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中国法院信息化第三方评估报告

ISBN:978-7-5161-7722-8

出版日期:2016-03

页数:206

字数:182.0千字

丛书名:《国家智库报告》

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引用量:3次

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20世纪90年代以来,全球科技进步日新月异,互联网、大数据成为时代发展的重要方向,也是全球经济社会发展最显著的时代特征,推动信息化发展成为国家高度关注的主题,也对法院信息化工作提出了越来越高的要求。法院信息化是指人民法院利用信息技术,开发应用各类信息系统,收集、处理、保存、共享、运用法院在审判工作过程中产生的各类信息,对外增强司法透明度,落实司法为民宗旨,对内规范司法权力运行,提高法院各项工作质效,以实现提升司法公信力、维护司法公正目的的行为与过程。法院信息化是国家信息化的重要组成部分,是人民法院一场深刻的自我革命。法院信息化不仅是审判方式和管理模式的转变,而且是提升司法能力和优化司法体系的重要路径,是构建新的审判方式的重要组成部分,也是提高便民服务水平、实现司法为民目标的重要手段。推进法院信息化是新时代解决人民法院如何更好地维护社会公平正义、满足人民群众司法需求等一系列深层次问题的关键,也是司法体制改革的重要内容。

近年来,中国法院围绕全面推进依法治国战略部署,按照“大数据、大格局、大服务”理念,以服务人民群众、服务审判执行、服务司法管理为主线,推进人民法院信息化建设,在推动司法公开、深化司法为民、提升审判质效、规范司法管理方面取得了显著成效。

习近平总书记指出:“没有信息化就没有现代化。”为了解中国法院的信息化状况,中国社会科学院法学研究所对人民法院信息化在规范司法权运行、提升司法能力、落实司法为民方面的工作进行了第三方评估,总结人民法院信息化的成就,分析面临的困难,探究人民法院信息化的发展方向。

从人民法院信息化发展来看,1996年5月,最高人民法院在江苏召开“全国法院通信及计算机工作会议”,部署全国法院计算机网络建设工作,确定北京、上海、江苏、辽宁、河南、海南、广东、福建八个高级人民法院及其所辖法院作为全国法院计算机网络系统建设的试点单位,制定了《全国法院计算机信息网络系统建设规划》和《全国法院计算机信息网络建设管理暂行规定(试行)》。这标志着人民法院信息化工作的起步。

2002—2012年,法院信息化进入普遍推进阶段。最高人民法院于2002年在山东召开全国信息化工作会议,成立了信息化建设工作领导小组,加强了对信息化工作的领导。2007年6月,最高人民法院印发《最高人民法院关于全面加强人民法院信息化工作的决定》,明确了人民法院信息化工作的指导思想和原则,具体安排了人民法院信息化工作保障机制。在此阶段,最高人民法院还印发了一系列关于人民法院信息网络系统建设的规定、规划、技术规范、基本要求和实施方案等,并将其作为人民法院改革的主要任务。各级人民法院更加注重硬件和软件相结合。硬件投入从传统的数据库、服务器等常规设备,向多元化的庭审设备、视频设备等转变。在加大硬件投入的同时,更加重视案件管理、司法统计、决策支持、案例管理、法官管理等业务软件的开发和应用;更加注重建设和应用相结合,以建设带动应用,以应用促进建设,在加强建设的同时,将应用提到越来越重要的位置;更加注重信息化对提高审判效率、加强审判监督、促进审判公开等方面的作用。

党的十八大,尤其是十八届四中全会提出全面推进依法治国,人民法院工作的目标是努力让人民群众在每一个司法案件中感受到公平正义,人民法院信息化步入战略发展的新时期,面临新的机遇和挑战。最高人民法院高度重视法院信息化的基础性、全局性、战略性作用,将其作为人民法院工作的重中之重。最高人民法院提出,没有信息化就没有人民法院工作的现代化,就没有审判体系和审判能力的现代化,就不可能让人民群众在每一个司法案件中感受到公平正义。各级人民法院应不断满足人民群众日益多元的司法需求,将信息化技术应用到司法审判执行、司法管理的全过程;要依靠信息化技术,把握司法工作规律,提高审判能力;通过信息化与审判工作的高度融合,实现审判执行流程再造,推进审判方式的变革,做到全程留痕、实时监督,促进司法行为规范化。

