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中国新闻界的“半边天”

ISBN:978-7-5161-9494-2

出版日期:2016-08

页数:619

字数:638.0千字

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引用量:2次

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《中国新闻界的半边天》终于付梓面世,崇山老师的呕心沥血在这里画上句号。作为新闻同道,在惺惺相惜的同时,也感佩作者在泥沙俱下的信息洪流中,呈献出一幅全景式正面描述中国新闻界女性的历史画卷,假以填补此类著述的空白,其学术价值自有历史评判。

崇山老师执著于追求真理,她以自己得心应手的新闻调查切入,从没有过坐而论道的时光,这是我认识她30年来不变的印象。1983年,我初入人民日报社,新闻界自身正酝酿着诸多变革,其中就有崇山老师组队的新闻调查。当时,中国社会科学院新闻研究所借用着人民日报社的9号楼,我们碰面机会较多,每每见她都是手执课题,与年轻同道一起风风火火投入社会实践,以定性和定量分析相结合的实证研究方法,开展许多不同主题的读者调查,成了一种倒逼新闻真相的手段。那个时候,新闻改革如同其他一切领域的改革一样,让我们许多新闻人沉醉其间,而新闻实证研究的新颖和独创性,也让我们一线记者有一种紧迫感,及至影响了我后来的新闻写作。

1995年夏天,我们相聚在第四次世界妇女大会非政府论坛,都是《妇女与媒介》论坛的发言者,崇山老师的主旨发言正是《中国女新闻工作者现状与发展》调查报告,也是论坛上分量比较重的话题。三年后,我调入中国妇女报社,原以为见面机会无多,未料她对妇女与媒介话题热度不减,不仅上门采访了我,还义务为妇女报开展了多次读者调查。直到最近看到这本书稿,才知道世界妇女大会以后,她循着社会性别倡导与研究的方向“一条道走到底”,最终以这部著作回馈了世界妇女大会提出的问题。

那么,世界妇女大会究竟提出了什么问题呢?出席会议的各国政府首脑在那次会上共同签署了《行动纲领》,并以《北京宣言》的形式高调向世界发布。《行动纲领》向世界提出了12个关切领域,涉及到妇女生存发展的各个方面,包括了就业、教育、健康、环境、女童、反暴力和反贫困等等,其中的“妇女与媒介”就是个世界性的话题,它要求各国政府应“鼓励媒体塑造和采用非陈规定型、平衡和多元化的妇女形象”,“鼓励媒体不要将妇女描绘为低人一等的人和利用妇女作为性玩物和商品,而将妇女描绘为具有创造性的人、及其重要的行动者、发展进程的促进者和受益者”。还提出,大众媒体应“在符合言论自由原则下,制定专业准则和行为守则及其他的自律形式以促进表现非陈规定型的妇女形象”。提出“通过媒体宣传,促进平等分担家庭责任,在宣传中强调两性平等以及妇女和男子在家庭中的非陈规定型的性别角色”。说穿了,解决性别平等问题的核心要素是思想观念,为此中国政府制定的《中国妇女发展纲要》作出了积极的回应,提出“制定具有社会性别意识的文化和传媒政策,加大男女平等基本国策的宣传力度,增强全社会的社会性别意识,逐步消除对妇女的偏见、歧视以及贬抑妇女的社会观念,为妇女发展创造良好的社会环境”。

20年过去了,中国妇女的发展状况为世界瞩目,这12个领域的进化与国情发展大体是同步的,妇女在就业、健康、教育、卫生、婚姻家庭和反贫困等领域取得了长足的进步,而传媒、环境、女童、反暴力等领域则不尽如人意。作为传媒业的一员,我曾提出过尖锐的批评亦有自省,但也不否认这些领域取得的成绩。我把媒介与女性关系中呈现的变化概括为三个特点,即“半壁江山的发展格局,砥柱中流的发展态势和笑傲江湖的英雌轨迹”。

所谓半壁江山的发展格局,是指女性在传媒业的就业现状。根据国家新闻出版广电总局2016年6月20日发出的政府信息公开告知书(2016年广第168号)告知:全国新闻从业人员总数为900664人,其中女性为356211人,所占比例为39.55%。在核准持有新闻记者证的258126人中,有男性记者143964人,占55.77%,有女性记者114162人,占44.23%。持证记者的分布为:报纸记者100979人,期刊记者7434人,通讯社记者3087人,电台电视台记者145429人,新闻电影制片厂记者386人,中央重点网站记者801人。当然,还有大量从事网络媒体、自媒体和体制外媒体的人员未能统计进来。仅就这些数字来看,女记者的数量已经接近半壁江山。这和目前高等院校新闻传播院系中女学生的现况相符。

