, qi, strong", "sign, trace, trace", "敕, 勅, 勑", "for, for" and other groups of characters may appear alternately in the same old history, and the glyph unity of such characters should be cautious. In principle, follow the character habits of the original version of the old zhi, and try to use the original glyph (vulgar character or variant characters). Multiple glyphs are mixed, and can be unified into glyphs that appear more frequently. However, some collators have changed the three groups of characters "merge, and, 竝, and merge," "pick, color, and pick," and "rise, fall, and rise" into "and," "pick," and "rise," and it is very debatable. Different glyphs, if they have their own special uses or meanings, cannot be arbitrarily merged and changed. In particular, the use of words for place names must not be based on modern laws. For example, "Pingluo" in Pingluo County in Ningxia is a place name word that began to be used in the Qing Dynasty, and it was changed to "Pingluo" in volume 1 "Geography" of the Shuofang New Zhi, and "Territory, Ningxiawei" in volume 2 of the Shaanxi Tongzhi (Kangxi) to avoid the Qing dynasty and changed it to "Pingluo". When sorting out, the "Pingyu" in the "Shuofang Xinzhi" cannot be changed to "Pingluo", because the Ming Dynasty was originally called "Pingyu", and the Qing Dynasty changed it for avoidance, so it cannot change the place name of the old Ming Dynasty because of its current name. Similarly, to sort out the old records of the Qing Dynasty, it is necessary to change the place names of the Ming Dynasty back to the words used at that time. For example, in the second volume of the "Qianlong Ningxia Fu Zhi", "Dili, Territory, and Border", the "Northern Great Wall" article "Although there is a Pingyu City" and "so that it is in the north of Pingyu City, Shili Xu" is two sentences, and "Pingyu" was originally written as "Pingluo", but when it was changed back to "Pingyu" according to the second volume of the "Shuofang Xinzhi" "Waiwei Border Defense". When sorting out the text, the organizer should do a certain amount of document editing work on the manuscript, carefully read the original will, reasonably distinguish the content level and subordinate relationship, and standardize and label the headings at all levels. Old Zhi often used different typography styles and sizes of fonts to distinguish different types of content, which should be given full consideration when writing in Ziwen. The Old Chronicles often use different types of symbols to indicate hierarchical affiliations of content, and this is fully understood, which helps to segment the content when writing it. In the original version of the old journal, there are many double-line small prints, some double-line small print is supplementary and descriptive text, and some double-line small print is explanatory text. If the font and font number are the same as the text of the text, it may make the reader unable to correctly judge the affiliation relationship of the content of the original journal, and some may also cause confusion in punctuation marks and affect the understanding of the meaning of the text. Therefore, when writing in Zi, it is best to distinguish the original double-line small print of the old journal from the main text with different fonts and font sizes. When dealing with maps and other image documents in the old journal, it should be noted that the old journal often does not use a whole page to present a complete image, but is presented in two and a half pages, and it is best to combine them into one when organizing them today. The synthesized image document should be kept as clear as possible, and if necessary, the blurred words, lines, etc. in the original version can be repaired clearly so that others can use it correctly, but there is a principle, that is, it cannot be changed inadvertently. Do not change the original font, can not change the direction of the original line, etc., try to keep the original appearance. Some finishers will ask professional drafters to draw new drawings from the old drawings, and the above principles should also be followed. When revising the ambiguous text in the original version, try to combine the corresponding content in the text, such as "Territory" and "City", to avoid mistakes. The punctuation of the old history can be standardized according to the current use of punctuation marks, combined with the general practice of ancient book collation, and specifically refer to the "Interpretation of Ancient Books School Point (First Draft)" compiled by the China Book Company (originally published in "Books" No. 4, 1991). In order to unify the punctuation work of the old journal, certain requirements can be refined. For example, when sorting out the old records of Ningxia, it is stipulated that all the "Tongzhi", "Fuzhi", "County Zhi", "Xinzhi", "Old Zhi" and so on used in the original book to indicate the specific sources of historical materials, and those who can verify and determine the documents referred