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中国特色社会主义政治经济学探索

ISBN:978-7-5161-8763-0

出版日期:2016-08

页数:375

字数:375.0千字

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王伟光2995659

今天,中国社会科学院党组举办马克思主义政治经济学培训班,请经济学部八个研究所和马研院处室级以上领导干部学习马克思主义政治经济学基本原理,学习习近平总书记在主持中共中央政治局第二十八次集体学习时的重要讲话。学习马克思主义政治经济学,学习习近平总书记中国特色社会主义政治经济学思想,这只是一个开头。真正地学懂,真信、真用恐怕还得下大功夫,花很长一段时间。这里,我代表党组作一个学习动员。

2015年11月23日,中共中央政治局就马克思主义政治经济学基本原理和方法论进行了第二十八次集体学习,习近平总书记发表重要讲话。他强调:“马克思主义政治经济学是马克思主义的重要组成部分,也是我们坚持和发展马克思主义的必修课。”要认真学习贯彻习近平总书记关于坚持和发展马克思主义政治经济学的重要讲话精神,学会运用马克思主义政治经济学的立场、观点、方法,真学、真懂、真信、真用马克思主义政治经济学。要通过学习马克思主义政治经济学,深化对我国社会主义经济发展规律的认识和把握,提高我们领导中国特色社会主义经济发展的能力和水平。要通过学习马克思主义政治经济学,正确认识当代资本主义内在矛盾及其发展趋势,科学认识人类社会发展规律、社会历史发展必然趋势和当代世界发展格局及其国际形势,提高我们处理国际问题的能力和水平。要通过学习马克思主义政治经济学,总结中国特色社会主义建设的新鲜经验,回答我国经济社会发展面临的新阶段、新情况、新问题,构建中国特色社会主义政治经济学,实现马克思主义政治经济学的创新发展。

今天在这里组织大家学习,对于我们中国社会科学院从事经济学研究的同志来说,主要是通过学习马克思主义政治经济学的基本原理,学习习近平总书记的重要讲话精神,掌握马克思主义政治经济学的立场、观点、方法,掌握科学的世界观、方法论,运用于对我国经济发展的研究、对党和国家重大理论和现实问题的研究、对中国特色社会主义政治经济学的研究。

下面,我谈四个问题。

一 马克思主义政治经济学是揭示经济社会发展客观规律的真理,是工人阶级政党领导革命、建设和改革的理论指南

恩格斯评价马克思的一生,认为马克思有两个伟大发现:一个是唯物史观,另一个是剩余价值理论。他指出:“正像达尔文发现有机界的发展规律一样,马克思发现了人类历史的发展规律……不仅如此。马克思还发现了现代资本主义生产方式和它所产生的资产阶级社会的特殊的运动规律。由于剩余价值的发现,这里就豁然开朗了,而先前无论资产阶级经济学家或者社会主义批评家所做的一切研究都只是在黑暗中摸索。”“一生中能有这样两个发现,该是很够了。”2995660在马克思之前,人类对自身社会及其历史的认识,是唯心主义历史观占据统治地位。如果没有马克思的唯物史观和剩余价值理论,人类对历史规律和资本主义社会规律的认识还在黑暗中摸索前进。可以说,迄今没有任何一个历史观能够超过马克思的历史观对人类社会及其历史规律的科学揭示。马克思运用科学的历史观分析资本主义社会的经济现象,创立了剩余价值理论,从而揭示了资本主义的内在矛盾,预示了资本主义必然要灭亡,要由更高的社会形态来代替资本主义这样一个历史发展的客观规律,从而使社会主义由空想变成科学,创立了科学社会主义理论。科学社会主义的创立,为无产阶级政党领导无产阶级及其劳动人民群众推翻剥削制度,建立一个没有剥削、没有压迫的新的社会形态,提供了全部的理论根据和思想武器。马克思主义政治经济学是建立在剩余价值理论基础上的科学的理论体系,它是经过时间和实践检验的真理。

马克思主义政治经济学最基本的代表著作就是《资本论》,是马克思耗费四十年时间倾力所著。《资本论》耗时之长久、内容之丰富、道理之深邃,是我们所处的这个时代任何社会科学著作都无法比拟的。马克思在伦敦写作《资本论》,主要依靠大英博物馆的资料,从早到晚付出了极其艰辛的劳动,创造了科学的巨作。《资本论》从商品的二重性、劳动的二重性分析入手,揭示了整个资本主义的内在矛盾,逻辑性之严密、理论论证之精湛,是任何理论思维不经过多次的深入研读所无法理解的。《资本论》被称赞是“射向资产者最厉害的炮弹”,是献给工人阶级的“圣经”,是马克思主义的“百科全书”。恩格斯认为,无产阶级政党的“全部理论内容来自对政治经济学的研究”。2995661列宁称其为马克思主义理论“最深刻、最全面、最详尽的证明和运用”。2995662马克思的《资本论》为我们今天研究人类历史发展规律、我国的社会主义经济和世界经济提供了基本的立场、观点和方法。

一是立场。什么立场?就是站在工人阶级和劳动人民群众的立场上。马克思主义政治经济学,前面两个字叫“政治”,政治是什么?在阶级社会中,讲政治,首先讲站在什么阶级立场上,也就是说,政治的根本问题是站在什么人的立场上来看问题。马克思恩格斯虽然不是工人阶级家庭出身,但是,他们是站在工人阶级立场上来看待资本主义经济现象的。立场问题是非常重要的,是第一位的。我们反复讲,今天,在社会主义条件下,哲学社会科学研究必须首先解决为什么人的问题,也就是为什么要研究问题,站在什么立场上为谁说话,这是个根本立场问题、根本政治问题。马克思主义政治经济学为政治经济学的基本立场。

二是观点。马克思主义政治经济学,为我们提供了认识问题的基本原理和重要观点。马克思主义政治经济学最基本的原理,一个是劳动价值论,另一个是剩余价值论,马克思把这两个问题都解决了。马克思的劳动价值论必然导引出剩余价值论,马克思主义政治经济学超越了英国古典经济学。英国古典经济学提出了劳动价值论,认为劳动创造价值,劳动是价值的源泉。但是,由于英国古典经济学不懂得劳动的二重性,不懂得具体劳动创造使用价值、抽象劳动创造价值,把劳动与劳动力二者相混淆,因而其劳动价值论是不彻底的,不可能得出剩余价值的正确结论。马克思突破了英国古典经济学的劳动价值论,创立了彻底的劳动价值论,回答了英国古典经济学所不能回答的问题。马克思告诉我们,只有人的活劳动和生产资料相结合,才能增值,即才能产生新的价值。其他任何生产要素本身都不能带来原有价值基础上的增值。再一个就是剩余价值论。在马克思主义政治经济学中,劳动和劳动力是有区别的。在资本主义市场经济中,劳动力成为商品,工人出卖的是自己的劳动力,资本家购买了工人的劳动力。工人在生产过程中付出了自己的活劳动,与生产资料相结合,创造出了新价值。然而,资本家付给工人的工资只是劳动力作为商品的价值,并不是工人劳动创造的全部价值。这样,工人付出劳动所创造的价值减去劳动力的价值,就是剩余价值,这就是资本主义剥削的秘密。从劳动价值论和剩余价值论出发,马克思创造了一系列范畴、观点和原理,如商品与商品的二重性、劳动与劳动的二重性、价值与价值规律、资本与劳动、生产与再生产、周期性经济危机等,从而揭示了资本主义内在矛盾、经济运行规律以及必然灭亡的历史趋势。

三是方法。唯物辩证法是马克思《资本论》的方法论。《资本论》是政治经济学巨著,也是一本马克思主义哲学巨著,正是运用唯物辩证法、唯物史观,马克思才精辟地揭示了资本主义经济发展规律及其内在矛盾。从基本经济事实出发认识资本主义,就是唯物论的分析方法。从商品的二重性分析入手引出劳动的二重性,从劳动的二重性分析入手引出了资本主义不可克服的内在矛盾,引出了资本主义阵发性的经济危机,揭示出资本主义在周期性的经济危机中不断地走向坟墓的历史必然性。同时指出,在资本主义发展进程中,造就了它的对立面,造就了它的掘墓人,必然孕育出新的社会因素,最终要为新的社会形态所替代,这就是历史的必然逻辑。这就是辩证法、矛盾分析法的运用。在《资本论》的唯物辩证的分析下,资本主义就是这么一个历史发展的必然进程,当然,这个过程会有一个很长很长的历史时期,正是对历史必然性的科学分析,马克思得出一个结论:资本主义作为一种社会形态是一定要灭亡的,共产主义作为代替它的一种新的社会形态,是必然要取代资本主义的,这是不可避免的历史必然趋势。我们共产党人要有最高理想,就是共产主义。当然,也要有最低纲领,就是实现中国特色社会主义的共同理想。这是有科学依据的,是符合历史发展规律的,而这科学依据恰恰是马克思主义政治经济学得出来的。

我们共产党人,特别是实现了中国革命、建设和改革胜利的中国共产党人,历来重视对马克思主义政治经济学的学习、研究和运用,一直把马克思主义政治经济学作为领导中国人民不断奋斗的理论基础。“十月革命一声炮响,给我们送来了马克思列宁主义。”中国的先进分子,开始用马克思主义的宇宙观,观察国家命运,考虑自己的问题。1926年,毛泽东同志在《中国社会各阶级的分析》中,运用马克思主义政治经济学原理,从生产关系入手,分析不同阶级的经济地位,以及它们之间的经济关系,分析由此而决定的它们的阶级立场和政治态度,从而分清谁是我们的敌人,谁是我们的朋友,得出了中国革命的正确的路线、方针、政策、策略和战略,引导中国革命走向胜利。在新民主主义革命时期,成功地领导了根据地的经济建设,创造性地提出了新民主主义经济纲领。在社会主义建设时期,毛泽东同志在探索社会主义建设道路的进程中,始终坚持马克思主义政治经济学基本原理,运用马克思主义政治经济学的立场、观点和方法认识中国社会主义建设的规律,解决中国社会主义建设的理论和实践问题,提出了许多独创性观点,发展了马克思主义政治经济学,取得了中国社会主义建设的伟大成就,为今天的中国特色社会主义奠定了理论基础和物质基础。

改革开放以来,我们也是靠马克思主义政治经济学指导,提出了建立社会主义市场经济的创新理论,走出了一条中国特色社会主义市场经济的繁荣发展的成功之路。中国共产党人从来都是把马克思主义政治经济学作为自己的指导理论的,它是真理、是指南、是武器。当然,我们要掌握马克思主义政治经济学的立场、观点和方法,而不是生搬硬套某些个别的结论。

