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都市审美:海派文学叙事方式研究

ISBN:978-7-5161-5468-7

出版日期:2015-02

页数:247

字数:258.0千字

点击量:5050次

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基金信息: 国家社科基金 展开
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图书简介

文学的都市审美,既是当代文学作家对于都市社会的生命经验重构与“艺术地把握世界”的审美方式(马克思语)重构——它涉及人与都市的多重“关系”——诸如把握处理都市题材的价值形态、经验形式、都市意识、艺术表达等,也是关系到中国当代文学如何从传统的乡土中国到当代都市社会的审美迁徙,即在中国正处于都市化社会急剧转型期,中国当代文学如何拓展新的人性与审美空间,如何实现文学创作的美学转型问题。

一 一个症候:都市审美的多向缺失

只要对中国当代文坛做粗略的扫描,便能发现,文学的都市审美相当缺失。

一是都市题材的文学创作,近年来虽呈上升之势,但究其总量与比例而言,仍不及乡土文学的三分之一。在中国都市化速率已达60%的年代,乡土文学题材、历史题材仍是当代文坛“主力军团”。历届“茅盾文学奖”与“鲁迅文学奖”等所谓“国家级”奖项,都市文学作品几乎届届阙如,难觅身影。而且,新时期文学三十年,类似贾平凹、韩少功、陈忠实、路遥、张炜、莫言等获得社会阅读认可的著名作家,其代表性作品全是乡土文学类别,即便偶有对都市题材的创作,其文学成就远逊于他们自己的乡土题材作品。这类状况,在当代电影艺术界依然如故。当代中国声名显赫的张艺谋导演,《红高粱》、《大红灯笼高高挂》、《菊豆》及后续的《英雄》,这些乡土题材和历史文化题材“大片”,是他成功的电影作品,而他唯一一部描写上海都市题材的电影《摇啊摇,摇到外婆桥》,被公认为是失败之作。

二是当代文学理论批评,自觉地或不自觉地因袭着长期的乡土农耕社会所形成的传统审美意识。虽然,自1984年“文学批评方法年”以来,老三论、新三论、原型文化批评、精神分析心理学批评、女性主义文学批评、新批评、结构主义文学批评、殖民与后殖民写作批评、现代性与后现代文化(文学)批评思潮方法层出不穷,相当程度地改变着当代文学理论批评的学理结构与批评方式,但是,它们大都终究只作用于文学批评的“方法”层面,较少内化为当代文学理论批评的美学思维层面。可以这么说,它们只是某种批评方法的“现代”转换,还不能判定为中国文学批评审美意识的现代转型。对于正在生长期的中国都市文学的都市审美而言,尤其如此。于是我们看到,中国当代文学理论批评对于乡土题材与历史题材创作,持续地保有学术性关注与研究性投入;反之,对于都市题材的文学创作,我们的文学理论批评都显得相应的冷淡,或者说,用力不足。许多新生的、优质的都市文学作品,就这样被忽略、被遗忘。或者,即使我们的文学理论批评从事着对都市文学创作的研评,但往往因为研究者自身所因袭的传统审美意识,往往运用在乡土文学、历史文学领域所“通用”的理论批评理念与思维方式,结果自然是隔靴搔痒。在传统审美意识与当代都市审美意识区间,是一种文学理论批评的审美误置。

现象的描述旨在说明,中国三千年农耕文化及其历史长度,形成了某种恒定的绵长的而且强大的与农耕文化相匹配的历史意识及其文学审美意识。这种审美意识的积淀,已经成为当代中国文学创作及其文艺理论批评的“巨大传统”与“无意识自觉”。这种传统的文学审美意识的“深层结构”,使得中国作家如原哈佛大学教授李欧梵所言,对于都市,中国作家总是存在着物质层面的“留恋”与心理精神层面的“逃离”的两难处境。再加上,中国现代都市发生学的特殊背景——由西方列强“他者”入侵所生成建构的中国近现代都市,先天性伴随着民族自我的历史屈辱感和强权“他者”的罪孽性。于是,“都市恶”成为不仅仅是中国作家而且也是整个中华民族的普遍性的民族文化心理。