to, add the title of the book to the main text, punctuate them as "Tongzhi", "Fuzhi", "County Zhi", "County Zhi", "Xinzhi", and "Old Zhi", and note the specific documents referential. For example: "Fuzhi: refers to (Qianlong) "Ningxia Fuzhi". "Where it is uncertain what is specifically referred to, the title of the book is not added, and the footnote is given. For example: "County History: The specific documents referred to are not detailed." "(2) Annotating the collation of old chronicles in the past, paying more attention to the annotation of difficult words, allusions, personal names, geographical names, etc., and in order to further enhance the use value of the old chronicles, it is also necessary to strengthen the annotation and interpretation of the following aspects: 1. Annotation of historical sources. The old text sometimes indicates the historical source, but it is not customized, such as Zhu The sources of historical materials cited in the "River Channel" in the volume of the "Ningxia Zhi" include: "Yuan Water Classic", "Zhou Li", "Western Qiang Biography", "Tang Tubo Biography", "Li Hearing Biography", "Geographical History", "Huiyi", "Yuan Hezhi", "Yuan Shizuji", "Zhang Wenqian's Biography", "Guo Shoujing's Biography", etc., respectively, referring to Gong Daoyuan's "Notes on the Water Classic", "Zhou Li Di Guan Situ Suiren", "Houhanshu" volume 87 "Western Qiang Biography", "New Book of Tang" volume 216 under "Tubo Biography", "New Book of Tang" volume 154 "Li Shengchuan with Li Hearing Biography", "New Book of Tang" Volume 37 "Geographical History", "Tang Huiyi", "Yuanhe County Chart", "Yuan History" Volume 5 "Shizu Benji", "Yuan History" Volume 157 "Zhang Wenqian's Biography", and Yuan History Volume 164 "Guo Shoujing's Biography", if the collator does not carefully examine and indicate the quotation, I am afraid it will be difficult for readers to judge the specific source of the quotation. 2.本文体例中資料互見者的注解。 When writing old local chronicles, the words "see before", "see "Jinshi", "see "Yiwen", "see "People", "see "Xiangxian", etc.", often appear in the words "see before", "see "Jinshi", "see "see "Xiangxian", etc., and on the one hand, the interpretation of these contents can verify whether the original records are credible, and on the other hand, save the reader's labor of checking. 3.Notes on the year of the dry branch and the default content. The old Zhi era is mostly based on the dry branch, some will inherit the previous omitted the imperial year, and some texts often do not appear the full name of the character, only call a certain duke, or only call his official name, the specific age and character are not explained in the original text, so the organizer should be combined with the context to annotate to help the reader understand correctly. For example, many Ningxia old records contain the article "Lingwu Appointed Palace Chanting and Order" by Yang Yan of the Tang Dynasty, which includes the sentence "Ding Dian, Guangping Wang Li, Taiwei Guangbi, Situ Ziyi, Shangshu Zuo Servant Crown, Bingbu Shangshu Fuguo". It is difficult to figure out when "ding" refers to, and who the king of Guangping refers to, if you are not familiar with the time and historical background of the preface. Through checking the documents, the collators indicated that "Ding Dun" was the fifteenth year of the reign of Emperor Xuanzong of Tang (727), and the characters referred to Li Li the Prince of Guangping, Li Guangbi, Situ Guo Ziyi, Shangshu Zuo Shu Pei Mian, and Shangshu Li Fuguo, which obviously helped to better understand the original text. (3) In the collation of the old Ningxia chronicles in the past, valuable proofreading results are very rare, which further shows that the collation of the old chronicles must strengthen the proofreading work. The method of proofreading is commonly used in the four methods of proofreading, that is, the school, the school, the other school, and the science school, which often need to be used comprehensively, and cannot simply use one of the methods. The author checked the sentence "Yongle Jia Jia Years Jinbo Lake Product Hehuan Lian Yi" in the volume of "Ningxia Zhi", and found that there was no "Jia Jiao" in the name of the "Yongle" year of Chengzu (from 癸未 to Jiachen, 1403-1424). Under the volume of "Ningxia Zhi", the "Inscription" has Ning Zhen (Zhu The song "Jinbo Lake Hehuanlian" by the seven laws is the "auspicious rui" acacia of Jinbo Lake in the year of Yongle. Therefore, it is known that in the sentence "Yongle Jia Jia Years Jinbo Lake Products Hehuan Lian Yi", "Jia Jiao" is regarded as "戊戌", and Yongle Peng Years is the sixteenth year of Yongle (1418). The collation of ancient books should fully absorb the existing research results to minimize the errors in the original texts and avoid the use of users to pass on the teachings. cinnabar There are two important Western Xia texts under the volume of the edited "Ningxia Zhi", of which the "Great Xia National Funeral Relic Jie Ming" has the sentence "Built