二 马克思主义政治经济学没有过时,它依然闪烁着真理的光辉,仍然是我们今天观察和解决问题最锐利的思想武器

有些人认为,马克思主义政治经济学过时了,《资本论》过时了,这个论断是不对的。远的不说,从国际金融危机来看,许多资本主义国家经济持续低迷、失业问题严重、两极分化加剧、社会矛盾加深。事实说明,《资本论》所揭示的资本主义社会基本矛盾,即资本主义固有的生产社会化和生产资料私人占有之间的矛盾依然存在,只不过表现形式、存在特点有所不同。这说明马克思主义政治经济学恰恰并没有过时,仍然管用。

习近平同志在全国党校工作会议上和十八届中央纪委六次全会上的重要讲话一再强调,领导干部要树立看齐意识。部队每天早晨出操都反复强调看齐,向右看、向左看、向前看,为什么呀?就是总有看不齐的,这就必须反复要求看齐。习近平总书记强调的看齐意识,首先是讲思想理论上的看齐,思想理论不一致,言行就会走调走板走偏,甚至跑到反面。指导我们思想的理论基础是马克思列宁主义。马克思列宁主义是党在意识形态的指导思想,是全国全党全军共同的理论基础。我们共产党人的全部理论基础是马克思主义,这是我们共产党人的共同语言。我们所从事的事业是伟大的中国特色社会主义事业,根本任务是以经济建设为中心。发展社会主义生产力,抓好社会主义经济建设,离开马克思主义政治经济学的指导就会偏离方向。今天,就要向马克思主义看齐,向当代马克思主义看齐,向中央看齐,向习近平总书记看齐。一定要学习和掌握马克思主义政治经济学的基本原理,学习中国特色社会主义政治经济学,学习习近平总书记系列重要讲话。今天世界形势发生了根本变化,出现了过去所没有出现过的新特点、新情况、新问题,时代已经发生阶段性的变化,看不到这个根本变化就不是马克思主义者。但是,必须清醒地认识到,当今时代的主题、特点虽然有阶段性变化,但时代本质没有变,时代根本性质并没有改变,马克思主义政治经济学作为时代本质的概括和反映,仍然闪烁着真理的光辉。

目前,仍然处在马克思所揭示的资本主义的世界历史时代。1879—1882年,晚年马克思成功地运用唯物史观,把研究重心和注意力转向俄国乃至东方社会,其中形成了著名的世界历史理论。马克思主义唯物史观及其世界历史理论揭示了人类社会历史依次由原始社会到奴隶社会、封建社会、资本主义社会,最终经由社会主义社会发展到共产主义社会的演变规律,指明了自从资本主义代替封建主义以来,人类历史即进入了一个新时代,这就是马克思所揭示的资本主义的世界历史进程。自从人类历史进入资本主义发展阶段,就孕育产生了埋葬资本主义的物质力量,酝酿产生了新的社会形态因素,世界历史发展展示了一系列整体性的时代变化。其特征:一是资本主义社会化大生产的发展打破了人类社会的旧的分割与隔绝,资本主义市场经济把人类社会连成一气,构成一个密不可分的统一的世界整体,谁也离不开谁。二是在资本主义发展的同时,社会主义因素产生并在发展,世界历史始终贯穿着资本主义与社会主义两个前途、两种命运、两条道路、两大力量的较量。三是资本主义与社会主义两种前途和力量呈交叉递进态势。资本主义由革命阶段的上升期经成熟阶段的发展期开始逐步衰退,资本主义虽强,仍顽强地表现自己,不可能轻易地退出历史舞台,但总体是由兴盛走向衰落。社会主义由新生阶段的初生期步入成长阶段的曲折期,由小到大,在曲折中坚强地发展前进,社会主义虽弱,但代表了人类历史的新前途。四是资本主义世界历史进程必然为共产主义世界历史进程所替代,这是历史发展不可抗拒的潮流。五是实现现代化是现今世界历史发展的核心问题。实现现代化有两条道路:一条是资本主义现代化道路,另一条是社会主义现代化道路。资本主义现代化必然为社会主义现代化所替代。世界历史进程决定经济相对落后的国家选择社会主义现代化道路,可以避免资本主义现代化道路的苦难。六是马克思所判断的资本主义世界历史进程已历经三个阶段,即:马克思主义产生时的自由竞争资本主义阶段,该阶段一方面是资产阶级财富的积累,另一方面是工人阶级贫困的积累,两极分化和工人阶级社会主义运动兴起,是该阶段的主题;列宁所判定的垄断资本主义阶段,该阶段的主题是战争与革命,资本主义社会基本矛盾激化引起世界性战争,战争又引起一系列社会主义革命,如十月革命、中国等东方国家的革命;邓小平所判定的美苏两个超级大国“冷战”结束后的和平与发展为两大世界性问题的新阶段,资本主义世界历史的总的时代性质没有改变,资本主义社会基本矛盾依然存在,但和平与发展成为两大世界性问题。七是时代阶段性主题的转化,虽然没有改变马克思主义经典作家所揭示的总的时代性质,社会主义必然代替资本主义的历史总趋势依然不可逆转,资本主义内在矛盾仍然不可调和,但时代主题的阶段性转换却为中国特色社会主义和平发展提供了战略机遇。

资本主义一开始是进步的,取代了封建社会,带来了生产力和人类社会的巨大发展。马克思在《共产党宣言》中指出,资本主义给人类社会生产力带来了巨大的发展,百年间资本主义社会生产力取得了封建社会千年所无法比拟的巨大发展。资本主义发展的一个巨大特点是,市场化打通了全世界,使全世界连成一片,打破了国与国、地区与地区、民族与民族之间的隔绝和孤立。谁闭关锁国,谁就死路一条,大门就会硬被人家打开,成为人家的附庸。唯一的生路是自觉打开大门,融入世界。所以马克思讲,资本主义发展使人类历史成为世界历史,这叫“世界性”。今天,就叫“全球化”。全球化是一把“双刃剑”,一方面,推动了世界的进步与发展,特别是从最近几十年的情况来看。另一方面,资本主义内在矛盾又是不可克服的,资本主义越来越走向它的反面,给人类带来了战争、流血和苦难,“一战”、“二战”,直到今天,战乱不已,世界两极分化严重,穷的越穷,富的越富,资本主义造成全球化,又通过全球化掠夺全世界。马克思《资本论》的科学论证告诉我们,在资本主义发展的同时,造就了它的对立面和掘墓人,即社会主义新的因素和工人阶级。中国特色社会主义就是《资本论》的成功案例。马克思主义政治经济学,说明了这个世界历史时代的历史规律和必然发展的历史趋势,马克思主义政治经济学基本理论并没有过时。这是马克思主义政治经济学仍然管用的第一个理由。

第二个理由,我们现在正在搞社会主义市场经济,同样需要马克思主义政治经济学的指导。落后国家搞社会主义,怎么搞呢?马克思恩格斯没有具体讲。《资本论》告诉我们,公有制必然代替私有制,共产主义社会形态必然代替资本主义社会形态。马克思在《哥达纲领批判》中说:“在资本主义社会和共产主义社会之间,有一个从前者变为后者的革命转变时期。同这个时期相适应的也有一个政治上的过渡时期,这个时期的国家只能是无产阶级的革命专政。”2995663资本主义到共产主义必然有一个过渡阶段,这是“共产主义社会的第一阶段”,即社会主义社会阶段,社会主义社会与共产主义社会的区别是按劳分配。马克思做出这样的重要判断,只是根据历史发展的总趋势做出的理论概括。社会主义到底什么样子、共产主义到底什么样子,社会主义怎么建设、共产主义怎么建设,他只是提出了一个原则,规划了一个总的蓝图,并没有实践,他不可能说得那么具体。马克思只是认为,在生产力高度发达的资本主义社会,社会矛盾激化到一定程度,资本主义的生产关系再也容纳不下其生产力了,社会主义革命就到来了,革命成功,建立了无产阶级专政的社会主义社会。在社会主义社会,也就是共产主义社会的第一阶段,实行的是全社会的公有制,没有私有制,劳动者直接按劳分配,没有商品、货币,实行计划经济。事实上,现今社会主义革命都是发生在落后国家,如在俄国、中国等,并没有发生在欧美发达的资本主义国家。列宁领导十月革命成功以后,一开始他设想搞纯之又纯的计划经济的社会主义,设计整个俄国是一个大“辛迪加”,即俄国是一个全部实行公有制的大工厂,劳动者按付出的劳动时间取得劳动券,直接按劳分配。但是,他的设想还没开始实行,就赶上十四个帝国主义国家与俄国国内白匪联合起来发动的内战,妄图把苏维埃扼杀在摇篮里。列宁领导打了几年苏维埃保卫战,实行按需分配,搞军事共产主义,把帝国主义和白匪打败了,巩固了苏维埃政权。但是,战争后的具体实践促使列宁开始深思,社会主义到底是什么样子,社会主义应该怎样搞。在落后国家搞社会主义到底怎么办?马克思没有讲。列宁开始考虑在落后国家搞社会主义要搞商品经济,要有商品,有价值,有价值规律,也不完全都搞公有制,要有一部分私有制,或者其他所有制,要有国家资本主义的发展,要引进外资。列宁发表了一系列文章,即晚年的八篇文章,提出新经济政策思想,这就是列宁对在落后的俄国搞什么样的社会主义、怎样搞社会主义的理论思考,也可以说,开始考虑运用马克思主义政治经济学指导在俄国这样落后的国家怎么建设社会主义的问题。把马克思主义政治经济学运用于俄国社会主义建设的实践,列宁开始创新、发展马克思主义政治经济学。

当然,列宁还没有来得及全面推开新经济政策,就逝世了。斯大林接替了列宁,我们党对他的评价是“三七开”,成绩是主要的,当然也犯有严重的错误。就总体来说,他主持了苏联的社会主义建设,实现了社会主义工业化和农业集体化,打败了德国法西斯,把苏联建设成为能与美国抗衡的大国,这是斯大林的历史功绩,这是抹杀不了的。在经济建设方面,斯大林既突破了马克思经典著作的某些结论,又囿于马克思经典著作的某些结论,苏联最终形成了一个僵化的计划经济体制,这个体制使社会主义应有的制度优越性没有完全发挥出来,严重束缚了苏联社会主义生产力的发展。然而,斯大林也没有完全照搬社会主义不能搞商品、市场的结论,而是在一定范围内肯定了商品经济和价值规律,发挥了价值规律的作用,这体现在他的《苏联社会主义的经济问题》一书中。