“都市恶”意识,虽然从一个维度切中现代都市社会的文化负效应,但也极强势地遮蔽于现代都市在制度安排、文化精神、现代文明等维度的丰富的现代性功能。当然,它又势必严重影响或制约着当代作家和文学理论批评家对于当代中国都市的理性认识和多维审美。再加上,当代文学从业者(包括创作者和研究者)绝大部分有着与现代作家沈从文、废名、师陀式的“由乡入城”的人生创作经历。在某种意义上,“由乡入城”式的作家,属于都市的“外来者”,他们自己也无意识地将自己归属于都市的“异乡客”。“外来者”身份容易使得当代作家产生都市的隔膜感和陌生感;而“异乡客”心理极容易使当代作家创作回归乡土人生经验,建构与想象着他们曾经熟悉的乡土世界。像沈从文的“湘西世界”,废名的“黄梅”,师陀的“河南”;像贾平凹早年创作的“商州大地”,莫言的“高密乡”,苏童的“枫杨树湾”,以及陈应松的“神龙架山民世界”。于是我们看到一个“中国式”的文学现象,一代又一代中国作家,虽然栖身于都市,但他们的人生视域和审美触觉,就是不向身边的都市世界延伸,反而越过都市,投向早年经历的故乡大地。于是,中国文学的都市审美长期呈现缺失状态,都市审美及其相关的文艺美学、艺术哲学问题,长期处于空位缺席状态。

二 审美转型:都市审美之于中国文学的美学意义

人类文化史,其中的华彩篇章,几乎由一个个“都市黄金时代”连缀成人类文学的历程。14世纪的佛罗伦萨,16世纪的伦敦,18世纪的维也纳,19世纪的巴黎,20世纪的纽约,20世纪上半叶的中国上海,都曾经以经济、文化、文学艺术的高度繁盛而被历史文化学者称为“都市黄金时代”。

伴随着20世纪中国社会的“现代性转型”,“都市化”已经或正在成为我们的社会物态形式和生命存在的经验事实。来自社会学、经济学界的研究资讯和统计报告表明,都市化转型,是当代中国社会形态变迁的主要成果形式,至20世纪末,中国的都市化水平和速率已经达到50%,至2010年,“中国的城市化率提高到60%”。这些数据意味着,中国已经由传统的农业文化国度快速转型为工商化、都市化社会,都市社区人口近8.4亿。在更深层次还意味着,当代中国正在经历它自有文字记载的历史以来,前所未有的“都市黄金时代”。毫无疑问,如果我们老是浸润在传统的乡土中国的人生经验与审美意识里,一味放逐文学对都市人生的体验、进入与反映,那么,我们的当代文学难以实现当代审美转型,难以创造文学的“都市黄金时代”!

文学的都市审美,从表面形态来说,是文学对都市社会的描写与反映,是当代文学与理论批评的创作兴奋区,从乡土与历史等大类题材向都市题材的转移的问题。从深层形态而言,是文学应该把当代都市作为独立的审美对象,在文学与都市的互动关系中,体验、探索、建构一类新型的文学都市经验、审美意识和美感形式的审美转型问题。