一直以来,最高人民法院重视信息化在人民法院工作中的地位与作用,发布了一系列法院信息化建设的规定和文件,确定了主要的技术规范和标准,并在实践中大力推进,取得了良好成效。各级人民法院都充分认识到法院信息化对司法工作的重要性,并加快了信息化建设的步伐。

2013年12月,最高人民法院出台《人民法院信息化建设五年发展规划(2013—2017)》,2015年先后编制完成《人民法院信息化建设五年发展规划(2016—2020)》《最高人民法院信息化建设五年发展规划(2016—2020)》,明确了各级人民法院今后五年信息化发展的指导思想、基本原则、发展思路、建设目标、重点任务和保障机制。作为司法改革的纲领性文件,《最高人民法院关于全面深化人民法院改革的意见——人民法院第四个五年改革纲要(2014—2018)》(法发〔2015〕3号)(以下简称《四五改革纲要》)也要求各级人民法院要依托现代信息技术实现司法改革的各项目标,65项改革任务中有35项不同程度地依赖于信息技术手段。“推动人民法院信息化建设”既是人民法院深化司法改革的重要内容之一,也是全面深化司法改革的重要引擎和强大动力。要求加快“天平工程”3168554建设,着力整合现有资源,推动以服务法院工作和公众需求的各类信息化应用;高级人民法院主要业务信息化覆盖率应达到100%,中级人民法院和基层人民法院应分别达到95%和85%以上。另外,《四五改革纲要》要求依托现代信息化手段建立起审判权与监督权行使的全程留痕、相互监督、相互制约机制,探索推广信息化条件下的电子送达方式。在司法统计改革方面,《四五改革纲要》还明确提出建立“全国法院司法信息大数据中心”。另外,《最高人民法院关于进一步加强新形势下人民法庭工作的若干意见》(法发〔2014〕21号),也将“推动信息化建设”作为加强人民法庭工作的重要内容。

2015年,中国法院已经建成以互联互通为特征的人民法院信息化2.0版,基础设施建设基本完成,核心应用系统日益成熟,司法信息资源的搜集整合及管理使用初见成效,信息化保障体系不断完善,基本实现了网上立案、网上办案、网上办公,实现了全国3500多家法院的全覆盖,数据的实时统计、实时更新,信息化与各项审判业务的良性互动格局初步形成,大大提升了司法为民、公正司法水平,由全国四级法院编织的信息化网络在国家治理体系中发挥着越来越重要的作用。

2013—2015年,最高人民法院每年举行一次全国法院信息化工作会议,以明确人民法院信息化工作的指导思想和工作任务。2015年7月全国高级法院院长座谈会提出,司法改革和信息化建设是人民司法事业发展的车之两轮、鸟之双翼,要求各级人民法院充分认识大数据时代法院信息化建设的重要性,进一步增强责任感、使命感、紧迫感,强力推进信息化建设转型升级,建设具有中国特色的人民法院信息化3.0版。