十月革命胜利后,在俄国流行“社会主义制度下不存在政治经济学”的观点,直到1929年列宁《对布哈林〈过渡时期的经济〉一书的评价》公开发表,这个观点才被否定。斯大林重视社会主义政治经济学的理论建设。1952年10月,他发表了《苏联社会主义的经济问题》。《苏联社会主义的经济问题》是斯大林的最后一部重要著作,是他经济思想的代表作,他力图运用马克思主义政治经济学概括总结苏联30多年社会主义经济建设的经验,力图阐述马克思主义的社会主义政治经济学。应当用历史的眼光来评价这本书,尽管有其不可克服的历史局限性,但在对社会主义政治经济学的阐释上还是提出了很有价值的思想。一是针对否定社会主义制度下的经济规律是不以人的意志为转移的客观规律的观点,提出不管人们愿意不愿意或承认不承认,经济规律总是客观存在的和发生作用的,人们不能消灭这些规律,也不能创造新的规律。人们可以认识经济规律,并利用其为人类社会服务。在阶级社会中,对待发现和利用经济规律,不同的阶级有着不同的认识。二是社会主义虽然消灭了私有制,但由于社会主义公有制存在全民所有制和集体所有制,所以存在社会主义的商品生产。三是社会主义商品生产与资本主义商品生产是根本不同的,不能把二者混为一谈。社会主义商品生产不会造成资本主义产生的条件,不会引导到资本主义。四是在社会主义制度下,由于存在商品生产,价值规律必然存在并发生作用,这是不以人的意志为转移的,在社会主义制度下,价值规律是为社会主义经济服务的。价值规律是很好的实践学校,利用价值规律的作用对社会主义经济有着重要意义。斯大林第一次论证了社会主义条件下商品生产、商品交换和价值规律的客观必然性,强调了社会主义商品经济与资本主义商品经济的根本区别。这些认识对于我们认识经济规律的客观性,自觉按经济规律的要求办事,充分认识社会主义市场经济的必然性,发展和完善社会主义市场经济,重视价值规律在社会主义条件下存在的必然性,充分发挥价值规律在社会主义条件下的作用,是有借鉴意义的。当然,斯大林的理论认识也有历史局限性,但这并不能否定斯大林对马克思主义政治经济学的一些贡献。

新中国成立以后,毛泽东就主张要搞一部社会主义的政治经济学。毛泽东主张学习《资本论》,主张学习斯大林的《苏联社会主义的经济问题》和苏联经济研究所编的《政治经济学教科书》(社会主义部分)。1959年年底到1960年年初,毛泽东带领几位党内专家集中了二十五天,读《政治经济学教科书》(社会主义部分),边学边研究社会主义到底怎么搞经济建设。毛泽东认为,为了推进中国社会主义经济建设,既要坚持马克思主义政治经济学的基本原理,又要立足中国国情,总结中国经验,不断推进马克思主义理论创新,产生自己的理论家,创造自己的经济学理论,形成具有中国自己特色的政治经济学理论。他在读苏联《政治经济学教科书》时强调:“马克思这些老祖宗的书,必须读,他们的基本原理必须遵守,这是第一。但是,任何国家的共产党,任何国家的思想界,都要创造新的理论,写出新的著作,产生自己的理论家,来为当前的政治服务,单靠老祖宗是不行的。”2995664毛泽东总结苏联社会主义建设的经验教训,对社会主义政治经济学进行创造性的理论探索,在商品经济、经济体制、对外开放等方面提出了一系列重要的理论论断,率先提出社会主义要大力发展商品生产和商品交换。这些认识构成了社会主义市场经济理论的重要前提。毛泽东认为,商品生产本身是没有什么制度性的,它只是一种工具,看一种商品经济的制度特征,“要看它是同什么经济制度相联系,同资本主义制度相联系就是资本主义的商品生产,同社会主义制度相联系就是社会主义的商品生产”。2995665社会主义时期,必须充分利用商品经济这个工具,使之为社会主义建设服务,中国的商品经济很不发达,一定要“有计划地大大发展社会主义的商品生产”2995666;一味否定商品经济的观点“是错误的,这是违背客观法则的”。他明确指出,价值规律在我国的社会主义建设中发挥着作用。“这个法则是一个伟大的学校,只有利用它,才有可能教会我们的几千万干部和几万万人民,才有可能建设我们的社会主义和共产主义。否则一切都不可能。”2995667对干部要进行教育,使他们懂得价值规律、等价交换,违反就要碰得头破血流。他从中国实际国情出发明确指出,基于中国经济发展的现实状况,在对待资本主义和私营经济问题上,既不搞教条化,也不搞西化,可以在搞国营的基础上搞私营,坚持社会主义的前提下搞资本主义,“可以搞国营,也可以搞私营”,可以消灭资本主义,又搞资本主义,因为“它是社会主义经济的补充”。在经济体制和所有制结构方面,他对传统计划经济提出质疑,明确提出要调动两个积极性的思想。“我们不能像苏联那样,把什么都集中到中央,把地方卡得死死的,一点机动性都没有”,一定要划分好中央和地方的经济管理权限,充分发挥好中央和地方两个积极性。在对外开放问题上,他提出“向外国学习”的口号,对外开放要搞两点论而不是一点论。“一切民族、一切国家的长处都要学,政治、经济、科学、技术、文学、艺术的一切真正好的东西都要学。但是,必须有分析有批判地学,不能盲目地学,不能一切照抄,机械搬用。”2995668他在经济建设的基本方针和方法上提出:既要反对保守又要反对冒进,在综合平衡中稳步前进,以农业为基础,以工业为主导,按农轻重的次序安排国民经济计划,从中国的具体情况出发,搞好综合平衡,统筹兼顾,适当安排,勤俭办事。他还提出实行按劳分配、反对平均主义和过分悬殊的问题。这些重要论断为改革开放时期我们党提出社会主义市场经济体制改革和对外开放做了重要的理论储备。

在改革开放新时期,邓小平提出,社会主义可以搞市场经济。我们经过30多年的改革开放,初步构建了社会主义市场经济体系,取得中国特色社会主义的伟大成绩,走出了一条中国道路,坚持了中国制度,创造了中国理论。这是对马克思主义政治经济学的创新和发展,也是对《资本论》的创新和发展。

今天,我们在中国特色社会主义新的发展阶段新的历史起点上正在从事一场新的伟大斗争。社会主义市场经济与全世界的市场经济是联系在一起的,在资本主义世界市场环境下搞社会主义市场经济,这就更需要学习掌握《资本论》,更需要坚持和发展马克思主义政治经济学,因为马克思主义政治经济学对市场经济规律做了全面揭示,对资本主义市场经济做了深刻分析,对如何发挥价值和价值规律的作用做了充分论证。马克思主义政治经济学没有过时,不坚持不发展马克思主义政治经济学,就无从指导社会主义市场经济建设,指导中国特色社会主义事业发展。

三 立足我国国情和发展实践,构建当代中国的马克思主义政治经济学,即中国特色社会主义政治经济学

习近平总书记指出:“面对极其复杂的国内外经济形势,面对纷繁多样的经济现象,学习马克思主义政治经济学基本原理和方法论,有利于我们掌握科学的经济分析方法,认识经济运动过程,把握社会经济发展规律,提高驾驭社会主义市场经济能力,更好回答我国经济发展的理论和实践问题,提高领导我国经济发展能力和水平。”坚持马克思主义政治经济学的基本原则,构建中国特色社会主义政治经济学,这是时代赋予我们的伟大历史重任。

我们党历来重视对马克思主义政治经济学的学习、研究、运用和发展。早在1984年10月《中共中央关于经济体制改革的决定》通过后,邓小平同志就高度评价说,“写出了一个政治经济学的初稿,是马克思主义基本原理和中国社会主义实践相结合的政治经济学”。十一届三中全会以来,我们党把马克思主义政治经济学基本原理同改革开放新的实践结合起来,不断丰富和发展马克思主义政治经济学,形成了一系列重要理论成果。例如,关于社会主义本质的理论、关于社会主义初级阶段基本经济制度的理论、关于社会主义市场经济理论、关于生产要素参与收入分配的理论、关于国有企业改革和股份制改造的理论、关于经济全球化与对外开放理论、关于自主创新和建立创新型国家的理论……这些理论观点深化了我们对社会主义经济发展规律的认识,创造性地构建了中国特色社会主义政治经济学,有力地指导了我国经济发展实践。

十八大以来,习近平总书记坚持和发展马克思主义政治经济学,在一些重大的社会主义经济问题上,提出了很多新思想、新观点,发展了当代中国的马克思主义政治经济学,开拓了马克思主义政治经济学的新境界。

第一,提出了中国特色社会主义政治经济学的重大原则。他提出:“要坚持以人民为中心的发展思想,坚持新的发展理念,坚持和完善社会主义基本经济制度,坚持和完善社会主义基本分配制度,坚持社会主义市场经济改革方向,坚持对外开放基本国策。”这是发展中国特色社会主义政治经济学应当遵循的重大原则。这六个原则是具有鲜明的时代意义和深远的理论意义的。

第二,提出坚持以人民为中心的发展思想。坚持以人民为中心的发展思想,是以习近平为总书记的党中央关于经济发展思想的鲜明特点,充分体现了马克思主义唯物主义历史观,充分反映了社会主义的本质要求,充分表达了马克思主义政治经济学的原则立场。作为中国社会科学院的学者,要牢固树立为人民做学问的思想,把为最广大人民群众谋利益作为科学研究的出发点和落脚点,把人民群众的伟大实践作为检验科学研究成果的最高标准,把人民群众作为评价科学研究价值的最高裁决者。深入实践、深入基层、深入群众,从火热的社会实践和人民群众的伟大创造中,汲取营养,激发灵感,为实现国家富强、民族振兴、人民幸福提供不竭的思想动力和精神源泉。

第三,提出了我国经济发展进入新常态的理论。我国经济发展进入新常态,是党的十八大以来以习近平同志为总书记的党中央在科学分析国内外经济发展形势、准确把握我国基本国情的基础上,针对我国经济发展的阶段性特征所做出的重大战略判断,是对我国迈向更高级发展阶段的理论指南。当前,我国经济正在向形态更高级、分工更复杂、结构更合理的阶段演化,正从高速增长转向中高速增长,经济发展方式正从规模速度型粗放增长转向质量效率型集约增长,经济结构正从以增量扩能为主转向调整存量、做优增量并存的深度调整,经济发展动力正从传统的增长点转向新的增长点,正在推进供给侧结构性改革。认识新常态,适应新常态,引领新常态,是当前和今后一个时期我国经济发展的大逻辑,也是我们运用马克思政治经济学分析方法,把握经济运动规律的基本遵循。我们要认真总结经验,深入分析问题,为实现我国经济发展迈向更高级发展阶段提供智力支持、理论支撑。

第四,提出了要坚持新的发展理念。经济发展进入新常态,必须要有新理念、新思路、新举措。创新、协调、绿色、开放、共享五大发展理念,是协调推进“四个全面”战略布局、适应和引领经济发展新常态的重要理论创新,是党关于发展理论的重大升华。创新是引领发展的第一动力,协调是持续健康发展的内在要求,绿色是永续发展的必要条件和人民对美好生活追求的重要体现,开放是国家繁荣发展的必由之路,共享是中国特色社会主义的本质要求。我们要坚持用新的发展理念,深入研究新常态下我国经济速度变化、结构优化、动力转换的新特点,不断破解经济发展新难题,为开创经济发展新局面提供智力支持。