回头检索,新时期文学三十年,在某些作家的创作里,已经显出当代文学的都市审美转型。1985年,中央音乐学院女学生刘索拉的中篇小说《你别无选择》,都市流浪人徐星的《无主题变奏》、《剩下的都属于你》,自由写作者王朔的《顽主》、《一点正经没有》、《我是流氓我怕谁》等系列长篇,以智慧而颓废的“顽主”姿态,展开了对都市的“荒原”与荒诞式审美;此后,北京的徐坤,上海的王安忆、卫慧,武汉的方方,广州的张欣、盛可以等女作家,分别从各个不同的创作路径,进入到都市审美的多样性实验。其中,佼佼者是湖北女作家方方。早在80年代中期,方方率先实践作家的都市审美——去神圣化,非道德性——以温爱而细敏,睿智且平实的生命写作姿态,潜入都市社会的日常人性与命运。结果,方方探索或收获了独到而丰富的都市审美意识与经验。一个看似平常的家庭事件,却蕴藏着家庭亲情间的人性撕咬,爱与仇的转换与悖谬(《落日》);粗糙而困厄的一户城市市民人家,却上演出那么多极化的人性变异(《风景》);循着市民日常生活路径,方方捕捉到“日常生活”背后那些瑰丽而怪异的人性“传奇”。经由都市情爱叙事,方方体验着执着地传达出“男性绝望”与“情爱绝望”的都市感觉,并在双重绝望空间里,状写都市女性“淑女—荡女”的人性扭曲及其“何处是我家园”的命运沧桑(《桃花灿烂》、《船的沉没》、《秋风落叶》、《何处是我家园》、《水在时间之下》等)。从看似生硬的警匪题材,方方从一个个“偶然”性人生(探索)切片中,窥探到都市人生处于那网状结构的互相缠绕与制约,那无处不在的历史纠葛与现世人性博弈,那些“功绩”神圣外表背后的随意与偶然,无聊或者无奈。像本雅明曾经形容的19世纪巴黎社会的“都市漫游者”,方方,可以视为当代中国都市审美的“智慧精灵”。她以文学方式穿行于都市社会和都市人生的各个角落,冶炼出或者说收获到属于当代中国的一种都市审美:都市日常生存状态下一个个鲜活生命的多极性且无限性的人性变异;人人之间那相互缠绕而且撕咬博弈的人性传奇;都市人生乃至我们的都市本身,那些宿命般的命运轮回与无尽的苍凉与荒诞。于是,我们欣喜地观察到,当作家方方从当代都市中形成都市审美自觉之后,无论面对怎样的人生题材,皆显出她创作的高质量与高能量。像近年的描写汉口名伶水上灯那“人与城”的历史命运的长篇《水在时间之下》,描写武汉北伐历史的《武昌城》,描写武汉首义辛亥革命题材的《民的1911》,以及状叙武汉下岗女工的中篇《琴断口》、《出门寻死》、《万箭穿心》等。

我们还欣喜地看到,一批正值创作兴盛期的作家,正在实践着从乡土审美到都市审美的创作迁徙。像河南作家李佩甫,由当年的《羊的门》,继而进入《城的灯》,最近又横跨当代都市与当代乡土,创作出“城乡互文”式的长篇《生命册》;像湖北作家晓苏,乡土故园的“油菜坡”小说系列与置身都市的“大学校园”系列小说;像梁鸿的纪实性乡土小说《中国在梁庄》。比较而言,这类作家在写乡土题材时,因为有了一定的都市审美经验作参照,他们已然超越了沈从文“乡土美、都市恶”的城乡对立的书写模式,而呈现出“城、乡互文”式的文本形式与人性意识;传统的农耕文化所衍生的审美意识——自然美感方式、道德理性精神、伦理功用色彩——被新生的都市审美意识——物态化审美方式、都市文化理性精神、智慧而客观的人性呈现所逐渐替代。

三 几点思考:都市审美转型的相关问题

文学的都市审美转型,说到底,或许是文学从业者在面对都市,体验都市文化与都市人性的创作情感姿态,理性与经验认知方式及其艺术外化手段等方面的问题。如何实现都市审美转型?以下的几点思考,或许能够提供某些参考与路径。

其一,去“都市恶”意识。以理性、睿智、客观的姿态进入、了解、体验、把握都市。“都市恶、乡村美”,是20世纪20—30年代以沈从文为代表的文学意识。从深层次看,它是东方民族在现代都市初生期所滋生的农耕时代的美学意识,是作家面对“陌生”的现代都市时的后撤与逃离,是某种对渐渐逝去的农耕社会乡土文化的“浪漫想象”。把前现代的“乡土”,想象预设为合乎人性生存的理想社会,既不能经受历史学的检验,也不符合当下的真实。它,美则美矣,但无助于作家对现代都市的深度而多向地了解与体验。因为,“都市恶”意识,只是一种本质化的、单向度的思维方式,它容易遮蔽现代都市人生的丰富性与复杂性。像沈从文笔下的都市男女,人性皆显单薄或单一。