on August 10 of the third year of the Great Summer Celebration", Zhu After research, it is believed that the time of burial relic "is the third year of Xia Huanzong's pure blessing of Tianqing, and the second year of Song Ningzong's Qingyuan." Ningxia Old Chronicles editors and even many contemporary scholars agree with this conclusion. According to Niu Dasheng's "Two Western Xia Texts in the New Records of Jiajing Ningxia", the sentence "three years of Tianqing" is regarded as "three years of Daqing", so Zhu The conclusion of the examination should be changed to "Nai Xia Jingzong Yuanhao Daqing three years, Song Renzong Jingyu five years Peng Yin Ye". Some well-related other school materials should be used as important other school materials, such as the "Ningxia Fuzhi" A large amount of content comes from (Wanli) "Shuofang Xinzhi" and (Qianlong) "Gansu Tongzhi", we will take these two old records as the most important other school materials in the "Ningxia Fuzhi". This can be understood in conjunction with the reference literature screening work to be carried out before sorting. The expression of proofreading results should be standardized and concise, and the use of terms should be accurate. All changes must be noted during the proofreading, and the changes must have solid evidence, otherwise only foreign texts can be published. III. Sorting Out and Studying the Norms of the Old Records (1) Sorting out the old records should strive to preserve the truth and restore the old records, and should not change the old style, and arbitrarily add text content that was not originally in the original text, and avoid using the modern law of the old. The old records, especially the old records of the Ming and Qing dynasties, have a certain editing style, and they should not be changed arbitrarily. For example, many old records will have the symbol "one" before each article to make the examples clear, but some organizers mistakenly think it is a serial number, and change it to Arabic numerals or Chinese numerals. In order to facilitate readers' statistics, some old chronicles often add ordinal words before mountain names, river names, personal names, poem titles, article titles, etc., which seems to be clear, but in fact violates the principle of ancient book collation. In fact, when the ancients carved the old history, they often had a set of symbol systems to indicate the hierarchy and subordination, and the arbitrary increase of today's people is really a painting snake. What's more, the order and position of the content of the original book will be adjusted, and the original record will be arbitrarily deleted, which will completely become a local chronicle edited by contemporary organizers. Peng Shuxia of the Song Dynasty recorded in his "Preface to the Dialectic of Wenyuan Yinghua": "Shu Xia heard the words of Mr. Yigong (referring to the Song Dynasty Zhou Bida): 'The law of school writing: Facts are right, and many hears are doubtful. The sorting out of old records should strive to achieve the restoration of the original, and standardize the sorting out of old records in accordance with certain sorting principles. (2) In research, it is necessary to seek truth from facts and evaluate the old records, and we must seek truth from facts, fully understand the characteristics of the times in the compilation of the old records, and must not be harsh on the ancients and seek perfection. To evaluate the value of an old journal, we often start from both the aspects of style and content, and the content is very important. Mr. Tan Qiyu once said: "The main reason why the old Fangzhi have preservation value is that they more or less retain some original historical materials that are not found in other records. "2444804 this actually requires us to look at the value of the content of the old chronicles differently, only the content value of the original chronicles is higher, and the value of those content that attacks other chronicles or is taken from other historical books is a different matter." For example, Ningxia Old Zhi, its imperial examination, taxation, office, school, art and literature and other materials are mostly unique to the writers, and the character data is mostly inherited from other records, when evaluating the value of the content, it is necessary to be cautious about the value of the character data. In addition, when Ningxia Laozhi inherited the historical materials of the previous dynasty, many of them were not identified and examined, resulting in errors in them being also attacked, and even added mistakes. For example, the Sui Dynasty Liu Yu migrated to the "Shuofang Huaiyuan Town", and since the Ming Dynasty's "Hongzhi Ningxia New Record", it has been recorded as a historical celebrity in Ningxia. According to the Ming Dynasty Hu Shi's "True Pearl Ship" "Huaiyuan Town", the "Shuofang Huaiyuan Town" is in Liaodong and has nothing to do with present-day Ningxia. "Hongzhi Ningxia Xinzhi", "Jiajing Ningxia Xinzhi", "Jiajing Shaanxi