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西部农村少数民族劳动力转移问题研究:基于民族地区农村微观数据

STUDY ON ETHNIC MINORITY'S MIGRANTS IN WEST RURAL CHINA:Based on the Micro Data from Rural Ethnic Areas

ISBN:978-7-5161-1346-2

出版日期:2012-08

页数:336

字数:260.0千字

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图书简介

本书是在本人主持的青年社科基金项目“西部农村少数民族劳动力转移问题研究”(批准号:06CMZ013)基础上拓展、整理和修改后完成的,这也是对本人2004年进入中国社会科学院民族学与人类学研究所经济与社会发展研究室后多年研究成果的再整合。

世界各国的经济发展历程和发展经济学理论,都证实了农村劳动力过剩以及农村地区人口向城市持续转移是农业社会向工业社会发展过程中必有的特征。我国20世纪70年代末80年代初开始自发出现农村劳动力转移,之后规模逐渐增加,到20世纪90年代形成了“民工潮”。中国发展研究基金会的《中国发展报告2010》指出,到2030年,中国的城镇化进程将出现4亿农民进城变市民的大潮。而中国社会科学院副秘书长、学部主席团秘书长、学部委员郝时远研究员也撰文认为,在未来10年西部地区加快发展甚至是跨越式发展的进程中,少数民族聚居地区将迎来前所未有的人口流动高潮:一是当地农牧民向城镇流动;二是内地农民工向这些地区流动;三是当地农牧民向内地、东部地区流动。因而,关注并研究农村少数民族劳动力转移不仅是当前也是今后相当时期内的研究热点。

事实上,本人从2005年即开始关注农村少数民族劳动力转移问题,并着手搜集国内外相关研究资料。虽然主流经济学对农村劳动力转移的研究不断深入,但关于少数民族农村劳动力转移的实证研究还不是很多。究其原因主要是由于高质量、大样本的调查数据的缺乏。从全国范围看,目前,关于少数民族较为具体的经济状况的微观数据主要由三个渠道获得:其一是人口普查资料,其二是公开出版的《民族统计年鉴》等各类年鉴,其三是不同研究部门通过问卷调查得到的数据。但这三个渠道都存在不同程度的不足,第一种和第二种渠道的经济数据不够全面,例如,缺乏全国范围的少数民族分族别的收入等数据,此外,我们无法得到微观的家庭和个人数据,因而无法就此作出微观分析。第三种渠道获得的数据,如果在样本抽样、调查方式等方面存在缺陷,其应用范围和分析研究后得到的结论就不够令人信服。而限于调查费用和严格的审批手续,委托国家统计局得到民族地区少数民族专项调查数据的难度较之东、中部地区更为困难。有幸的是,本书使用的两套数据均为高质量、大样本,且适宜用于微观计量分析。其一是来自中国社会科学院经济所2002年对全国23个省、自治区、直辖市的农村住户和行政村的调查数据(CHIP数据),该数据在国内外享有很高的知名度,是国内外专家研究我国经济问题的重要数据之一。其二是2007年中国社会科学院民族学与人类学研究所委托国家统计局宁夏调查总队对宁夏回族自治区农村和城市住户的2006年调查数据。调查问卷的设计得到了国内外一些著名经济学家的指导,从而保证了数据的高效使用。同时,该数据样本是从宁夏调查总队的大样本框中随机抽取,涉及宁夏回族自治区全部五个辖区,城镇样本量为800户家庭,农村样本量为1190户家庭,行政村120个。虽然从时间上看,这两套数据略显陈旧,但鉴于数据公开使用的年限限制,及对数据清理、分析研究所需的时间,尤其是目前国内外还非常缺乏与本书相类似的基于微观数据的研究成果,本书中所使用的微观计量方法对农村少数民族劳动力转移的深层次原因分析和探讨仍具有一定的创新性。

我国是一个多民族国家,民族视角的研究意义毋庸置疑。中国社会科学院经济研究所副所长、学部委员朱玲研究员在《如何突破贫困陷阱——滇青甘农牧藏区案例研究》中写道:“近30年来,中国的汉族‘农民工’进城谋生所经历的艰难困苦,已广为人知。少数民族聚居区的农牧民若作出同样的就业选择,还将面临更多的障碍,例如由语言和文化差异带来的困难,乡村迁移人口面临的一些制度性障碍,城镇原有居民对迁移者或多或少的歧视,迁移劳动者就业中遭遇的劳资矛盾,等等,一旦处置不当,就可能引发社会冲突。这些问题若涉及不同的族群,则很容易演化为民族冲突。”本人非常赞同这一观点。同时,也在本书的各章中试图通过模型变量将语言、文化、习俗、社会网络等具有不同民族特点的内容在统计结果中显现出来,以利于汉族和少数民族、不同少数民族之间的定量比较和分析研究。