Since the 90s of the 20th century, global science and technology have progressed with each passing day, the Internet and big data have become an important direction of the development of the times, and it is also the most significant feature of the times in the global economic and social development. Court informatization refers to the behavior and process of people's courts using information technology to develop and apply various information systems, collect, process, preserve, share, and use all kinds of information generated by courts in the course of trial work, enhance judicial transparency externally, implement the purpose of justice for the people, regulate the operation of judicial power internally, and improve the quality and efficiency of all work of courts, so as to achieve the purpose of enhancing judicial credibility and safeguarding judicial justice. Court informatization is an important part of national informatization and a profound self-revolution of the people's courts. Court informatization is not only a transformation of trial methods and management models, but also an important way to improve judicial capabilities and optimize the judicial system, an important part of building new trial methods, and an important means to improve the level of convenient services for the people and achieve the goal of justice for the people. Promoting court informatization is the key to solving a series of deep-seated problems in the new era, such as how people's courts can better safeguard social fairness and justice and meet the judicial needs of the people, and is also an important part of the reform of the judicial system. In recent years, Chinese courts have promoted the informatization of people's courts in accordance with the concept of "big data, big pattern, and big service" in accordance with the concept of "big data, big pattern, and big service", and have promoted the informatization of people's courts, and achieved remarkable results in promoting judicial openness, deepening justice for the people, improving trial quality and efficiency, and standardizing judicial management. General Secretary Xi Jinping pointed out: "Without informatization, there will be no modernization. "In order to understand the informatization of Chinese courts, the Institute of Law of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences conducted a third-party assessment of the work of people's court informatization in standardizing the operation of judicial power, improving judicial capacity, and implementing justice for the people, summarizing the achievements of people's court informatization, analyzing the difficulties faced, and exploring the development direction of people's court informatization." From the perspective of the development of people's court informatization, in May 1996, the Supreme People's Court held a "National Court Communications and Computer Work Conference" in Jiangsu to make arrangements for the construction of computer networks in courts nationwide, and identified eight higher people's courts in Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu, Liaoning, Henan, Hainan, Guangdong and Fujian and the courts under their jurisdiction as pilot units for the construction of computer network systems for courts nationwide. Interim Provisions on the Construction and Management of Computer Information Networks in Courts Nationwide (for trial implementation). This marks the beginning of the informatization work of the people's courts. From 2002 to 2012, court informatization entered a stage of general promotion. In 2002, the Supreme People's Court held a national informatization work conference in Shandong, established a leading group for informatization construction, and strengthened leadership over informatization work. In June 2007, the Supreme People's Court issued the Decision of the Supreme People's Court on Comprehensively Strengthening the Informatization of the People's Courts, which clarified the guiding ideology and principles for the informatization of the people's courts and specifically arranged the guarantee mechanism for the informatization work of the people's courts. At this stage, the Supreme People's Court also issued a series of regulations, plans, technical specifications, basic requirements and implementation plans on the construction of the people's court information network system, and regarded it as the main task of the people's court reform. People's courts at all levels pay more attention to the combination of hardware and software. Hardware investment has changed from traditional conventional equipment such as databases and servers to diversified trial equipment and video equipment. While increasing hardware investment, pay more attention to the development and application of business software such as case management, judicial statistics, decision support, case management, and judge management; Pay more attention to the combination of construction and application, drive application with construction, promote construction with application, and promote application to an increasingly important position while strengthening construction; Pay more attention to the role of informatization in improving trial efficiency, strengthening trial supervision, and promoting trial openness. The 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, especially the Fourth Plenary Session of the 18th Central Committee, proposed to comprehensively promote the rule of law, the goal of the work of the people's courts is to strive to let the people feel fairness and justice in every judicial case, and the informatization of the people's courts has entered a new period of strategic development and faces new opportunities and challenges. The Supreme People's Court attaches great importance to the basic, overall and strategic role of court informatization, and regards it as the top priority in the work of the people's courts. The Supreme People's Court pointed out that without informationization, there will be no modernization of the work of the people's courts, there will be no modernization of the trial system and trial capacity, and