所谓砥柱中流的发展态势,是指传媒业女性的在岗状态。这些年,新闻界无疑经历着我们这个国家所有大事要事的考验,女新闻工作者的作为也通过大众传播得以呈现。传媒业女性进入决策层比例日渐增多,尤以广电系统为多,过去清一色男性领导的党报系统也出现了女性身影,而高层次人才成长速度超过了预见。我曾作为评委连续多年参加国家新闻出版行业高级职称评定,2008年以后,呈现出女比男多的趋势。比如,2010年评定的2009年度新闻行业高级职称87人,其中男性34人,女性53人;2011年评定高级职称92人,其中男性34人,女性58人。而出版行业连续多年的职称评定都是女性多于男性,新闻出版行业女性人才发展可见一斑。

所谓笑傲江湖的英雌轨迹,是借用了秋瑾前辈将英雄改为英雌的理念,这是对我们自身面对多重挑战的一种警醒。这多重挑战既有来自体制的,也有来自观念的。十数年前,在传统新闻体制的外围,出现了女性掌管的市场化传媒新军,几轮大浪淘沙,依然有阳光媒体集团、财新传媒、互动媒体集团笑傲江湖,她们创办了一批高度市场化的传媒产品,而其特立独行敢于面对挑战的行事风格也被社会所接纳。

曾几何时,我们对媒介女性发展态势既有乐观的一面,确也有保守的一面,谁会想到今天每个女性都会是自媒体的信息发布者,又怎会料到移动互联时代的“信息爆炸”如此这般。毋庸置疑,信息社会凸显了女性的优势,先进的生产力为两性平等创造了条件,体力劳动、机械劳动逐步为高智能劳动所替代,曾经比男人矮一截的女性,借助着“电子科技”这个巨人的肩膀,一下子长高长大。发达的肌肉绝不比聪明的大脑更“优越”,物质的变迁正在逐步调整社会的评价体系。

那么,我们身处“信息”时代,社会对于女性的评价是进步还是倒退了?普通女性在意识的深处是觉醒了还是愈加迷惘了?依我看是喜忧参半。“信息爆炸”会冲破思想的牢笼,但也同时会导致思想的迷乱。人们通常认为,20世纪末到21世纪初,中国女性进入了觉醒的时代。然而,运动式的“男女平等”竟出现悖论,许多人居然彻悟自己过去没有成为真正意义上的女人,政治上的矫枉过正剥蚀了女人的天性,要回归自己“女性”的角色中去,做一个真正完整的女人。这个“觉醒”的标志体现在服装、化妆、性的解放上,也烙印在职业的选择上,甚至表现在气质和形态的描述与追求上,盲目找回“女人味儿”,却不去追究女人到底该是什么“味儿”,重新陷入刻板规范的窠臼。一些大学和中学增设了淑女教程,一些民间机构开办了所谓贞洁讲座,却绕开女性全面发展的本质要求。身在其间的传媒业女性自然也绕不开这些话题,一味地盲从使得传媒业乱象复出,真的是令人痛心。

“妇女与媒介”涵盖了精神与物质两个层面,既是一个宣誓的载体,又是一个行动的方面军,是一个因属性难以量化而缺乏刚性的执行机构。其要义绝不限于这个领域的女性成长,抑或是纲领字面上的女性参与,首当其要的应是媒介在传播过程中的社会性别倡导,总体目标应当是媒介和社会机制统一而有序地为社会性别意识纳入决策主流而共同努力,但媒介自身并不会产生这样的自觉。这倒让人想起那句老话“扫帚不到,灰尘照例不会自己跑掉。”20年的实践告诉我们,仅有纲领是不够的,有一个两个机构执行、推动或者监督也是不够的。必须把提高媒体从业者的社会性别意识作为一项长期工作,传媒业女性更当有一种自觉,将惯有的性别刻板印象量化为过街的老鼠,形成人人喊打的态势。