其二,去“道德化”色彩。“道德化审美”,是中国传统的宗法制农耕社会形成的伦理性审美方式。严格地说,这是“伦理”对“审美”的干预,很容易促使我们的文学审美滑向道德的窠臼。都市审美转型,意味着我们从传统的道德性审美转化为对都市与都市人性的“异化性”审美。如张爱玲《金锁记》的曹七巧,如方方《风景》里的七哥,《万箭穿心》中的李大姐,如苏童《米》里的五龙,作家对他(她)们的所谓的自私、贪婪、庸俗、血腥、仇恨,皆不从“道德”的层面去裁判,而是从都市生活对人的“异化”层面,从人物“活着”的存在之维的矛盾缝隙处,状写人物的性格扭曲、发展、变异。作家摒弃了“道德化审美”,自觉不自觉地以都市人性审美眼光,写出了“日常状态”下的“人性传奇”(张爱玲语)。

其三,去“自然态审美”。由农耕时代的“自然态审美”到“都市物态化审美”,或许也是都市审美转型的另一路径。一般流行说法,都市的钢筋水泥,破坏了小桥流水人家的自然美感和文学诗意。这只能说明,我们仍然站在农耕时代的“历史”里打量当代都市,时空转换了百年,我们仍然延续和固守着“祖宗”的眼光和观念。其实,在“技术大地化”(海德格尔语)的都市,技术即自然。如何发现“技术自然”的都市美感?比如,那逶迤参差的城市建筑群的都市天际线,既有刺破苍穹的宏伟也有模糊迷茫的沧桑;那魔方式建筑里各种隐秘空间里,该潜伏着多少人性的欢愉与罪孽;那匆忙嘈杂的尘世市井,又奔腾着多少无尽的生命欲望,隐匿了多少人生命运的秘密。20世纪30年代的海派作家刘呐鸥的小说集《都市风景线》,穆时英的中篇小说《夜总会里的五个人》、《上海的狐步舞》,将上海都市与人性的绚烂而颓废,迅疾而坠落,张扬也苍白,物的眩晕与心的破碎,做出了极具都市物态审美的诗意把玩与睿智表达。德国哲学家和历史文化学家本雅明早就认为,都市艺术家应该成为都市的“精神漫游者”——这是一个极好的比喻——只有“精神漫游者”才能穿透繁茂芜杂的都市,把玩都市与人性的诗性传奇。

从上述中国文学问题出发,本书确立以文学的“都市审美”为研究对象,以中国20世纪20—40年代的“海派”文学的叙事方式为研究路径,分别从“‘技术大地化’:海派文学的‘物态化’叙事”;“都市梦魇:海派文学的‘超验叙事’”;“都市女体:海派文学的女性身体叙事”;“市民文化空间:海派通俗文学的多重叙事方式”等方面的研究路径和框架,对于海派文学的文学叙事及其都市审美,作出相应的考察与研究。我们的预期研究目标既在于,对现代文学史的“海派文学”叙事方式的系统性与开拓性研究,也在于为中国文学的都市审美方式与审美理论研究,提供必要的都市文学实践经验和都市文学史的事实支撑,以及有关的中国都市文学理论的思考与探索。