习近平总书记还提出了关于认清马克思主义政治经济学与西方经济学的本质区别、巩固马克思主义政治经济学的指导地位,深入研究中国特色社会主义政治经济学,促进社会公平正义,逐步实现全体人民共同富裕,推动新型工业化、信息化、城镇化、农业现代化相互协调,发挥市场在资源配置中的决定性作用和更好发挥政府作用,实行混合所有制改革,推进供给侧结构性改革,用好国际国内两个市场、两种资源等一系列重要观点。习近平总书记对马克思主义政治经济学的创造性发展,开拓了当代中国马克思主义政治经济学的新境界,为我们树立了运用马克思主义政治经济学立场、观点、方法解决问题的典范。

马克思主义政治经济学是不断发展、与时俱进的科学。当前,世界经济和我国经济都面临许多新的重大课题,需要作出科学的理论回答,更需要形成新的历史条件下的中国特色社会主义政治经济学,以指导伟大的实践。我们要立足我国国情和发展实践,揭示新特点新规律,提炼和总结我国经济发展实践的规律性成果,把实践经验上升为系统化的经济学说,为努力推进马克思主义政治经济学的创新与发展贡献智慧和力量。

四 坚持和发展马克思主义政治经济学,坚定不移地把马克思主义政治经济学和当代中国马克思主义政治经济学作为经济工作与经济研究的指导思想

坚持和发展马克思主义政治经济学,系统地构建和发展当代中国的马克思主义政治经济学是我院,特别是经济学科的一项重要理论任务,更是一项政治任务。早在2007年,党中央就对中国社会科学院明确提出了“三个定位”的战略要求。马克思主义政治经济学基本理论的研究宣传和中国特色社会主义政治经济学的创新研究,是我院“三个定位”要求的题中应有之义,是我院必尽的职责。经济学部的各个研究所,还有马克思主义研究院、世界经济与政治研究所,学科齐全,人才济济,既具有无可替代的理论学术优势,又应有责无旁贷的自觉自为。习近平同志要求我们:“要深入研究世界经济和我国经济面临的新情况新问题,为马克思主义政治经济学创新发展贡献中国智慧。”党组希望同志们按照习近平总书记的要求,坚持和发展马克思主义政治经济学,深入地、系统地研究世界经济和我国经济面临的新情况新问题,为马克思主义政治经济学研究宣传,为中国特色社会主义政治经济学的创新发展,贡献我们的心智。

第一,始终坚持马克思主义政治经济学的指导。马克思主义是由马克思主义哲学、马克思主义政治经济学和科学社会主义三个部分组成的,马克思主义是我们党的思想基础和理论指南,同样包括马克思主义政治经济学。必须牢牢巩固马克思主义政治经济学在我国主流意识形态和经济研究中的指导地位,善于运用马克思主义政治经济学的基本立场、观点、方法,分析国内社会主义市场经济和国际资本主义世界经济的各种经济现象及其经济思潮,增强政治敏锐性和政治鉴别力,始终保持立场坚定、头脑清醒。要把马克思主义政治经济学的指导作用贯穿到经济学的学科建设、科研工作、学术活动、人才培养中,按照马克思主义政治经济学的基本原理和方法论,扎实开展科学研究工作,努力构建当代马克思主义政治经济学理论体系。

第二,深入研究中国特色社会主义经济活动中的重大理论和现实问题。从国内情况看,虽然经济长期向好的基本面没有改变,但发展不平衡、不协调、不可持续问题仍然突出,粗放型发展模式存在一定的惯性,部分行业产能过剩严重,城乡区域发展不平衡,资源约束紧张,生态环境恶化,创新能力不强,企业效益下滑,基本公共服务供给不足,全面建成小康社会的任务依然艰巨。面对复杂的国内情况,必须保持马克思主义政治经济学的定力和判断力。要充分发挥我院经济理论研究和应用对策研究高端智库的优势,着眼于中国特色社会主义建设的新实践和新发展,把研究和阐释中国特色社会主义重大经济理论和实践问题作为主攻方向;把认真研究习近平总书记关于当代马克思主义政治经济学的新思想、新理念、新战略作为中心课题,把深入研究“四个全面”战略布局、五大发展理念、经济发展新常态、供给侧结构性改革等作为必选题目,多出在马克思主义政治经济学指导下所取得的研究成果,为中央提供有价值的决策参考依据。

第三,全面研判世界经济和世界资本主义发展出现的新动向、新情况。从国际局势看,国际金融危机深层次影响在相当长时期依然存在,全球经济贸易增长乏力,保护主义抬头,地缘政治关系复杂变化,传统安全威胁和非传统安全威胁交织,外部环境不稳定、不确定因素增多。世界经济的现状、发展趋势和出现的问题是与世界资本主义的发展变化相一致的。马克思主义政治经济学所揭示的资本主义内在矛盾仍然起作用,这是我们观察世界经济问题与趋势,做出科学判断的根本所在。对世界经济的判断离不开对资本主义内在矛盾的分析,离不开马克思主义政治经济学的基本原理的指南。一定要把马克思主义政治经济学基本原理运用于对当代资本主义的分析,运用到对世界经济形势的判断。离开马克思主义政治经济学的基本判断,是看不清、认不透世界经济趋势的。面对复杂的国际问题,必须头脑清醒,树立马克思主义政治经济学的自信自觉,始终坚持运用马克思主义政治经济学的立场、观点和方法认识问题,增强马克思主义对重大国际经济问题的解释力和指导力。

第四,坚决批判西方经济学的原则性错误。习近平总书记要求我们要认清西方经济学的错误本质。我们要认真领会,分清马克思主义政治经济学和西方经济学这两种理论体系在指导理论、研究对象、研究方法、目标任务上的根本区别。

西方经济学作为资产阶级意识形态在经济领域的理论体现,根本使命就是为了资本的利益服务,但它却欺骗性地标榜自己是科学客观、公平正义的学说,以此网罗了大批信众,一定要认清它的资产阶级意识形态本质。当然,也不可否认,西方资本主义国家经过几百年的发展实践,积累了丰富的市场经济经验。西方经济学者们不断地从多个角度和层次上提炼概括、归纳总结出反映现代市场经济运行发展一般规律及其特点的观点,形成了一套分析范式和范畴体系,有值得我们学习和借鉴的地方。一方面,西方经济学所运用的西方市场运行的实践材料及其具有合理性的观点,完全可以用马克思主义政治经济学去粗取精,去伪求真,吸收到当代马克思主义政治经济学的理论构建中。另一方面,如果仅仅因为西方经济学说存在一些可借鉴性,就把它奉若神明、不假思索地认为其是放之四海而皆准的学说,则无疑是一种立场错误、学术浅薄的表现。对于西方经济理论反映资本主义制度属性、阶级立场、意识形态倾向和价值观念的内容,要坚决批判,绝不能照抄照搬;对西方经济学理论反映的社会化大生产和市场经济一般规律的合理方面,要注意借鉴,不可全盘否定。

马克思主义政治经济学,最重要的是讲政治。政治是经济的集中表现,政治指导经济,当然,政治是为经济服务的。政治经济学不是政治和经济的简单相加,经济学虽然是研究经济问题的,但不可能脱离社会政治。按照经济决定政治、政治反作用于经济,经济基础决定上层建筑、上层建筑反作用于经济基础的原理来认识经济问题,不能仅仅把经济问题看成是纯粹的物与物之间的关系,经济学实际上反映了人与人之间的经济关系和社会关系,特别是所有制关系、分配关系,当然也包括一切生产流通消费环节中人与人之间的关系。所谓从政治上看问题,就是站在工人阶级的、马克思主义的、社会主义的政治立场上看问题。马克思主义政治经济学从来都是把一个国家政治和经济看作是一个有机的整体,从经济角度分析社会政治发展中存在的问题,从政治角度认识经济问题,反作用于经济,让经济发展始终保持正确的方向。马克思主义政治经济学主要是从生产关系分析入手来看问题,主要从生产资料所有制这个根本问题分析出发来看问题。西方经济学回避政治原则问题,把经济学抽象为纯粹的物与物之间的关系,回避人与人之间关系的研究,其真正的目的是掩盖资本主义剥削的本质,进而为生产资料私有制辩护,为资本主义制度辩护。

马克思主义政治经济学不是温室里的花朵,而是在汲取各种思想养分并同各种错误思想斗争中创立起来并不断发展的。在研究马克思主义政治经济学过程中,必须要彻底摒弃传统的教条主义,不能食洋不化,不能让马克思主义政治经济学边缘化,也不能从马克思主义经典著作中寻章摘句,搞僵化那一套。要真正地从立场、观点、方法上研究马克思主义政治经济学,创新中国特色社会主义政治经济学。不能把马克思主义政治经济学作为幌子,不断地塞进那些不符合马克思主义政治经济学的所谓的学说和观点。在新的历史时期,面对生机勃勃的中国特色社会主义经济的丰富实践,发展和创新中国政治经济学,建设具有中国特色、中国风格、中国气派的政治经济学理论和学术话语体系的任务,比任何时候都更加迫切、更加重要。这是在经济领域树立理论自信、道路自信、制度自信的根本保证,也对我们每一个科研工作者提出了重大迫切的现实任务。

第五,要坚持马克思主义理论联系实际的学风。2014年7月,习近平总书记在主持召开经济形势专家座谈会时提出:“希望广大专家学者深入实际、深入群众、深入基层,倾听群众呼声,掌握真实情况,广泛调研,潜心研究,不断拿出具有真知灼见的成果,为党中央科学决策建言献策,为推进决策科学化、民主化多做贡献。”我院要认真开展贯彻落实习总书记“三个深入”重要讲话的学习活动,真学、真懂、真信、真用马克思主义政治经济学,不断改进学风,从实际出发,完善研究方法,在中国特色社会主义实践中提炼当代中国马克思主义政治经济学研究的素材,坚决摆脱西方经济学脱离实际的研究范式的影响,努力构建出有中国特色社会主义的马克思主义政治经济学。为推动中国特色社会主义经济建设,为中国特色社会主义伟大事业做出更多更大的贡献。

(原载《经济研究》2016年第3期)