如果说新闻媒体是社会性别倡导的先头部队,那么传媒业女性理当成为排头兵,当性别文化依然烙印着父权和夫权阴影时,我们一定不可随波逐流。媒体话语中对女性形象的塑造固然是社会现实的映射,而我们在传播中要多元化的女性形象,让更多弱者的身影以正面形象进入主流视线。在报道女性相关议题和处理相关话语时,应该把握客观、公正的立场。在制定报道方针的时候,坚持社会性别分析的视角,坚持性别平等的立场,不要把女性形象刻板化、定式化,注意均衡、多元化的呈现。即便是女性形象的呈现,也应当关注不同阶层妇女的声音,对于涉及妇女儿童权益的问题,应当在揭露的同时给予分析。对于各地维护妇女儿童权益的经验和思想理论研究成果,应该积极学习和传播,引导更多妇女参与传播参与意见。像妇女土地权益、男女平等退休、妇女阶段性就业等话题,通过讨论而影响决策。媒体揭示社会问题的程度和质量直接决定着是否能进入到公共政策的“问题构建”中,进而为公共部门提供有效的解决方案,这意味着公共部门在政策采纳过程中将更倾向于此,能有效地促进政府的积极关注和果断治理,从而能够对真正的社会问题找到正确的方案,成功地“化解问题”。而在“政策评估”过程中,新闻从业者应发挥自身优势地位,监督该公共政策执行的力度、品质以及将政策放到实际中去的“贴合程度”,判断政策的缺憾,进而谏言,以不断完善公共政策。

我们向往着性别平等的社会,向往着善于运用各种机制协调冲突和矛盾的社会。毋庸回避,在传媒商业化和消费主义膨胀的态势下,新的性别歧视和妇女回家的思潮还在泛滥,越来越多的女性正遭遇着享乐主义思潮的影响,仍在传统社会分工定型化中迷惘,愿意回归家庭的女性不在少数,大众传媒依然模糊着两性的所属,模糊着信息传播,削弱着新闻女性应有的锐利。

男女平等基本国策的贯彻落实,男女两性的平等发展,和睦相处是建设和谐社会的基础。今天,国家已经从构建和谐社会的高度来认识和解决妇女发展与男女平等问题。正在开始把男女平等与人口、资源、环境等人类社会生存发展面临的基本问题放在同等重要的位置,提升到国策的高度,这体现出党和国家对妇女发展的高度重视,以及对构建和谐社会的深层思考。发达国家的先例证明,经济增长并不能替代妇女的进步,社会进步也不等于妇女进步,性别问题具有超阶级、跨阶段的特征,必须通过法律、政策、教育、舆论等手段,在推动经济社会发展的同时,解决妇女的全面发展问题,使妇女与男子同步发展,与社会发展和谐一致。广大女新闻工作者也将在其间获得自由与新生。