The urban aesthetics of literature is not only the reconstruction of the life experience of contemporary literary writers in urban society and the aesthetic way of "grasping the world artistically (Marx's language)-it involves multiple "relationships" between people and the city, such as grasping the value form, experience form, urban consciousness, artistic expression, etc. of urban themes, but also related to how contemporary Chinese literature migrates from traditional rural China to contemporary urban society, that is, China is in a period of rapid transformation of urbanized society. How to expand the new human nature and aesthetic space of contemporary Chinese literature, and how to realize the aesthetic transformation of literary creation. A symptom: the multi-directional lack of urban aesthetics As long as a cursory scan of China's contemporary literary scene can be done, it can be found that the urban aesthetics of literature are quite lacking. First, although the literary creation of urban themes has been on the rise in recent years, its total amount and proportion are still less than one-third of local literature. In the era when China's urbanization rate has reached 60%, local literary themes and historical themes are still the "main army" of contemporary literature. In the past so-called "national" awards such as the "Mao Dun Literature Award" and the "Lu Xun Literature Award", urban literary works have almost disappeared, and it is difficult to find a figure. Moreover, in the thirty years of literature in the new period, famous writers such as Jia Pingwo, Han Shaogong, Chen Zhongzhong, Lu Yao, Zhang Wei, Mo Yan and other famous writers who have been recognized by the society are all in the category of local literature, even if they occasionally create urban themes, their literary achievements are far inferior to their own works on local themes. This kind of situation is still the same in the contemporary film art world. Director Zhang Yimou, a well-known contemporary Chinese director, "Red Sorghum", "Big Red Lantern Hanging High", "Ju Dou" and subsequent "Heroes", these "blockbusters" with local themes and historical and cultural themes, are his successful film works, and his only film depicting Shanghai's urban theme "Shake, Shake, Shake to Grandma's Bridge" is recognized as a failure. The second is contemporary literary theory criticism, consciously or unconsciously due to the traditional aesthetic consciousness formed by the long-term rural farming society. Although since the "Year of Methods of Literary Criticism" in 1984, the old three theories, the new three theories, archetypal cultural criticism, psychoanalytic psychological criticism, feminist literary criticism, new criticism, structuralist literary criticism, colonial and postcolonial writing criticism, modernity and postmodern cultural (literary) criticism have emerged one after another, which have changed the academic structure and criticism methods of contemporary literary theoretical criticism to a considerable extent, but most of them only act on the "method" level of literary criticism. Less internalized into the aesthetic thinking dimension of contemporary literary theoretical criticism. It can be said that they are only a "modern" transformation of some kind of critical method, and cannot yet be judged as a modern transformation of the aesthetic consciousness of Chinese literary criticism. This is especially true for the urban aesthetic of Chinese urban literature in the growing period. Therefore, we can see that contemporary Chinese literary theory criticism continues to maintain academic attention and research investment in the creation of local themes and historical themes; On the contrary, for the literary creation of urban themes, our literary theory criticism is correspondingly cold, or in other words, insufficient force. Many new, high-quality urban literary works have been ignored and forgotten. Or, even if our literary theory criticism is engaged in the study and evaluation of urban literary creation, it is often because of the traditional aesthetic consciousness of the researchers themselves, and often applies the "universal" theoretical criticism concepts and thinking methods in the fields of local literature and historical literature, and the result is naturally itching. In the interval between traditional aesthetic consciousness and contemporary urban aesthetic consciousness, it is an aesthetic misplacement of literary theory criticism. The description of the phenomenon aims to show that China's 3,000-year-old farming culture and its historical length have formed a certain constant, long and powerful historical consciousness and literary aesthetic consciousness that matches the farming culture. This accumulation of aesthetic consciousness has become a "huge tradition" and "unconscious consciousness" of contemporary Chinese literary creation and its literary and art theory criticism. This "deep structure" of traditional literary aesthetic consciousness makes Chinese writers, as former Harvard University professor Li Oufan said, for the city, Chinese writers always have the dilemma of "nostalgia" at the material level and "escape" at the psychological and spiritual level. In addition, the special background of modern Chinese urban genesis, the modern Chinese city constructed by the