Wang Weiguang 2995659 Today, the party group of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences held a training course on Marxist political economy, inviting leading cadres at and above the department level of the eight research institutes of the Ministry of Economics and the Institute of Horse Studies to study the basic principles of Marxist political economy and the important speech made by General Secretary Xi Jinping when presiding over the 28th collective study of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee. Studying Marxist political economy and learning General Secretary Xi Jinping's thought on socialist political economy with Chinese characteristics is just the beginning. To truly learn and understand, I am afraid that it will take a lot of effort and a long time to truly believe and really use. Here, on behalf of the party group, I will make a study mobilization. On November 23, 2015, the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee held the 28th collective study on the basic principles and methodology of Marxist political economy, and General Secretary Xi Jinping delivered an important speech. He stressed: "Marxist political economy is an important part of Marxism and a compulsory course for us to adhere to and develop Marxism. "We must conscientiously study and implement the spirit of General Secretary Xi Jinping's important speech on adhering to and developing Marxist political economy, learn to apply the positions, viewpoints and methods of Marxist political economy, and truly study, understand, believe and apply Marxist political economy." Through studying Marxist political economy, we should deepen our understanding and grasp of the law governing the development of China's socialist economy and enhance our ability and level of leading the development of the socialist economy with Chinese characteristics. Through studying Marxist political economy, we should correctly understand the inherent contradictions of contemporary capitalism and its development trend, scientifically understand the law governing the development of human society, the inevitable trend of social and historical development, and the development pattern of the contemporary world and its international situation, so as to enhance our ability and level of handling international issues. Through studying Marxist political economy, we should sum up the fresh experience of the construction of socialism with Chinese characteristics, answer the new stage, new situation and new problems facing China's economic and social development, build a socialist political economy with Chinese characteristics, and realize the innovative development of Marxist political economy. For our comrades engaged in economic research at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, it is mainly through studying the basic principles of Marxist political economy, studying the spirit of General Secretary Xi Jinping's important speech, mastering the positions, viewpoints and methods of Marxist political economy, mastering the scientific world outlook and methodology, and applying it to the study of China's economic development, the study of major theoretical and practical issues of the party and the state, and the study of the political economy of socialism with Chinese characteristics. Next, I turn to four issues. A Marxist political economy is the truth that reveals the objective laws of economic and social development, and is the theoretical guide for the working class party to lead revolution, construction and reform, Engels evaluated Marx's life and believed that Marx had two great discoveries: one was the materialist view of history, and the other was the theory of surplus value. He pointed out: "Just as Darwin discovered the law of development of the organic world, Marx discovered the law of development of human history... Not only that. Marx also discovered the modern capitalist mode of production and the peculiar laws of movement of the bourgeois society it produced. The discovery of surplus value has opened up here, and all previous research, whether by bourgeois economists or socialist critics, has only been groped in the dark. "It should be enough to make two discoveries like this in my life." 2995660 before Marx, mankind's understanding of its own society and its history was dominated by the idealistic view of history. Without Marx's materialist view of history and the theory of surplus value, mankind's understanding of the laws of history and capitalist society would still be groping forward in the dark. It can be said that so far no view of history has been able to surpass the scientific revelation of Marx's view of history on human society and its historical laws. Marx used a scientific view of history to analyze the economic phenomenon of capitalist society and created the theory of surplus value, thus revealing the inherent contradictions of capitalism, predicting the inevitable demise of capitalism, and replacing capitalism, an objective law of historical development, by a higher social form, so that socialism changed from utopia to science and created the theory of scientific socialism. The founding of scientific socialism provided all the theoretical basis and ideological weapons for the proletarian party to lead the proletariat and its working masses to overthrow the system of exploitation and establish a new social form without exploitation and oppression. Marxist political economy is a scientific theoretical system based on the theory of surplus value, and it is a truth that has been tested by time and practice. The most basic representative work of Marxist political economy is "Capital", which Marx spent forty years to write. The length of time, the richness of its content, and the depth of truth of Capital are unmatched by any social science work of our time. Marx wrote "Capital" in London, mainly relying on the materials of the British Museum, and paid extremely hard labor from morning to night to create a scientific masterpiece. Starting from the analysis of the duality of commodities and the duality of labor, Capital reveals the inherent contradictions of the entire capitalism, the rigor of logic and the exquisite theoretical argumentation, which cannot be understood by any theoretical thinking without many in-depth studies. Capital was praised as "the most powerful cannonball fired at the bourgeoisie", a "bible" dedicated to the working class, and an "encyclopedia" of Marxism. Engels believed that "the entire theoretical content of the proletarian party comes from the study of political economy." 2995661 Lenin called it "the most profound, comprehensive and detailed proof and application" of Marxist theory. 2995662 Marx's Capital provides us with the basic stand, viewpoint and method for studying the law of human historical development, China's socialist economy and the world economy today. The first is the position. What position? It is to stand from the standpoint of the working class and the working people. Marxist political economy, the first two words are called "politics", what is politics? In a class society, when talking about politics, we first talk about what class position we stand on, that is, the fundamental question of politics is from whose standpoint we stand on. Although Marx and Engels were not from working-class families, they viewed capitalist economic phenomena from the standpoint of the working class. The question of position is very important and comes first. We have repeatedly said that today, under socialist conditions, the study of philosophy and social science must first solve the question of who is who, that is, why to study the problem, and from what standpoint and for whom to speak. Marxist political economy is the basic position of political economy. The second is the point of view. Marxist political economy provides us with the basic principles and important viewpoints for understanding problems. The most basic principles of Marxist political economy, one is the labor theory of value and the other is the theory of surplus value, and Marx solved both problems. Marx's labor theory of value inevitably led to the theory of surplus value, and Marxist political economy surpassed British classical economics. British classical economics put forward the labor theory of value, which believes that labor creates value, and labor is the source of value. However, because British classical economics does not understand the duality of labor, does not understand that concrete labor creates use value, abstract labor creates value, and confuses labor and labor force, its labor theory of value is incomplete, and it is impossible to draw the correct conclusion of surplus value. Marx broke through the labor theory of value of British classical economics and created a thorough labor theory of value, answering questions that British classical economics could not answer. Marx told us that only by combining people's living labor and the means of production can we add value, that is, can we produce new value. No other factor of production by itself can bring about the value added on the basis of the original value. Another is the theory of surplus value. In Marxist political economy, there is a distinction between labor and labor. In the capitalist market economy, labor power becomes a commodity, workers sell their labor power, and capitalists buy workers' labor power. Workers pay their own living labor in the production process, combined with the means of production, to create new value. However, the wages that capitalists pay workers are only the value of labor power as a commodity, not the full value created by workers' labor. In this way, the value created by the labor of the worker minus the value of the labor force is the surplus value, which is the secret of capitalist exploitation. Starting from the labor theory of value and surplus value, Marx created a series of categories, viewpoints and principles, such as the duality of commodities and commodities, the duality of labor and labor, value and value law, capital and labor, production and reproduction, periodic economic crises, etc., thus revealing the internal contradictions of capitalism, the laws of economic operation and the historical trend of inevitable demise. The third is the method. Materialist dialectics is the methodology of Marx's Capital. Capital is a masterpiece of political economy and a masterpiece of Marxist philosophy, and it is precisely by using materialist dialectics and materialist view of history that Marx has brilliantly revealed the law of capitalist economic development and its inherent contradictions. Understanding capitalism from the perspective of basic economic facts is the materialist method of analysis. Starting from the duality analysis of commodities, it leads to the duality of labor, and from the analysis of the duality of labor, it leads to the insurmountable internal contradictions of capitalism, leads to the paroxysmal economic crisis of capitalism, and reveals the historical inevitability of capitalism constantly going to the grave in the periodic economic crisis. At the same time, it is pointed out that in the process of capitalist development, it has created its opposite, created its gravedigger, and will inevitably give birth to new social factors, and eventually be replaced by a new social form, which is the inevitable logic of history. This is the use of dialectics and contradiction analysis. Under the materialist dialectical analysis of "Capital", capitalism is such an inevitable process of historical development, of course, this process will have a long, long historical period, it is the scientific analysis of historical necessity, Marx came to a conclusion: capitalism as a social form must perish, communism, as a new social form to replace it, is bound to replace capitalism, which is an inevitable historical inevitable trend. We communists must have the highest ideal, that is, communism. Of course, there must also be a minimum program, that is, to realize the common ideal of socialism with Chinese characteristics. This has a scientific basis and conforms to the law of historical development, and this scientific basis is precisely derived from Marxist political economy. We Communists, especially the Chinese Communists who have won the victory of China's revolution, construction and reform, have always attached importance to the study, research, and application of Marxist political economy, and have always taken Marxist political economy as the theoretical basis for leading the Chinese people in their continuous struggle. "The October Revolution sent us Marxism-Leninism with the sound of a cannon." China's advanced elements began to use the Marxist cosmology to observe the fate of the country and consider their own problems. In 1926, Comrade Mao Zedong applied the principles of Marxist political economy in "Analysis of the Classes in Chinese Society," starting from the relations of production, analyzing the economic status of different classes and the economic relations between them, and analyzing their class positions and political attitudes determined by this, so as to distinguish who is our enemy and who is our friend, and draw the correct line, principles, policies, tactics and strategies of the Chinese revolution, and guide the Chinese revolution to victory. During the period of the New Democratic Revolution, he successfully led the economic construction of the base areas and creatively put forward the New Democratic Economic Program. During the period of socialist construction, in the process of exploring the road of socialist construction, Comrade Mao Zedong always adhered to the basic principles of Marxist political economy, used the positions, viewpoints and methods of Marxist political economy to understand the laws of China's socialist construction, solved the theoretical and practical problems of China's socialist construction, put forward many original viewpoints, developed Marxist political economy, and achieved great achievements in China's socialist construction. It has laid the theoretical and material foundation for today's socialism with Chinese characteristics. Since the reform and opening up, we have also relied on the guidance of Marxist political economy to put forward an innovative theory for the establishment of a socialist market economy, and have embarked on a successful path for the prosperity and development of the socialist market economy with Chinese characteristics. The Chinese Communists have always regarded Marxist political economy as their guiding theory, which is the truth, the guide, and the weapon. Of course, we should grasp the positions, viewpoints, and methods of Marxist political economy, rather than rigidly copying some individual conclusions. 