it will be impossible for the people to feel fairness and justice in every judicial case. People's courts at all levels should continuously meet the increasingly diverse judicial needs of the people, and apply information technology to the entire process of judicial trial execution and judicial management; It is necessary to rely on information technology to grasp the law of judicial work and improve trial capacity; Through the high degree of integration of informatization and trial work, realize the reengineering of the trial execution process, promote the reform of trial methods, leave traces throughout the process, supervise in real time, and promote the standardization of judicial behavior. For a long time, the Supreme People's Court has attached importance to the status and role of informatization in the work of the people's courts, issued a series of regulations and documents on the construction of court informatization, determined the main technical norms and standards, and vigorously promoted them in practice, achieving good results. People's courts at all levels have fully recognized the importance of court informatization to judicial work and have accelerated the pace of informationization. In December 2013, the Supreme People's Court issued the Five-Year Development Plan for the Informatization Construction of the People's Courts (2013-2017), and in 2015, it successively completed the Five-Year Development Plan for the Informatization Construction of the People's Courts (2016-2020) and the Five-Year Development Plan for the Informatization Construction of the Supreme People's Court (2016-2020), clarifying the guiding ideology, basic principles, development ideas, construction goals, key tasks and guarantee mechanisms for the informatization development of the people's courts at all levels in the next five years. As a programmatic document of judicial reform, the Opinions of the Supreme People's Court on Comprehensively Deepening the Reform of the People's Courts - The Fourth Five-Year Reform Outline of the People's Courts (2014-2018) (Fa Fa [2015] No. 3) (hereinafter referred to as the "Fourth Five-Year Reform Outline") also requires people's courts at all levels to rely on modern information technology to achieve the goals of judicial reform, and 35 of the 65 reform tasks rely on information technology means to varying degrees. "Promoting the informatization of people's courts" is not only one of the important contents of deepening judicial reform of people's courts, but also an important engine and powerful driving force for comprehensively deepening judicial reform. It is required to accelerate the construction of the "balance project" 3168554, focus on integrating existing resources, and promote various information applications to serve the work of the courts and the needs of the public; The informatization coverage of the main business of the higher people's courts should reach 100%, and the intermediate people's courts and the basic people's courts should reach 95% and 85% respectively. In addition, the Fourth Five-Year Reform Outline requires relying on modern information technology to establish a mechanism for leaving traces, mutual supervision and mutual restraint throughout the exercise of adjudication power and supervision power, and explore and promote electronic service methods under informationization conditions. In terms of judicial statistics reform, the Fourth Five-Year Reform Program also clearly proposes the establishment of a "National Court Judicial Information Big Data Center". In addition, the Several Opinions of the Supreme People's Court on Further Strengthening the Work of the People's Courts in the New Situation (Fa Fa [2014] No. 21) also regards "promoting the construction of informatization" as an important part of strengthening the work of the people's courts. In 2015, Chinese courts have built version 2.0 of people's court informatization characterized by interconnection, infrastructure construction has been basically completed, core application systems have become increasingly mature, the collection, integration, management and use of judicial information resources have achieved initial results, and the informatization guarantee system has been continuously improved, basically realizing online case filing, online case handling, and online office, achieving full coverage of more than 3,500 courts across the country, real-time statistics and real-time updates of data, and a benign interactive pattern between informatization and various trial businesses has initially taken shape. It has greatly improved the level of justice for the people and impartial justice, and the information network woven by the four levels of courts across the country has played an increasingly important role in the national governance system. From 2013 to 2015, the Supreme People's Court held a national court informatization work conference every year to clarify the guiding ideology and tasks of the people's court informatization work. In July 2015, the National High Court Presidents' Symposium proposed that judicial reform and informatization construction are the two wheels of the people's judicial cause and the wings of the bird, requiring people's courts at all levels to fully understand the importance of court informatization construction in the era of big data, further enhance the sense of responsibility, mission and urgency, vigorously promote the transformation and upgrading of informatization construction, and build the people's court informatization version 3.0 with Chinese characteristics.(AI翻译)

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GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文
中国社会科学院法学研究所,国家法治指数研究中心,法治指数创新工程项目组.中国法院信息化第三方评估报告[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2016
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MLA 格式引文
中国社会科学院法学研究所,国家法治指数研究中心,法治指数创新工程项目组.中国法院信息化第三方评估报告.北京,中国社会科学出版社:2016E-book.
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APA 格式引文
中国社会科学院法学研究所,国家法治指数研究中心和法治指数创新工程项目组(2016).中国法院信息化第三方评估报告.北京:中国社会科学出版社
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