invasion of the "other" of Western powers, is congenitally accompanied by the sense of historical humiliation of the national self and the sinfulness of the powerful "other". As a result, "urban evil" has become a universal national cultural psychology not only for Chinese writers but also for the entire Chinese nation. Although the consciousness of "urban evil" cuts through the negative cultural effects of modern urban society from one dimension, it also strongly obscures the rich modernity functions of modern cities in the dimensions of institutional arrangement, cultural spirit, and modern civilization. Of course, it is bound to seriously affect or restrict the rational understanding and multi-dimensional aesthetics of contemporary Chinese cities by contemporary writers and literary theory critics. In addition, the vast majority of contemporary literary practitioners (including creators and researchers) have the same life creation experience as modern writers Shen Congwen, Zhuanming, and Shituo-style "from the countryside to the city". In a sense, writers who "move from the countryside to the city" belong to the "outsiders" of the city, and they themselves unconsciously attribute themselves to the "foreigners" of the city. The identity of "outsider" is easy to make contemporary writers feel urban isolation and strangeness; The "foreigner" mentality is very easy for contemporary writers to return to the local life experience, constructing and imagining the local world they were once familiar with. Like Shen Congwen's "Xiangxi World", the abolished "Huangmei", Shituo's "Henan"; Like Jia Pingwo's early creations of "The Land of Shangzhou", Mo Yan's "Gaomi Township", Su Tong's "Maple Poplar Bay", and Chen Yingsong's "Shenlongjia Mountain People's World". So we see a "Chinese" literary phenomenon, generation after generation of Chinese writers, although they live in the city, their life vision and aesthetic touch, that is, do not extend to the urban world around them, but go beyond the city and throw themselves into the hometown land they experienced in their early years. As a result, the urban aesthetics of Chinese literature have been absent for a long time, and urban aesthetics and related literary aesthetics and art philosophy issues have been vacant and absent for a long time. 2. Aesthetic transformation: the aesthetic significance of urban aesthetics to Chinese literature, the history of human culture, and the colorful chapters in it are almost connected by the "golden age of the city" into the course of human literature. Florence in the 14th century, London in the 16th century, Vienna in the 18th century, Paris in the 19th century, New York in the 20th century, and Shanghai in China in the first half of the 20th century were all called the "golden age of the city" by historical and cultural scholars for their high prosperity of economy, culture, literature and art. Along with the "transformation of modernity" in Chinese society in the 20th century, "urbanization" has become, or is beholding, an empirical fact of our social material form and life existence. Research information and statistical reports from sociology and economics show that urbanization transformation is the main form of achievement of contemporary China's social change, and by the end of the 20th century, China's urbanization level and rate have reached 50%, and by 2010, "China's urbanization rate has increased to 60%". These figures mean that China has rapidly transformed from a traditional agricultural culture country into an industrial, commercial and urbanized society, with an urban community population of nearly 840 million. At a deeper level, it also means that contemporary China is experiencing an unprecedented "golden age of the city" since its recorded history. There is no doubt that if we are always immersed in the traditional local Chinese life experience and aesthetic consciousness, and blindly banish the experience, entry and reflection of literature on urban life, then it will be difficult for our contemporary literature to achieve contemporary aesthetic transformation and create an "urban golden age" of literature! The urban aesthetic of literature, from the surface form, is the description and reflection of literature on urban society, the creative excitement area of contemporary literature and theoretical criticism, and the problem of the transfer from large themes such as local and historical to urban themes. From the perspective of deep form, literature should take the contemporary city as an independent aesthetic object, and experience, explore and construct a new type of literary urban experience, aesthetic consciousness and aesthetic transformation of aesthetic form in the interactive relationship between literature and the city. Looking back, the thirty years of literature in the new period, in the creation of some writers, have shown the urban aesthetic transformation of contemporary literature. In 1985, Liu Sola, a female student at the Central Conservatory of Music, wrote a novella "You Have No Choice", Xu Xing, an urban wanderer, "No Theme Variations" and "The rest belongs to you", and freelance writer Wang Shuo's "Stubborn Lord", "No Seriousness", "I am a Hooligan, Who am I Afraid of" and other series of long stories, with a wise and decadent "stubborn master" posture, unfolded the "wasteland" and absurd aesthetics of the city; Since then, Xu Kun in Beijing, Wang Anyi and Wei Hui in Shanghai, Fang Fang in Wuhan, Zhang Xin and Sheng Ke in Guangzhou have entered the experiment of urban aesthetic diversity from different creative paths. Among them, the outstanding is Hubei female writer Fang Fang. As early as the mid-80s, Fang Fang took the lead in practicing the writer's urban aesthetic - de-sacral, non-moral - with a warm and delicate, wise and plain life writing posture, infiltrating the daily humanity and destiny of urban society. As a result, Fang Fang explored or gained a unique and rich urban aesthetic awareness and experience. A seemingly ordinary family event, but it contains the tearing of human nature between family affection, the transformation and paradox of love and hatred ("Sunset"); A rough and troubled family of urban citizens, but so many polarized human mutations ("Landscape"); Following the path of citizens' daily life, Fang Fang captures the magnificent and strange human "legends" behind "daily life". Through the urban love narrative, Fang Fang experiences the urban feeling of "male despair" and "love despair" persistently, and in the double despair space, he writes about the human distortion of urban women's "lady-slut" and the vicissitudes of fate of "where is my home" ("Peach Blossom Splendid", "The Sinking of the Boat", "Autumn Wind and Leaves", "Where is My Home", "Water Under Time", etc.). From the seemingly blunt theme of police and banditry, Fang Fang spied from the slices of "accidental" life (exploration) to the intertwining and restriction of urban life in that network structure, the ubiquitous historical entanglement and the game of human nature in the world, the casualness and accident, boredom or helplessness behind the sacred appearance of those "merits". Like Benjamin once described the "urban wanderer" of 19th-century Parisian society, Fang Fang can be regarded as the "wisdom elf" of contemporary Chinese urban aesthetics. She travels through all corners of urban society and urban life in a literary way, smelting or harvesting an urban aesthetic that belongs to contemporary China: the multipolar and infinite human variation of living life under the daily survival state of the city; The human legend of intertwined and biting games between people; Urban life and even our city itself, those fatalistic reincarnations of fate and endless desolation and absurdity. Therefore, we are pleased to observe that when the writer Fang Fang formed an urban aesthetic consciousness from the contemporary city, no matter what kind of life theme she faced, she showed the high quality and high energy of her creation. Like the long story "Water Under Time" in recent years, which describes the historical fate of the "man and city" of the famous Hankou water lantern, "Wuchang City" which describes the history of Wuhan's Northern Expedition, "Min's 1911" which describes the theme of Wuhan's Shouyi Xinhai Revolution, and the novella "Qin Break", "Going Out to Find Death", and "Ten Thousand Arrows Through the Heart" describing the laid-off female workers in Wuhan. We are also pleased to see that a group of writers who are in the thriving period of creation are practicing the creative migration from local aesthetics to urban aesthetics. For example, Henan writer Li Peifu, from "Sheep's Gate" to "The Lamp of the City", and recently across the contemporary city and contemporary countryside, he created a long "Book of Life" style of "urban and rural intertextuality"; Like Hubei writer Xiaosu, the "rape slope" novel series in the rural homeland and the "college campus" series of novels in the city; Like Liang Hong's non-fiction vernacular novel "China in Liangzhuang". Comparatively speaking, when writing about local themes, because they have a certain urban aesthetic experience as a reference, they have surpassed Shen Congwen's "local beauty, urban evil" urban-rural opposition writing mode, and presented a "urban-rural intertextual" text form and human consciousness; The aesthetic consciousness derived from traditional farming culture - natural beauty mode, moral rational spirit, and ethical function color - has been gradually replaced by the newborn urban aesthetic consciousness - materialized aesthetic method, urban cultural rational spirit, intelligent and objective human nature presentation. 3. A few thoughts: the related problems of urban aesthetic transformation The urban aesthetic transformation of literature, in the final analysis, may be the problems of literary practitioners in facing the city, experiencing urban culture and urban human nature, creative emotional posture, rational and experiential cognitive methods, and their artistic externalization methods. How to achieve urban aesthetic transformation? The following thoughts may provide some reference and path. First, go to the consciousness of "urban evil". Enter, understand, experience and grasp the city with a rational, wise and objective attitude. "Urban evil, rural beauty" is a literary consciousness represented by Shen Congwen in the 20s and 30s of the 20th century. From a deep point of view, it is the aesthetic consciousness of the agricultural era bred by the Eastern nation in the initial period of modern cities, the retreat and escape of the writer in the face of the "strange" modern