2. Marxist political economy is not outdated; it still shines with the brilliance of truth, and it is still the sharpest ideological weapon for us to observe and solve problems today. Far from mentioning, judging from the international financial crisis, the economy of many capitalist countries has continued to be sluggish, unemployment is serious, polarization has intensified, and social contradictions have deepened. Facts show that the basic contradiction of capitalist society revealed by Capital, that is, the contradiction between the socialization of production inherent in capitalism and the private ownership of the means of production, still exists, but the manifestation and characteristics of existence are different. This shows that Marxist political economy is not outdated and still works. Comrade Xi Jinping's important speeches at the National Party School Work Conference and the Sixth Plenary Session of the 18th Central Commission for Discipline Inspection have repeatedly stressed that leading cadres should establish a sense of alignment. Every morning when the troops go out to exercise, they repeatedly emphasize alignment, looking to the right, to the left, and to the front. There is always an inconsistency, which must be repeatedly required. General Secretary Xi Jinping's emphasis on the consciousness of alignment, first of all, is to talk about ideological and theoretical alignment, ideological and theoretical inconsistency, words and deeds will go out of tune, and even run to the opposite side. The theoretical basis guiding our thinking is Marxism-Leninism. Marxism-Leninism is the guiding ideology of the Party in ideology and the common theoretical basis of the whole Party and the whole army. The entire theoretical basis of our communists is Marxism, which is the common language of our communists. The cause we are engaged in is the great cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and the fundamental task is to take economic construction as the center. To develop the socialist productive forces and do a good job in socialist economic construction, we will deviate from the direction without the guidance of Marxist political economy. Today, we must align ourselves with Marxism, with contemporary Marxism, with the Central Committee, and with General Secretary Xi Jinping. We must study and master the basic principles of Marxist political economy, study the political economy of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and study the series of important speeches of General Secretary Xi Jinping. Today, the world situation has undergone fundamental changes, new characteristics, new situations, and new problems have emerged that have not appeared in the past, and the times have undergone phased changes. However, we must soberly realize that although the themes and characteristics of the current era have changed in stages, the essence of the times has not changed, the fundamental nature of the times has not changed, and Marxist political economy, as a summary and reflection of the essence of the times, still shines with the brilliance of truth. At present, we are still in the era of world history of capitalism revealed by Marx. From 1879 to 1882, in his later years, Marx successfully used the materialist view of history to turn his research focus and attention to Russian and even Eastern societies, which formed the famous theory of world history. The Marxist materialist view of history and its theory of world history reveal the evolution law of human social history from primitive society to slave society, feudal society, capitalist society, and finally through the development of socialist society to communist society, pointing out that since capitalism replaced feudalism, human history has entered a new era, which is the world historical process of capitalism revealed by Marx. Since human history entered the stage of capitalist development, the material force that buried capitalism has been bred, new social formation factors have been brewed, and the development of world history has shown a series of overall changes of the times. Its characteristics: First, the development of capitalist socialized large-scale production has broken the old division and isolation of human society, and the capitalist market economy has united human society and formed an inseparable and unified world whole, and no one can do without anyone. Second, while capitalism is developing, the socialist factor has emerged and is developing, and world history has always run through the contest between the two futures, two destinies, two roads, and two major forces of capitalism and socialism. Third, the two prospects and forces of capitalism and socialism are in a cross-progressive trend. Although capitalism is strong, it still stubbornly expresses itself and cannot easily withdraw from the historical stage, but on the whole it is from prosperity to decline. Socialism has moved from the nascent stage of the nascent stage to the tortuous period of the growth stage, from small to large, developing and advancing strongly in twists and turns; although socialism is weak, it represents a new future in human history. Fourth, the capitalist world historical process will inevitably be replaced by the communist world historical process, which is an irresistible trend of historical development. Fifth, realizing modernization is the core issue of the historical development of the world today. There are two paths to modernization: one is the road of capitalist modernization and the other is the road of socialist modernization. Capitalist modernization will inevitably be replaced by socialist modernization. The process of world history determines that economically backward countries choose the road of socialist modernization, which can avoid the suffering of the road of capitalist modernization. Sixth, the process of capitalist world history judged by Marx has gone through three stages, namely: the stage of free competition capitalism when Marxism was born, which was the accumulation of bourgeois wealth on the one hand, and the accumulation of poverty of the working class on the other, and polarization and the rise of the socialist movement of the working class were the main themes of this stage; The stage of monopoly capitalism judged by Lenin, the theme of this stage is war and revolution, the intensification of the basic contradictions of capitalist society leads to world wars, and wars give rise to a series of socialist revolutions, such as the October Revolution, the revolutions of China and other Eastern countries; Deng Xiaoping's judgment that peace and development after the end of the "cold war" between the two superpowers of the United States and the Soviet Union have become a new stage of the two major world problems; the general epochal nature of capitalist world history has not changed; the basic contradictions of capitalist society still exist, but peace and development have become two major world issues. Although the general nature of the times revealed by the classic writers of Marxism has not changed, the general historical trend of socialism inevitably replacing capitalism is still irreversible, and the internal contradictions of capitalism are still irreconcilable, but the phased transformation of the theme of the times provides a strategic opportunity for the peaceful development of socialism with Chinese characteristics. Capitalism was progressive at the beginning, replacing feudal society and bringing about the great development of productive forces and human society. Marx pointed out in the Communist Manifesto that capitalism has brought tremendous development to the productive forces of human society, and the productive forces of capitalist society have achieved tremendous development that cannot be matched by feudal society in a thousand years in a hundred years. A great feature of capitalist development is that marketization has opened up the whole world, connected the whole world, and broken the isolation and isolation between countries, regions and nations. Whoever closes off the country will die, and the gate will be opened by others and become a vassal of others. The only way to survive is to consciously open the door and integrate into the world. Therefore, Marx said that the development of capitalism has made human history a world history, which is called "cosmopolitanism". Today, it is called "globalization". Globalization is a "double-edged sword" that, on the one hand, has promoted the progress and development of the world, especially in recent decades. On the other hand, the internal contradictions of capitalism are insurmountable, capitalism is moving more and more towards its opposite, bringing war, bloodshed and suffering to mankind, "World War I", "World War II", until today, war is endless, the world is seriously polarized, the poor are poorer, the rich are getting richer, capitalism has caused globalization, and plundered the world through globalization. The scientific argument of Marx's Capital tells us that while capitalism develops, it creates its opposites and gravediggers, namely the new elements of socialism and the working class. Socialism with Chinese characteristics is a successful case of Capital. Marxist political economy explains the historical law and inevitable development of this world historical era, and the basic theory of Marxist political economy is not outdated. This is the first reason why Marxist political economy still works. The second reason is that we are now engaged in a socialist market economy, and we also need the guidance of Marxist political economy. How can backward countries engage in socialism? Marx and Engels did not elaborate. Capital tells us that public ownership must replace private ownership, and communist social form must replace capitalist social form. Marx said in the Critique of the Gotha Programme: "Between capitalist society and communist society, there is a period of revolutionary transformation from the former to the latter. Corresponding to this period was also a period of political transition, in which the state could only be the revolutionary dictatorship of the proletariat. 2995663 capitalism to communism there must be a transitional stage, which is the "first stage of communist society", that is, the stage of socialist society, and the difference between socialist society and communist society is distribution according to work. Marx's important judgment was only a theoretical summary based on the general trend of historical development. What socialism really looks like, what communism really looks like, how socialism should be built, how communism should be built, he only put forward a principle, planned a general blueprint, and did not put it into practice, and he could not be so specific. Marx only believed that in a capitalist society with highly developed productive forces, social contradictions intensified to a certain extent, capitalist production relations could no longer accommodate its productive forces, the socialist revolution came, the revolution succeeded, and a socialist society under the dictatorship of the proletariat was established. In socialist society, that is, in the first stage of communist society, the public ownership of the whole society is practiced, there is no private ownership, laborers are directly distributed according to their work, there is no commodity or currency, and a planned economy is implemented. In fact, today's socialist revolutions are taking place in backward countries, such as Russia and China, and not in the developed capitalist countries of Europe and the United States. After Lenin led the success of the October Revolution, he initially envisaged socialism with a pure planned economy, and designed the whole of Russia to be a big "syndicate", that is, Russia was a large factory with all public ownership, and laborers received labor vouchers according to the working hours paid, and distributed them directly according to their work. However, before his vision could be implemented, he caught up with the civil war waged by the union of fourteen imperialist countries and the white bandits in Russia, in a vain attempt to strangle the Soviets in the cradle. Lenin led the war of Soviet defense for several years, implemented distribution according to needs, engaged in military communism, defeated imperialism and white bandits, and consolidated Soviet power. However, the concrete practice after the war prompted Lenin to ponder deeply what socialism really looked like and how socialism should be carried out. What exactly should be done to carry out socialism in backward countries? Marx did not speak. Lenin began to consider that in the backward countries to carry out socialism, to develop a commodity economy, to have commodities, value, and the law of value, not to completely engage in public ownership, to have part of private ownership, or other ownership, to have the development of state capitalism, and to bring in foreign capital. Lenin published a series of articles, eight in his later years, putting forward the idea of the New Economic Policy, which is Lenin's theoretical thinking on what kind of socialism to pursue in backward Russia and how to carry out socialism, and it can also be said that he began to consider the use of Marxist political economy to guide the construction of socialism in a backward country like Russia. Applying Marxist political economy to the practice of socialist construction in Russia, Lenin began to innovate and develop Marxist political economy. Of course, Lenin died before he could fully launch the NEP. Stalin succeeded Lenin, and our party's evaluation of him was "three and seven open", the achievements were the main thing, and of course serious mistakes were made. On the whole, he presided over the socialist construction of the Soviet Union, realized socialist industrialization and collectivization of agriculture, defeated German fascism, and built the Soviet Union into a great power that could compete with the United States. In terms of economic construction, Stalin broke through some conclusions of Marx's classic works and was also limited by some conclusions of Marx's classic works, and the Soviet Union finally formed a rigid planned economic system, which made the institutional superiority of socialism not fully brought into play, and seriously constrained the development of the socialist productive forces in the Soviet Union. However, Stalin did not completely copy the conclusion that socialism cannot engage in commodities and markets, but affirmed the commodity economy and the law of value within a certain scope, and played the role of the law of value, which was reflected in his book "Economic Problems of Socialism in the Soviet Union". After the victory of the October Revolution, the idea that "there is no political economy under socialism" became popular in Russia, and it was not until 1929 that Lenin's "Evaluation of Bukharin's Economy in the Transitional Period" was published. Stalin attached great importance to the theoretical construction of socialist political economy. In October 1952, he published Economic Problems of Soviet Socialism. "Economic Problems of Socialism in the Soviet Union" is Stalin's last important work and a masterpiece of his economic thought, he tries to use Marxist political economy to summarize the experience of socialist economic construction in the Soviet Union for more than 30 years, and tries to expound the Marxist socialist political economy. This book should be evaluated from a historical perspective, and despite its insurmountable historical limitations, it still puts forward valuable ideas in the interpretation of socialist political economy. First, in response to the view that economic laws under the socialist system are objective laws that are not transferred by human will, it is proposed that whether people want to or not, or admit or not, economic laws always exist objectively and play a role, and people cannot eliminate these laws or create new laws. People can recognize economic laws and use them to serve human society. In class society, different classes have different understandings of the discovery and use of economic laws. Second, although socialism has abolished private ownership, socialist commodity production exists because socialist public ownership exists under the ownership of the whole people and collective ownership. Third, socialist commodity production and capitalist commodity production are fundamentally different, and the two cannot be confused. Socialist commodity production does not create the conditions for the emergence of capitalism and does not lead to capitalism. Fourth, under the socialist system, due to the existence of commodity production, the law of value will inevitably exist and play a role, which is not transferred by human will; under the