本书共有八章,其中有些章节是源于本人在国内外已发表的研究论文,同时比较注重根据不同内容进行已有研究文献的回顾。除导言外,全书共分为四大部分:第一部分包括第一章和第二章,主要是结合西部民族八省区的宏观数据和2006年宁夏回族自治区行政村、农户、个人三个层次的微观调查数据,揭示了民族地区尤其是宁夏回族自治区农村劳动力转移的整体概况和经济、社会背景。第二部分即第三章,主要利用2002年调查数据,从全国范围比较了汉族村和少数民族村以及少数民族村中壮族村、回族村、维吾尔族村、彝族村、苗族村、满族村和其他少数民族村中劳动力向外转移的异同。第三部分涵盖了第四章和第五章。第四章比较了汉族和少数民族在收入分配上的差距,内容涉及农村和城镇。第五章从贫困入手分析研究了2000—2002年期间,农村中汉族和少数民族暂时贫困和长期贫困家庭的特点及贫困变动情况。第四部分也就是第六章和第七章,根据2006年宁夏回族自治区调查数据,不仅对宁夏回族自治区农村劳动力不同民族外出转移的特征、行业分布和就业状况进行了统计分析和阐述,而且通过多重选择Logit概率模型,对宁夏农村劳动力中汉族和回族的五类人群,即县城内转移的人群,自治区内县城外转移的人群,自治区外相邻省区的转移人群,自治区外非相邻省区的转移人群和不转移人群的个人、家庭、行政村三个层面的影响因素进行了分析研究。