Tongzhi", "Shuofang Xinzhi" and so on all mistakenly thought that Liu Yu was exiled in the former place of present-day Ningxia, so Liu Yu was carried as a Ningxia exile. (Qianlong) "Gansu Tongzhi" also attacked him. In the past, those who studied the old history of Ningxia were limited to talking about its value themselves, and failed to analyze its value from the historical sources. For example, when evaluating the content and academic value of the "Yinchuan Xiaozhi", some scholars believe that the journal has almost all the poems related to Ningxia in the book, and the water conservancy, schools, customs, and other materials collected are of great research value, and so on, and these views are worthy of further discussion. In fact, a considerable part of the content of the "Yinchuan Xiaozhi" is based on the old Ningxia Zhi compiled by the Ming Dynasty, and is not Wang Xiaochen's original creation. From the point of view of the completeness and comprehensiveness of the content, the zhi cannot be compared with the old Ningxia records compiled by the Ming Dynasty. Some scholars believe that there are three most precious items in the Ningxia Old Chronicles, one of which is the "Notes on Enjiao" in the "Ningxia Fu Zhi". But in fact, this historical material was first published in the "Pacifying Shuo Mo Strategy", and the "Ningxia Fuzhi" also mistakenly copied the left-wing "Shang Zhilong" as "Shang Zhilong". Strengthening the comparative study of old journals will help to improve the research standards of old journals. For example, in the past, researchers engaged in the study of ancient literature and history in Northwest China, especially the ancient literature and history of Ningxia, often used the old records of Ningxia as first-hand data, but from the perspective of historical sources, these materials were actually not "first-hand", but mostly collected from the local chronicles of Shaanxi and Gansu. Judging from the results of the existing compilation of the old Ningxia Fangzhi, most scholars have not used the Shaanxia Fangzhi data as necessary reference materials, resulting in the infallibility of the text errors and content errors inherited from the Shaanxia Fangzhi by the Ningxia Old Zhi, as well as the new text and content errors, so that future generations can pass them on. At the same time, to engage in the study of ancient literature and history of Shaanxi and Gansu and to carry out the collation and research of the old Fangzhi of Shaanxi and Gansu, we should also pay attention to borrowing the results of the collation and research of the old Ningxia Zhi. Identify historical sources from right and wrong to avoid inheritance. (3) The results ensure the complete presentation of a complete work of old history, which must include at least five parts: First, the preface. It mainly introduces the current status of the old journal's collation and research, the beginning and end of editing, the editor, the version, the content, and the value. Second, proofreading explanations. Explain the selection of the base book, school book, etc., and list the principles of punctuation, annotation, proofreading, etc. Third, a new cataloguing of the form. The old journal generally has the original catalog, but it is not convenient for people to use today, so it is necessary to compile the new catalogue with clear eyebrows, clear levels and easy to use according to the results of the collation. Fourth, the text of the old journal. Fifth, refer to the literature. Among the old journals currently published, some do not list reference documents, and some reference documents are either sorted by the time of publication of the documents, or in the order in which they appear in the text, or by the phonetic order of the title of the book and the first word of the author's name, which does not play a role in guiding academic research. Reference literature should be convenient according to diagrams, and it is best to organize them into categories. Ranking according to the four ku methods is a good choice. For some old journals, you can add indexes, appendices and other content as needed. Indexing can make it easier for users to find relevant special topic data, and the appendix can make up for the shortcomings of the insufficient content of the text of the old journal to a certain extent. For example, the Ningxia area during the Republic of China carried out a more detailed investigation of land, resources, etc., and the investigation report formed was the most original archival data, which is often scattered and cannot be written separately, but they have a good supplementary effect on the relevant old records, so they should be retained in the annex. As the editor-in-chief of Ningxia Rare Fangzhi Journal, I am very grateful to all academic colleagues, school leaders, graduate students, responsible editors and families who have supported the publication of this book. Liu Hongyan, Liu Yuhong, Shao Min, Cai Shumei and other young teachers of the School of Humanities of Ningxia University, as the authors of the first batch of achievements of this book, have done their best, not tired of it, and persevered, ensuring the academic quality of the manuscript and bringing a good head start to the completion of this project. According to the plan, teachers such as Tian Fujun and An Zhengfa will publish and collate their results within the framework of this book project, and expect them to produce high-quality academic results. 