socialist system, the law of value serves the socialist economy. The law of value is a good practice school, and the use of the role of the law of value is of great significance to the socialist economy. Stalin demonstrated for the first time the objective inevitability of commodity production, commodity exchange and the law of value under socialist conditions, and emphasized the fundamental difference between the socialist commodity economy and the capitalist commodity economy. These understandings are of reference significance for us to understand the objectivity of economic laws, consciously act in accordance with the requirements of economic laws, fully understand the inevitability of the socialist market economy, develop and improve the socialist market economy, attach importance to the inevitability of the existence of the law of value under socialist conditions, and give full play to the role of the law of value under socialist conditions. Of course, Stalin's theoretical understanding also has historical limitations, but this does not negate some of Stalin's contributions to Marxist political economy. After the founding of New China, Mao Zedong advocated a socialist political economy. Mao Zedong advocated the study of Capital, Stalin's "Economic Problems of Soviet Socialism" and the "Political Economy Textbook" (socialist part) compiled by the Soviet Economic Research Institute. From the end of 1959 to the beginning of 1960, Mao Zedong led several party experts to concentrate for 25 days to read the "Political Economy Textbook" (socialist part), studying how socialism actually carried out economic construction. Mao Zedong believed that in order to promote China's socialist economic construction, it is necessary not only to adhere to the basic principles of Marxist political economy, but also to base ourselves on China's national conditions, sum up China's experience, continuously promote Marxist theoretical innovation, produce its own theorists, create its own economic theory, and form a political economy theory with China's own characteristics. When reading the Soviet "Textbook of Political Economy", he emphasized: "The books of Marx, these ancestors, must be read, and their basic principles must be observed. However, the Communist Party of any country, the ideological circles of any country, must create new theories, write new works, and produce their own theorists to serve the current politics. 2995664 Mao Zedong summed up the lessons and lessons of socialist construction in the Soviet Union, carried out creative theoretical explorations on socialist political economy, put forward a series of important theoretical theories in commodity economy, economic system, opening up to the outside world, and took the lead in proposing that socialism should vigorously develop commodity production and commodity exchange. These understandings constitute an important prerequisite for the theory of socialist market economy. Mao Zedong believed that commodity production itself is not institutional, it is only a tool, looking at the institutional characteristics of a commodity economy, "it depends on what economic system it is linked to, and its connection with the capitalist system is capitalist commodity production, and its connection with the socialist system is socialist commodity production." 2995665 the socialist period, we must make full use of the commodity economy as a tool to make it serve socialist construction; China's commodity economy is very underdeveloped, and it is necessary to "greatly develop socialist commodity production in a planned manner"2995666; blindly denying the view of commodity economy "is wrong and contrary to objective laws." He clearly pointed out that the law of values plays a role in the construction of socialism in our country. "This law is a great school, and only by using it will it be possible to teach our tens of millions of cadres and tens of millions of people, and to build our socialism and communism." Otherwise everything is impossible. "2995667 it is necessary to educate cadres so that they understand the law of value and equivalent exchange, and if they violate it, they will be hit with blood. Proceeding from China's actual national conditions, he clearly pointed out that based on the reality of China's economic development, we should neither dogmatically nor Westernize the issue of capitalism and the private economy; we can engage in private ownership on the basis of state-run enterprises and capitalism on the premise of adhering to socialism; "we can engage in state-run or private-sector enterprises," and we can eliminate capitalism and engage in capitalism, because "it is a supplement to the socialist economy." In terms of the economic system and ownership structure, he questioned the traditional planned economy and clearly put forward the idea of mobilizing two enthusiasms. "We cannot be like the Soviet Union, where we concentrate everything in the central government and stuck the localities to death, and there is no mobility at all." On the issue of opening up to the outside world, he put forward the slogan of "learning from foreign countries" and that opening up to the outside world should be carried out in two points rather than one point. "The strengths of all nations and all nations must be learned, and all really good things in politics, economics, science, technology, literature, and art must be learned. However, there must be analysis and critical learning, not blind learning, not copying everything and applying it mechanically. 2995668 he put forward the basic principles and methods of economic construction: We must oppose both conservatism and rash advances, advance steadily in a comprehensive balance, take agriculture as the foundation, take industry as the lead, arrange the national economic plan in the order of agricultural importance, proceed from China's specific conditions, do a good job in comprehensive balance, take into account the overall situation, make appropriate arrangements, and work thriftily. He also raised the issue of distribution according to work and the fight against egalitarianism and excessive disparities. These important theories have made important theoretical reserves for our party to put forward the reform of the socialist market economic system and opening up to the outside world during the period of reform and opening up. In the new period of reform and opening up, Deng Xiaoping proposed that socialism can develop a market economy. After more than 30 years of reform and opening up, we have initially built a socialist market economic system, achieved great achievements in socialism with Chinese characteristics, embarked on a Chinese road, adhered to the Chinese system, and created Chinese theory. This is an innovation and development of Marxist political economy, as well as an innovation and development of Capital. Today, we are engaged in a new great struggle at a new historical starting point in the new stage of development of socialism with Chinese characteristics. The socialist market economy is linked to the market economy of the whole world, and to engage in the socialist market economy in the market environment of the capitalist world, it is all the more necessary to study and master "Capital" and to adhere to and develop Marxist political economy, because Marxist political economy has comprehensively revealed the laws of market economy, made a profound analysis of the capitalist market economy, and fully demonstrated how to give play to the role of value and the law of value. Marxist political economy is not outdated, and if we do not adhere to or develop Marxist political economy, we will not be able to guide the construction of the socialist market economy and the development of socialism with Chinese characteristics. 3. Based on China's national conditions and development practice, build a Marxist political economy in contemporary China, that is, the political economy of socialism with Chinese characteristics, General Secretary Xi Jinping pointed out: "In the face of extremely complex domestic and foreign economic situations and diverse economic phenomena, studying the basic principles and methodologies of Marxist political economy will help us master scientific economic analysis methods, understand the process of economic movement, grasp the laws of social and economic development, and improve our ability to control the socialist market economy." We should better answer the theoretical and practical questions of China's economic development and improve our ability and level of leading China's economic development. "Adhering to the basic principles of Marxist political economy and building a socialist political economy with Chinese characteristics is a great historical task entrusted to us by the times. Our party has always attached importance to the study, research, application and development of Marxist political economy. As early as October 1984, after the adoption of the "Decision of the CPC Central Committee on Economic Structural Reform," Comrade Deng Xiaoping spoke highly of it, saying that "the first draft of a political economy has been written, which is a political economy that combines the basic principles of Marxism with the practice of socialism in China." Since the Third Plenary Session of the 11th CPC Central Committee, our party has integrated the basic tenets of Marxist political economy with the new practice of reform and opening up, continuously enriched and developed Marxist political economy, and formed a series of important theoretical achievements. For example, theories on the nature of socialism, theories on the basic economic system in the initial stage of socialism, theories on socialist market economy, theories on the participation of production factors in income distribution, theories on the reform of state-owned enterprises and the transformation of the shareholding system, theories on economic globalization and opening up to the outside world, theories on independent innovation and the establishment of an innovative country... These theoretical viewpoints have deepened our understanding of the law of socialist economic development, creatively constructed the political economy of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and effectively guided the practice of China's economic development. Since the 18th National Congress, General Secretary Xi Jinping has adhered to and developed Marxist political economy, put forward many new ideas and views on some major socialist economic issues, developed Marxist political economy in contemporary China, and opened up a new realm of Marxist political economy. First, it puts forward the major principles of the political economy of socialism with Chinese characteristics. He put forward: "We must adhere to the people-centered development thinking, adhere to the new development concept, adhere to and improve the basic socialist economic system, adhere to and improve the socialist basic distribution system, adhere to the direction of socialist market economic reform, and adhere to the basic national policy of opening up." This is a major principle that should be followed in the development of socialist political economy with Chinese characteristics. These six principles are of clear epochal significance and far-reaching theoretical significance. Second, it puts forward the idea of adhering to the people-centered development concept. Adhering to the people-centered development thinking is a distinctive feature of the Party Central Committee's thinking on economic development with Xi Jinping as general secretary, which fully embodies the Marxist materialist view of history, fully reflects the essential requirements of socialism, and fully expresses the principled position of Marxist political economy. As scholars of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, we should firmly establish the idea of learning for the people, take seeking interests for the broadest masses of the people as the starting point and end point of scientific research, regard the great practice of the masses as the highest criterion for testing the results of scientific research, and regard the masses of the people as the highest arbiters of the value of scientific research. Go deep into practice, go deep into the grassroots level, go deep among the masses, draw nourishment and inspiration from the fiery social practice and the great creation of the people, and provide inexhaustible ideological power and spiritual source for the realization of national prosperity and strength, national rejuvenation and people's happiness. Third, it puts forward the theory that China's economic development has entered a new normal. China's economic development has entered a new normal, which is a major strategic judgment made by the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping as general secretary since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China on the basis of scientific analysis of the economic development situation at home and abroad and accurate grasp of China's basic national conditions, and is a theoretical guide for China to move towards a higher stage of development. At present, China's economy is evolving to a stage with a more advanced form, a more complex division of labor and a more reasonable structure, and is shifting from high-speed growth to medium-high growth, the mode of economic development is shifting from extensive growth of scale and speed to intensive growth of quality and efficiency, the economic structure is shifting from incremental capacity expansion to deep adjustment of adjusting stock and optimizing incremental coexistence, and the driving force of economic development is shifting from traditional growth points to new growth points, and supply-side structural reform is being promoted. Understanding the new normal, adapting to the new normal, and leading the new normal is the great logic of China's economic development in the current and future period, and it is also the basic compliance of us to use Marx's political economy analysis method to grasp the law of economic movement. We should conscientiously sum up experience, analyze problems in depth, and provide intellectual and theoretical support for realizing China's economic development to a higher stage of development. Fourth, it put forward the need to adhere to the new development concept. As economic development enters a new normal, we must have new ideas, new ideas and new measures. The five major development concepts of innovation, coordination, green, openness and sharing are important theoretical innovations to coordinate and promote the "four comprehensive" strategic layout, adapt to and lead the new normal of economic development, and are a major sublimation of the party's development theory. Innovation is the first driving force to lead development, coordination is the inherent requirement of sustainable and healthy development, green is a necessary condition for sustainable development and an important embodiment of the people's pursuit of a better life, openness is the only way for the country to prosper and develop, and sharing is the essential requirement of socialism with Chinese characteristics. We must persist in using new development concepts, in-depth study of the new characteristics of China's economic speed change, structural optimization and power conversion under the new normal, constantly solve new problems in economic development, and provide intellectual support for creating a new situation of economic development. General Secretary Xi Jinping also put forward the idea of recognizing the essential difference between Marxist political economy and Western economics, consolidating the guiding position of Marxist political economy, in-depth study of the socialist political economy with Chinese characteristics, promoting social fairness and justice, gradually realizing common prosperity for all people, promoting the coordination of new industrialization, informationization, urbanization and agricultural modernization, giving play to the decisive role of the market in resource allocation and better playing the role of the government, implementing mixed ownership reform, and promoting supply-side structural reform Make good use of a series of important viewpoints such as two markets and two kinds of resources at home and abroad. General Secretary Xi Jinping's creative development of Marxist political economy has opened up a new realm of Marxist political economy in contemporary China, and set a model for us to use Marxist political economy positions, viewpoints and methods to solve problems. Marxist political economy is a science that is constantly evolving and keeps pace with the times. At present, the world economy and China's economy are facing many new major issues, which require scientific theoretical answers, and it is even more necessary to form a socialist political economy with Chinese characteristics under new historical conditions to guide great practice. We should base ourselves on China's national conditions and development practice, reveal new characteristics and new laws, refine and sum up the regular achievements of China's economic development practice, upgrade practical experience into systematic economic theory, and contribute wisdom and strength to efforts to promote the innovation and development of Marxist political economy. 