丁赛

2011年8月19日

This book is expanded, sorted out and revised on the basis of the Youth Social Science Fund project "Research on the Transfer of Labor of Ethnic Minorities in Western China" (approval number: 06CMZ013), which is also a re-integration of my research results after entering the Economic and Social Development Research Department of the Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences in 2004. The economic development process and development economics theories of all countries in the world have confirmed that the surplus of rural labor and the continuous transfer of rural population to cities are necessary characteristics in the process of agricultural society to industrial social development. In the late 70s and early 80s of the 20th century, China's rural labor force transfer began to spontaneously, and then the scale gradually increased, and by the 90s of the 20th century, a "wave of migrant workers" was formed. According to the China Development Report 2010 by the China Development Research Foundation, by 2030, China's urbanization process will see a wave of 400 million farmers moving to cities and becoming citizens. Professor Hao Shiyuan, deputy secretary-general of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, secretary general of the presidium of the faculty, and member of the faculty, also wrote that in the process of accelerating the development of the western region or even leapfrogging development in the next 10 years, areas inhabited by ethnic minorities will usher in an unprecedented upsurge of population mobility: first, local farmers and herdsmen will move to cities and towns; Second, the migration of migrant workers from the interior to these areas; Third, local farmers and herdsmen have moved to the interior and eastern regions. Therefore, paying attention to and studying the labor transfer of rural ethnic minorities is not only a research hotspot at present but also for a considerable period of time in the future. In fact, since 2005, I have been concerned about the transfer of labor from rural ethnic minorities and have begun to collect relevant research materials at home and abroad. Although mainstream economics has been deepening the research on rural labor transfer, there are not many empirical studies on rural labor transfer of ethnic minorities. The reason for this is mainly due to the lack of high-quality, large-sample survey data. From a national perspective, at present, micro-data on the more specific economic situation of ethnic minorities are mainly obtained from three sources: one is census data, the other is the publicly published "Ethnic Statistics Yearbook" and other yearbooks, and the third is the data obtained by different research departments through questionnaire surveys. However, all three channels have varying degrees of deficiencies, the first and second sources of economic data are incomplete, for example, the lack of nationwide data on the income of ethnic minorities, and the fact that we do not have access to micro-household and personal data and therefore cannot make micro-analyses on them. If the data obtained from the third channel have shortcomings in sample sampling, survey methods, etc., their application scope and conclusions after analysis and research are not convincing enough. However, limited to the cost of the survey and strict approval procedures, it is more difficult to entrust the National Bureau of Statistics to obtain special survey data on ethnic minorities in ethnic minority areas than in the eastern and central regions. Fortunately, both sets of data used in this book are of high quality, large samples, and suitable for microeconometric analysis. The first is the survey data (CHIP data) from the Institute of Economics of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences in 2002 on rural households and administrative villages in 23 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the Central Government, which enjoys a high reputation at home and abroad and is one of the important data for domestic and foreign experts to study China's economic problems. The second is the 2006 survey data of rural and urban households in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region commissioned by the Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences in 2007 by the Ningxia Survey Corps of the National Bureau of Statistics. The design of the questionnaire has been guided by some well-known economists at home and abroad, thus ensuring the efficient use of data. At the same time, the data sample was randomly selected from the large sample frame of the Ningxia Investigation Corps, involving all five jurisdictions of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, with a sample size of 800 urban households, 1190 rural households and 120 administrative villages. Although these two sets of data are slightly old in terms of time, in view of the limitation of the number of years of public use of data, and the time required for data cleaning and analysis and research, especially the current lack of microdata-based research results similar to this book at home and abroad, the micrometric methods used in this book are still innovative in the analysis and discussion of the deep-seated causes of rural minority labor transfer. China is a multi-ethnic country, and the significance of research from a national perspective is undoubted. Zhu Ling, deputy director of the Institute of Economics of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences and member of the Faculty of Sciences, wrote in "How to Break Through the Poverty Trap - A Case Study of Yunnan-Qinggan-Gannong and Tibetan Pastoral Areas": "In the past 30 years, the hardships and hardships experienced by China's Han 'migrant workers' in moving to cities to seek a living have been widely known. If farmers and herdsmen in ethnic minority areas make the same employment choices, they will face more obstacles, such as difficulties caused by language and cultural differences, some institutional obstacles faced by rural migrants, more or less discrimination against migrants by original urban residents, labor conflicts encountered by migrant workers in employment, etc., which may lead to social conflicts if not handled properly. When these issues involve different ethnic groups, they can easily evolve into ethnic conflicts. "I very much agree with this view. At the same time, in the chapters of this book, an attempt is made to show the content with different ethnic characteristics such as language, culture, customs, and social networks in the statistical results through model variables, so as to facilitate quantitative comparison and analysis between Han and ethnic minorities and different ethnic minorities. This book has eight chapters, some of which are derived from my published research papers at home and abroad, and pay more attention to reviewing existing research literature according to different contents. In addition to the introduction, the book is divided into four parts: the first part includes the first chapter and the second chapter, mainly combining the macro data of the eight provinces and regions of the western ethnic group and the micro-survey data of the administrative villages, peasant households and individuals of the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region in 2006, revealing the overall overview and economic and social background of rural labor transfer in ethnic areas, especially in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region. The second part, chapter III, mainly uses the 2002 survey data to compare the similarities and differences in the transfer of labor in Han and ethnic villages, as well as in Zhuang, Hui, Uyghur, Yi, Miao, Manchu and other ethnic minority villages nationwide. Part III covers chapters IV and V. Chapter 4 compares the disparity in income distribution between Han and ethnic minorities, covering rural and urban areas. Chapter 5 analyzes and studies the characteristics and changes of temporary and long-term poverty households of Han and ethnic minorities in rural areas from 2000 to 2002. The fourth part, namely Chapters 6 and 7, according to the survey data of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region in 2006, not only the characteristics, industry distribution and employment status of different ethnic groups of rural labor in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region are statistically analyzed and elaborated, but also through the multiple choice Logit probability model, the five categories of Han and Hui groups in Ningxia's rural labor force, namely, the people transferred within the county town, the people transferred outside the county town in the autonomous region, and the transfer population from neighboring provinces and regions outside the autonomous region. The influencing factors of the individual, family and administrative village of the non-neighboring provinces outside the autonomous region were analyzed and studied. Dingsai, August 19, 2011(AI翻译)

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GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文
丁赛.西部农村少数民族劳动力转移问题研究:基于民族地区农村微观数据[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2012
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MLA 格式引文
丁赛.西部农村少数民族劳动力转移问题研究:基于民族地区农村微观数据.北京,中国社会科学出版社:2012E-book.
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丁赛(2012).西部农村少数民族劳动力转移问题研究:基于民族地区农村微观数据.北京:中国社会科学出版社
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