Lu Xiaofei's "Half the Sky of Chinese Journalism" was finally published, and Mr. Chongshan's painstaking efforts came to an end here. As a fellow journalist, while cherishing each other, I also admire the author's panoramic and positive historical picture of women in Chinese journalism in the torrent of information under the mud and sand, in order to fill the gap of such writings, its academic value has its own historical judgment. Teacher Chongshan is obsessed with the pursuit of truth, and she has never had a time sitting and talking with her handy news investigation, which is my impression of knowing her for 30 years. When I first joined the People's Daily in 1983, many changes were brewing in the press itself, including a journalistic investigation organized by Mr. Chongshan. At that time, the Institute of Journalism of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences borrowed Building 9 of the People's Daily, and we had many opportunities to meet, and every time we saw her, she was always holding a topic, working with young colleagues to put into social practice, using empirical research methods combining qualitative and quantitative analysis, carrying out reader surveys on many different topics, which became a means to force the truth of the news. At that time, journalism reform, like all other reforms, fascinated many of us journalists, and the novelty and originality of empirical research on journalism also gave our front-line journalists a sense of urgency, which even influenced my later news writing. In the summer of 1995, we gathered at the NGO Forum of the Fourth World Conference on Women, all of whom were speakers of the forum "Women and the Media", and Professor Chongshan's keynote speech was the survey report "The Status and Development of Women Journalists in China", which was also a relatively important topic on the forum. Three years later, when I transferred to the China Women's Daily, I thought there would be few opportunities to meet, but she not only interviewed me at home, but also conducted many reader surveys for the Women's Daily. It was not until I recently read the manuscript of this book that she learned that after the World Conference on Women, she followed the direction of gender advocacy and research "one way to the end", and finally used this book to give back to the questions raised by the World Conference on Women. So, what exactly did the World Conference on Women raise? At that meeting, the heads of government jointly signed the Platform for Action, which was released to the world in the form of the Beijing Declaration. The Programme of Action addresses 12 areas of concern to the world on all aspects of women's survival and development, including employment, education, health, the environment, the girl child, anti-violence and anti-poverty, among which "women and the media" is a worldwide topic, which requires Governments to "encourage the media to create and adopt non-stereotypical, balanced and pluralistic images of women" and "encourage the media not to portray women as inferior and to use them as sex objects and commodities", and portrayal women as creative beings, as important actors, facilitators and beneficiaries of the development process". It was also suggested that the mass media should "develop professional norms and codes of conduct and other forms of self-regulation, consistent with the principle of freedom of expression, to promote the representation of non-stereotypical images of women". It was proposed to "promote the equal sharing of family responsibilities through media campaigns, emphasizing gender equality and non-stereotypical gender roles of women and men in the family". To put it bluntly, the core element in solving the problem of gender equality is ideology, and the "Program for the Development of Chinese Women" formulated by the Chinese government has responded positively, proposing to "formulate gender-conscious cultural and media policies, increase the publicity of the basic national policy of gender equality, enhance the gender awareness of the whole society, gradually eliminate prejudice, discrimination against women and social concepts that demean women, and create a good social environment for women's development". Twenty years later, the development of Chinese women has attracted the attention of the world, and the evolution of these 12 fields has generally synchronized with the development of national conditions, and women have made great progress in the fields of employment, health, education, hygiene, marriage and family, and anti-poverty, while the media, environment, girls, anti-violence and other fields are not satisfactory. As a member of the media industry, I have made sharp criticisms and introspection, but I do not deny the achievements in these areas. I summarize the changes in the relationship between media and women into three characteristics, namely, "the development pattern of half of the rivers and mountains, the development trend of the mainstay and the heroic trajectory of the smiling rivers and lakes". The so-called half-country development pattern refers to the employment status of women in the media industry. According to the State Administration of Press, Publication, Radio, Film and Television issued the Notice on Open Government Information (Guang No. 168 of 2016) on June 20, 2016, the total number of journalists in the country is 900664, of which 356211 are women, accounting for 39.55%. Of the 258126 approved press cards, 143964 (55.77 per cent) were male journalists and 114162 were female journalists (44.23 per cent). The distribution of certified journalists is: 100979 newspaper reporters, 7,434 periodical reporters, 3,087 news agency reporters, 145429 radio and television reporters, 386 news film studio reporters, and 801 reporters from central key websites. Of course, there are still a large number of people engaged in online media, self-media and non-institutional media who have not been counted. In these figures alone, the number of women journalists is close to half. This is in line with the current situation of female students in the faculties of journalism and communication in higher education institutions. The so-called development trend of the mainstay refers to the status of women in the media industry. Over the years, the press has undoubtedly been tested by all the major events in our country, and the work of women journalists has also been demonstrated through mass communication. The proportion of women in the media industry entering the decision-making level is increasing, especially in the radio and television system, and women have also appeared in the party newspaper system that used to be dominated by all men, and the growth rate of high-level talent has exceeded foreseeing. As a judge, I have participated in the evaluation of senior professional titles in the national press and publication industry for many years, and since 2008, there has been a trend of more women than men. For example, in 2010, 87 people were rated with senior titles in the news industry in 2009, including 34 men and 53 women; In 2011, 92 people were rated with senior professional titles, including 34 men and 58 women. The title evaluation of the publishing industry for many years has been more women than men, which shows the development of female talents in the news and publishing industry. The so-called heroic trajectory of smiling rivers and lakes is borrowed from Qiu Jin's predecessor's concept of changing heroes to heroes, which is a wake-up call to our own multiple challenges. These multiple challenges come from both institutional and conceptual aspects. More than a decade ago, on the periphery of the traditional news system, there was a new army of market-oriented media led by women, and after several rounds of big waves, there are still sunshine media group, Caixin media, interactive media group Xiaoao Jianghu, they have created a number of highly market-oriented media products, and their maverick style of daring to face challenges has also been accepted by society. Once upon a time, we had both an optimistic