4. Adhering to and developing Marxist political economy, unswervingly taking Marxist political economy and contemporary Chinese Marxist political economy as the guiding ideology for economic work and economic research, adhering to and developing Marxist political economy, and systematically constructing and developing Marxist political economy in contemporary China is an important theoretical task of our institute, especially the economic discipline, and it is also a political task. As early as 2007, the Party Central Committee clearly put forward the strategic requirements of "three positioning" for the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. The research and propaganda of the basic theory of Marxist political economy and the innovative research of socialist political economy with Chinese characteristics are the proper meaning of the "three positioning" requirements of our institute, and it is the duty that our institute must fulfill. The institutes of the Faculty of Economics, as well as the Institute of Marxism and the Institute of World Economics and Politics, have a complete range of disciplines and talents, which not only have irreplaceable theoretical and academic advantages, but also have unshirkable responsibility and self-awareness. Comrade Xi Jinping asked us: "We should deeply study the new situation and new problems facing the world economy and China's economy, and contribute Chinese wisdom to the innovative development of Marxist political economy." "The party group hopes that comrades will adhere to and develop Marxist political economy in accordance with the requirements of General Secretary Xi Jinping, deeply and systematically study the new situations and new problems facing the world economy and China's economy, and contribute our minds to the research and publicity of Marxist political economy and the innovative development of socialist political economy with Chinese characteristics." First, always adhere to the guidance of Marxist political economy. Marxism is composed of three parts: Marxist philosophy, Marxist political economy and scientific socialism, and Marxism is the ideological foundation and theoretical guide of our party, which also includes Marxist political economy. We must firmly consolidate the guiding position of Marxist political economy in China's mainstream ideological and economic research, be good at applying the basic stands, viewpoints and methods of Marxist political economy, analyze various economic phenomena and economic trends of the domestic socialist market economy and the international capitalist world economy, enhance political sensitivity and political discernment, and always maintain a firm stand and a sober mind. It is necessary to permeate the guiding role of Marxist political economy in the discipline construction, scientific research work, academic activities and personnel training of economics, carry out scientific research work in a down-to-earth manner in accordance with the basic principles and methodology of Marxist political economy, and strive to build a theoretical system of contemporary Marxist political economy. Second, in-depth study of major theoretical and practical issues in socialist economic activities with Chinese characteristics. From the perspective of the domestic situation, although the long-term economic fundamentals have not changed, the problems of unbalanced, uncoordinated and unsustainable development are still prominent, there is a certain inertia in the extensive development model, the overcapacity of some industries is serious, the development of urban and rural areas is unbalanced, resource constraints are tight, the ecological environment is deteriorating, the innovation ability is not strong, the efficiency of enterprises has declined, the supply of basic public services is insufficient, and the task of building a moderately prosperous society in an all-round way is still arduous. In the face of complex domestic situations, it is necessary to maintain the firmness and judgment of Marxist political economy. It is necessary to give full play to the advantages of our institute's high-end think tank for economic theory research and applied countermeasure research, focus on the new practice and new development of the construction of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and take the research and interpretation of major economic theories and practical issues of socialism with Chinese characteristics as the main direction of attack; The conscientious study of General Secretary Xi Jinping's new ideas, new concepts and new strategies on contemporary Marxist political economy is the central topic, and the in-depth study of the "four comprehensive" strategic layout, five major development concepts, the new normal of economic development, and supply-side structural reform are required topics, and more research results achieved under the guidance of Marxist political economy provide valuable decision-making reference for the central government. Third, comprehensively study and judge the new trends and new situations in the world economy and the development of world capitalism. From the perspective of the international situation, the deep-seated impact of the international financial crisis has existed for a long time, the global economic and trade growth is weak, protectionism is on the rise, geopolitical relations are complex changes, traditional and non-traditional security threats are intertwined, and the external environment is unstable and uncertain factors are increasing. The current situation, development trends and emerging problems of the world economy are consistent with the development and changes of world capitalism. The inherent contradictions of capitalism revealed by Marxist political economy still play a role, which is the fundamental reason for us to observe world economic problems and trends and make scientific judgments. The judgment of the world economy is inseparable from the analysis of the inherent contradictions of capitalism and the guidance of the basic principles of Marxist political economy. We must apply the basic principles of Marxist political economy to the analysis of contemporary capitalism and to the judgment of the world economic situation. Without the basic judgment of Marxist political economy, it is impossible to see clearly and recognize the trend of the world economy. In the face of complex international issues, we must be sober-minded, establish self-confidence and consciousness of Marxist political economy, always persist in using the stance, viewpoint and method of Marxist political economy to understand problems, and enhance the explanatory and guiding power of Marxism on major international economic issues. Fourth, resolutely criticize the errors of principle in Western economics. General Secretary Xi Jinping asked us to recognize the wrong nature of Western economics. We must conscientiously understand and distinguish the fundamental difference between the two theoretical systems of Marxist political economy and Western economics in terms of guiding theory, research object, research method, goal and task. Western economics, as the theoretical embodiment of bourgeois ideology in the economic field, has the fundamental mission of serving the interests of capital, but it deceptive labels itself as a scientific, objective, fair and just doctrine, so as to enlist a large number of believers, and must clearly recognize its bourgeois ideological essence. Of course, it is undeniable that Western capitalist countries have accumulated rich experience in market economy after hundreds of years of development practice. Western economists have continuously refined, summarized and summarized from multiple angles and levels of views that reflect the general laws and characteristics of the operation and development of the modern market economy, and formed a set of analysis paradigms and category systems, which are worth learning and learning from. On the one hand, the practical materials of Western market operation used in Western economics and their rational views can be fully refined and absorbed into the theoretical construction of contemporary Marxist political economy by using Marxist political economy. On the other hand, if Western economic theory is regarded as a god and unthinkingly regarded as a one-size-fits-all doctrine just because it has some references, it is undoubtedly a manifestation of a wrong position and shallow scholarship. We must resolutely criticize the content of Western economic theories that reflect the attributes of the capitalist system, class positions, ideological tendencies and values, and must not be copied; We should pay attention to drawing on the rational aspects of socialized large-scale production and the general laws of the market economy reflected in Western economic theories, and we should not completely deny them. The most important thing in Marxist political economy is to talk about politics. Politics is the concentrated expression of the economy, politics guides the economy, and of course, politics serves the economy. Political economy is not a simple addition of politics and economics, and although economics is the study of economic problems, it cannot be separated from social politics. According to the principle that the economy determines politics, politics reacts to the economy, the economic base determines the superstructure, and the superstructure acts on the economic foundation to understand economic problems, we can not only regard economic problems as pure relations between things, economics actually reflects the economic relations and social relations between people, especially ownership relations, distribution relations, of course, including the relationship between people in all production, circulation and consumption links. The so-called political view means looking at problems from the political standpoint of the working class, Marxism, and socialism. Marxist political economy has always regarded a country's politics and economy as an organic whole, analyzed the problems existing in social and political development from an economic perspective, understood economic problems from a political perspective, and acted on the economy to keep economic development in the correct direction. Marxist political economy mainly looks at problems from the analysis of production relations, and mainly from the analysis of the fundamental issue of ownership of the means of production. Western economics avoids the issue of political principles, abstracts economics into a pure relationship between things, and avoids the study of the relationship between people, and its real purpose is to cover up the essence of capitalist exploitation, and then defend the private ownership of the means of production and the capitalist system. Marxist political economy is not a flower in a greenhouse, but was created and developed in the process of absorbing the nourishment of various ideas and fighting against all kinds of erroneous ideas. In the process of studying Marxist political economy, we must completely abandon traditional dogmatism, not eat foreigners, not marginalize Marxist political economy, nor seek excerpts from Marxist classics and engage in rigidity. It is necessary to truly study Marxist political economy from the standpoint, viewpoint and method, and innovate the political economy of socialism with Chinese characteristics. Marxist political economy cannot be used as a cover to constantly cram into so-called doctrines and viewpoints that are inconsistent with Marxist political economy. In the new historical period, in the face of the rich practice of the vigorous socialist economy with Chinese characteristics, the task of developing and innovating China's political economy and building a political economy theory and academic discourse system with Chinese characteristics, Chinese style and Chinese style is more urgent and important than ever. This is the fundamental guarantee for establishing theoretical self-confidence, road self-confidence and institutional self-confidence in the economic field, and also puts forward major and urgent practical tasks for each of our scientific research workers. Fifth, we must adhere to the study style of integrating Marxist theory with practice. In July 2014, General Secretary Xi Jinping presided over a symposium of experts on the economic situation: "I hope that the vast number of experts and scholars will go deep into reality, the masses, and the grassroots, listen to the voices of the masses, grasp the real situation, conduct extensive research, concentrate on research, and continue to produce insightful results, provide suggestions and suggestions for scientific decision-making by the Party Central Committee, and make more contributions to promoting scientific and democratic decision-making." "Our institute should conscientiously carry out the study activities of implementing the important speech of the general secretary of the internship "three in-depths", truly study, truly understand, truly believe, and truly use Marxist political economy, constantly improve the study style, proceed from reality, improve research methods, refine the materials of contemporary Chinese Marxist political economy research in the practice of socialism with Chinese characteristics, resolutely get rid of the influence of the research paradigm of Western economics divorced from reality, and strive to build a Marxist political economy of socialism with Chinese characteristics. In order to promote the construction of the socialist economy with Chinese characteristics and make more and greater contributions to the great cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. (Originally published in Economic Research Journal, Issue 3, 2016)(AI翻译)

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GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文
王立胜,裴长洪.中国特色社会主义政治经济学探索[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2016
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MLA 格式引文
王立胜,裴长洪.中国特色社会主义政治经济学探索.北京,中国社会科学出版社:2016E-book.
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APA 格式引文
王立胜和裴长洪(2016).中国特色社会主义政治经济学探索.北京:中国社会科学出版社
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