city, and a kind of "romantic imagination" of the rural culture of the fading agrarian society. Imagining the pre-modern "vernacular" as an ideal society that conforms to human survival can neither withstand the test of history nor conform to the reality of the present. It is beautiful and beautiful, but it does not help the writer to have a deep and multi-directional understanding and experience of the modern city. Because the consciousness of "urban evil" is only an essential, one-way way of thinking, it is easy to obscure the richness and complexity of modern urban life. Like Shen Congwen's urban men and women, human nature is thin or single. Second, de-"moralize" the color. "Mortalized aesthetics" is an ethical aesthetic method formed in China's traditional patriarchal farming society. Strictly speaking, this is the intervention of "ethics" in "aesthetics", which can easily prompt our literary aesthetics to slide into the moral trap. The transformation of urban aesthetics means that we have changed from traditional moral aesthetics to "alienated" aesthetics of urban and urban human nature. For example, Cao Qiqiao in Zhang Ailing's "The Legend of the Golden Lock", such as the seventh brother in Fang Fang's "Landscape", Sister Li in "Ten Thousand Arrows Through the Heart", such as the five dragons in Su Tong's "Mi", the writer's so-called selfishness, greed, vulgarity, blood, and hatred of them are not judged from the level of "morality", but from the level of "alienation" of urban life to people, from the contradictions of the dimension of the character's "living", and write about the distortion, development and mutation of the character's personality. The writer abandoned the "moralized aesthetic", consciously or unconsciously wrote the "legend of human nature" under the "daily state" (Zhang Ailing) with the aesthetic vision of urban human nature. Third, go to "natural aesthetics". From the "natural aesthetics" of the farming era to the "urban materialized aesthetics", it may also be another path for the transformation of urban aesthetics. It is generally popular to say that the reinforced concrete of the city destroys the natural beauty and literary poetry of the small bridge and flowing water. This can only show that we are still standing in the "history" of the agricultural era to look at the contemporary city, time and space have changed for a hundred years, and we still continue and adhere to the vision and concept of "ancestors". In fact, in the "technocratic" (Heidegger) city, technology is nature. How to discover the urban beauty of "technological nature"? For example, the urban skyline of the jagged urban building complex has both the grandeur that pierces the sky and the vicissitudes of vague confusion; How many human pleasures and sins should lurk in the various secret spaces of the magic building; That hurried and noisy earthly city rushed with how many endless desires for life and how many secrets of life destiny were hidden. In the 30s of the 20th century, the Shanghai school writer Liu Naou's novel collection "Cityscape", Mu Shiying's novella "Five People in a Nightclub" and "Shanghai's Foxtrot Dance", will Shanghai city and human nature splendid and decadent, rapid and falling, Zhang Yang is also pale, the dizziness of things and the broken heart, making a poetic play and wise expression with urban material aesthetics. The German philosopher and historian Benjamin has long believed that urban artists should become the "spiritual wanderers" of the city - this is an excellent metaphor - only the "spiritual wanderer" can penetrate the lush and complex city and play the poetic legend of the city and human nature. Starting from the above problems of Chinese literature, this book establishes the "urban aesthetics" of literature as the research object, and takes the narrative mode of Chinese "Shanghai School" literature in the 20s and 40s of the 20th century as the research path, starting from "'Technological Geoterralization': The 'Materialization' Narrative of Shanghai School Literature"; "Urban Nightmares: The 'Transcendent Narrative' of Shanghai School Literature"; "Urban Women's Bodies: Narratives of the Women's Body in Shanghai School Literature"; The research paths and frameworks of "Civic Cultural Space: Multiple Narrative Methods of Shanghai Popular Literature" and other aspects make corresponding investigations and studies on the literary narrative and urban aesthetics of Shanghai literature. Our expected research goal is not only to systematically and pioneer the narrative mode of "Shanghai literature" in modern literary history, but also to provide the necessary urban literature practice experience and factual support of urban literature history for the study of urban aesthetic methods and aesthetic theories of Chinese literature, as well as the thinking and exploration of relevant Chinese urban literature theory.(AI翻译)

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GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文
李俊国.都市审美:海派文学叙事方式研究[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2015
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MLA 格式引文
李俊国.都市审美:海派文学叙事方式研究.北京,中国社会科学出版社:2015E-book.
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李俊国(2015).都市审美:海派文学叙事方式研究.北京:中国社会科学出版社
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