side and a conservative side to the development trend of media women, who would have thought that every woman today would be a self-media information publisher, and how could they have expected that the "information explosion" in the mobile Internet era was so so. Undoubtedly, the information society highlights the advantages of women, advanced productive forces create conditions for gender equality, manual labor and mechanical labor are gradually replaced by highly intelligent labor, and women who were once shorter than men suddenly grow taller with the help of the shoulders of the giant "electronic technology". Developed muscles are by no means "superior" to intelligent brains, and material changes are gradually adjusting the evaluation system of society. So, we are in the "information" age, is society's evaluation of women progressing or regressing? Are ordinary women awakening or becoming more confused in the depths of consciousness? In my opinion, it is a mixed blessing. The "information explosion" will break through the cage of ideas, but it will also lead to confusion of thoughts. It is often believed that Chinese women entered an era of awakening in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. However, there is a paradox in the sporty "equality between men and women", and many people actually realize that they have not become women in the true sense of the word, and that political overkill has eroded women's nature, and they want to return to their role as "women" and be a truly complete woman. The symbol of this "awakening" is reflected in the liberation of clothing, makeup, sex, but also imprinted in the choice of occupation, and even in the description and pursuit of temperament and form, blindly finding "femininity", but not pursuing what "taste" a woman should be, and falling back into the stereotype of norms. Some universities and secondary schools have added ladies courses, and some private institutions have held so-called chastity lectures, but they have bypassed the essential requirements of women's all-round development. Women in the media industry in the middle of it naturally can't avoid these topics, and blindly obeying the chaos in the media industry makes a comeback, which is really sad. "Women and the Media" covers both the spiritual and material dimensions, serving as both a vehicle for oath and a front for action, an executive body that lacks rigidity due to its difficult to quantify attributes. The essence should be limited to the growth of women in this field, or the literal participation of women in the program, the first priority should be the gender advocacy of the media in the process of communication, and the overall goal should be that the media and social mechanisms work together in a unified and orderly manner to mainstream gender consciousness into decision-making, but the media itself does not produce such consciousness. It's reminiscent of the old saying "if you don't reach a broom, dust doesn't run away on its own." "20 years of practice have taught us that it is not enough to have a program alone, nor is it enough to have one or two institutions to implement, promote or supervise. Raising the gender awareness of media practitioners must be a long-term task, and women in the media industry should have a sense of self-consciousness to quantify the habitual gender stereotypes as rats crossing the street, forming a situation where everyone shouts and fights. If the news media is the vanguard of gender advocacy, then women in the media industry should be the vanguard, and we must not follow the trend when gender culture is still imprinted with the shadow of patriarchy and patriarchy. The shaping of women's images in media discourse is certainly a reflection of social reality, and we should diversify women's images in communication, so that more weak figures can enter the mainstream with positive images. When reporting on women-related issues and dealing with related discourse, we should take an objective and fair standpoint. When formulating reporting guidelines, adhere to the perspective of gender analysis, adhere to the position of gender equality, do not stereotype and stereotype the image of women, and pay attention to balanced and diversified presentation. Even the presentation of women's images should pay attention to the voices of women of different strata, and issues involving the rights and interests of women and children should be exposed and analyzed. The experience and ideological and theoretical research results of safeguarding the rights and interests of women and children in various localities should be actively studied and disseminated, and more women should be guided to participate in the dissemination of opinions on participation. Topics such as women's land rights, equal retirement for men and women, and women's phased employment are discussed to influence decision-making. The extent and quality of social problems revealed by the media directly determine whether they can enter the "problem construction" of public policies, and then provide effective solutions for the public sector, which means that the public sector will be more inclined to this in the process of policy adoption, which can effectively promote the government's active attention and decisive governance, so as to find the right solution to the real social problem and successfully "resolve the problem". In the process of "policy evaluation", journalists should give full play to their own advantageous position, supervise the strength and quality of the implementation of the public policy, and the "degree of fit" of the policy into practice, judge the shortcomings of the policy, and then make suggestions to continuously improve the public policy. We aspire to a society that is gender-equal and that is good at using mechanisms to reconcile conflicts and contradictions. There is no need to avoid that under the trend of media commercialization and consumerism, new gender discrimination and the idea of women returning home are still rampant, more and more women are experiencing the influence of hedonistic thought, still confused in the stereotyping of traditional social division of labor, there are not a few women willing to return to the family, the mass media still blur the belonging of the sexes, blur the dissemination of information, and weaken the sharpness that news women should have. The implementation of the basic national policy of equality between men and women, the equal development of men and women and harmonious coexistence are the basis for building a harmonious society. Today, the state has recognized and solved the issues of women's development and gender equality from the perspective of building a harmonious society. It is beginning to put gender equality in the same important position as the basic issues facing the survival and development of human society, such as population, resources and environment, and raise it to the height of national policy, which reflects the great importance that the party and the state attach to women's development and think deeply about building a harmonious society. The precedents of developed countries prove that economic growth cannot replace women's progress, social progress does not equal women's progress, gender issues have super-class and cross-stage characteristics, and it is necessary to promote economic and social development through laws, policies, education, public opinion and other means, while solving the problem of women's comprehensive development, so that women and men develop in tandem and in harmony with social development. Women journalists will also be free and reborn in the process.(AI翻译)

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GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文
陈崇山.中国新闻界的“半边天”[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2016
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MLA 格式引文
陈崇山.中国新闻界的“半边天”.北京,中国社会科学出版社:2016E-book.
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APA 格式引文
陈崇山(2016).中国新闻界的“半边天”.北京:中国社会科学出版社
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