2011 is the "Year of Academic Construction" of Ningxia University, thanks to President He Jianguo and Vice President Xie Yingzhong, and to the department leaders Wang Zhengying, Li Jianzhi, Chen Xiaofang and other teachers for their strong support, under their direct promotion, with this author as the academic leader, in cooperation with the pilot work of the reform of the grassroots organizational model carried out by the school, an academic team of "Ningxia Local Ethnic Documents and Arab Islamic Culture Research" was formed. The institutional guarantee and financial support provided by Ningxia University have enabled the academic team to continuously launch new achievements and enter a stage of benign development, and the smooth publication of this book should be the team's best return to the university. Graduate students in the School of Humanities also contributed greatly to the publication of this book. Sun Jia, Han Chao, Sun Yu, Cao Yang, etc. are the authors of the first batch of achievements of this book, Zhang Yukun, He Meimei, Ma Lingling, Wei Shujing, Mu Xuan, Xu Yuanchao, Sun Xiaoqian, Li Tian, Li Rong, Zhang Qian, Qu Xu, Zhang Nana, Liu Hong, Pu Jing, Wang Min and other students also paid hard labor in the process of sorting out the old records and proofreading the manuscripts. Some of these students have graduated and left school, and some will continue their studies. No matter where they are in the future or what kind of work they will do, the experience of pursuing academic together should be unforgettable. The youthful vigor of my graduate students made me more convinced that the torch is passed on and the academic is always new. The careful review of the publisher Zhang Lin and other responsible editors has also improved the academic quality of this book. I would also like to thank the authors' families for their understanding and support for the smooth publication of this book—your silent dedication has been transformed into thousands of words and shines brightly in the author's work. Academic achievements have never been water without a source or a tree without roots. With the shoulders of giants, we will see higher and further. In Ningxia, there is a group of scholars engaged in the collation and research of local literature, and their exploration and efforts have laid a solid foundation for our achievements today, and scholars of the older generation such as Wu Zhongli, Chen Mingyou, and Gao Shuyu have set an example for us to govern. Due to space limitations, I will not list all colleagues in the academic field one by one. This comprehensive sorting out of the old local history of Ningxia was mainly planned and organized by me. I put forward specific suggestions for each link of the old chronicle collation, and I also completed the selection of the manuscripts of the old chronicles, the writing of the "General Preface", the "Preface" and the "Annotation Notes". In the process of specific collation, the academic achievements such as annotation or proofreading obtained by each team member are shared by each other, which also reflects the characteristics of our teamwork. Song Dynasty Shen Kuo recorded in "Mengxi Pen Talks" volume 25 "Miscellaneous Records II": "Song Xuan devoted erudition, liked to collect foreign books, and all of them were self-schooled, often called 'school books are like sweeping dust, while sweeping, while living.'" Therefore, there is a book every three or four schools that is apologetic. Song Shou (謚蛰 "Xuanxiang") has a collection of tens of thousands of volumes, a history of the school scriptures, and a sense of "school books are like sweeping dust", and I can only say when it comes to sorting out the old records of Ningxia: "Dedication!" More like "Shijing Xiaoya Xiaomin": "Trembling, like approaching the abyss, like walking on thin ice." "We strive for fulfillment from the subjective point of view, but due to the limitation of the level of knowledge, errors in the results are inevitable, and we invite colleagues in the academic community to criticize and correct." July 23, 2015 in Yinchuan, Ningxia(AI翻译)

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引文

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GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文
.(正統)寧夏志[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2015
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.(正統)寧夏志.北京,中国社会科学出版社:2015E-book.
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(2015).(正統)寧夏志.北京:中国社会科学出版社
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