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中国政治学.2018年.第二辑:总第二辑

CHINESE POLITOLOGY

ISBN:978-7-5203-3572-0

出版日期:2019-02

页数:276

字数:296.0千字

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European Civilization's“Free Space”

and Modern China:A Reading of Carl Schmitt's Der Nomos der Erde

Liu Xiaofeng

[Abstract] In recent decades,studies on“global history”generally regard the social life of human beings as the standard of historiography.This standard seems to suppose that the struggle within the European civilization to acquire the domination over the world has ended.On the contrary,Carl Schmitt's Der Nomos der Erde,which also represents a type of“global history”study,still regards the state as its standard and surpasses Euro-Centrism.Compared with the former standard,Schmitt's study is based on an opposite theory:the struggle between the Great Powers not only continues but also expands from Europe to a global scale.These two conceptions of“global history”suggest completely different concerns.If someone chose to following the former“global history”approach which regards the social life of human beings as its standard(s),he might well believe that a globalized era of cosmopolitan society is surely about to come.However,if the idea of cosmopolitan society since the 18thcentury was merely an utopia,if the struggle between the states is still grave in our age,if studies and teachings of history still dedicate themselves to a liberal-democratic idea of cosmopolitism,a special kind of amnesia will be the price.The younger generation may well forget that the land beneath them is still on the verge of a world-history moment in an era of global conflict,an era when states still rule and set the“standard”.

[Keywords] Global History; Carl Schmitt; International Law; Euro-Centrism;Diplomatic History of Modern China

Geopolitical Strategy and Vicissitude of the World Empire: From“Mature Mackinder”to“Old Mackinder”

Jiang Shigong

[Abstract] This article is about the intrinsic relation between the evolving of Mackinder's geo-politics theory and the power-transfer from old world empire to the new one.Mackinder believes that after 1900,a new age begins,when land-powers and seapowers fight for leadership of the world,seeking to establish a single World Empire.Under this contending circumstance,Mackinder argues that British Empire shouldn't continue the“old way”as a traditional sea-power,but turn to the“new way”to meet the calling of history,marching to the land(especially India and South Africa),integrating British Empire through finance and tariffs reforms,making British a new World Empire.This new empire,financially and constitutionally united,having both the characters of sea-power and land-power,was criticized as“imperialism”.Unfortunately,after the First World War,the power of the world empire transited from Britain to the United States.Mackinder realized that only alliance of Britain and America could prolong the life of the British sea-power empire then,so he tried to teach the lessons of the old empire's geopolitical strategy to the new one.The dream of ruling the whole world with democracy would come true only if the rulers take reality of world geo-politics into consideration seriously.The pivot of world geo-politics is not in North America but in the“world island”,namely the whole continent of Europe,Asia and Africa.America needs the margin land(such as Europe,South Africa,India,Japan,and China)to surround the heartland,squash into it,and establish the world empire.After the World War II,witnessing the destruction that the two world wars brought to human communities changed Mackinder's theory subtly.The“mature Mackinder”focusing on the power struggle over the whole world turned to the“old Mackinder”who was more dedicated to global power balance and world peace.

[Keywords] Geopolitics; the World Empire;“Mature Mackinder”;“Old Mackinder”

“Protestant Ethics and the Spirit of Capitalism”in the Sight of Historical Sociology

Yang Guangbin

[Abstract] While many Chinese intellectuals still regard Max Weber's Protestant Ethics and the Spirit of Capitalism as an academic canon,the masterpiece is,in fact,not only an answer to the question of“Rise of the West”,but also an attempt to construct the cultural superiority of the West.Upon this issue,scholars across the world have already provided various critics.As Fernand Braudel points out,Weber's project was to“rewrite world history”.Within the text,Weber's assumption or logical chain is composed of a series of concepts,namely: Calling,Predestination,Discipline,Rationality,Commercial Behavior and Self-Redemption.However,by re-examining the Protestant Ethics and the Spirit of Capitalism thesis in the course of European history,global history and history of religion,one may find it easy to grasp the flaws of Weber's one-sided presuppositions.Why would Weber“rewrite world history”? As a nationalist or even an imperialist with racial prejudice,Weber's identity determined that it was not justice,nor morality,but“national power”that defined the end of his life-long pursuit.Unfortunately,such a work of cultural imperialism is still regarded as a“canon”in domestic academic circles.Fundamentally,the misunderstanding should be ascribed to the inadequate development of China's social sciences and the absence of historical sociology studies,which has been mistakenly canonizing a study of historical sociology as a masterpiece of political philosophy.

[Keywords]“Rise of the West”; Protestant Ethics; the Spirit of Capitalism;“Rewriting History”; Cultural Imperialism

Empire,Politics and Philosophy:Plato and Thucydides

Ren Junfeng

[Abstract] Inside the great tradition of Western intellectual history,tensions always exist in terms of the quarrels between two minor traditions: ideal and reality,theory and history,philosopher and polis,philosophy and politics,etc.The vocation of philosophy is seeking the“truth”and the principle,while the common good is the end of political activities.Those two traditions,once integrated as a whole in the early times of ancient Greece,were divided and finally antagonized after the fall of Athenian Empire and the death of Socrates.Focusing on Plato and Thucydides,this article analyzes the source of the tension by searching the clues in history.Embodying two different intellectual directions of the Western intellectual tradition,Plato and Thucydides also offer the Chinese intellectuals a chance to rediscover the crucial issues raised by the Western tradition during its modern change.The tension between“Science as Vocation”and the Imperial Cause not only requires the re-understanding of the Western tradition,but also concerns intellectual integrity and political vision of the Chinese intellectuals in those“great eras of politics”.

[Keywords] Plato;Thucydides;Philosophy;Politics

The Inner Control of Communes in the People's Commune Period and the

Implementation of Family Planning Policy:The Case of Jinshan Village(1970-1982)

Tong Zhihui;Yang Xiaoting;Peng Fulin

[Abstract] Based on various documents and archives(1967-1981)of Jinshan Village(administratively affiliated to Beiwan Town of Jingyuan County in Gansu Province),this article is an attempt to investigate the interactions between the System of People's Commune and the implementation of Family Planning Policy.Focusing on the special role of Production Brigade and Production Team's inner control in the implementation of Family Planning Policy,we have offered an explanation on the difference of policy effect between the 1970s and 1980s.As the study shows,it was the mechanism of Production Brigade and Production Team that connected the task of national governance and the process of rural governance.

[Keywords] Family Planning Policy;The System of People's Commune; National Governance; Rural Governance

The Evolution and Operation of the Cadre Rotation Mechanism in China:

Based on the Experience of 1101 Cadres at the Provincial and Ministerial Level

Li Zhen;Liu Zhi

[Abstract] Scholars have paid much attention to Chinese cadre management system for over decades,especially the mechanisms on cadres' promotion,which indicates the significance of the system in PRC.Cadre management system in China,however,means not only the top-down controlling or mutual competing system,but also a training system.The cadre rotation mechanism,different from the Western democratic election or bureaucracy based on merit,isan important,but under-researched issue in contemporary China,through which may broaden cadres'visions and enrich their governing experience.So it is fundamental and essential for the development of cadres' career.The institutionalized cadre rotation involves three different patterns:rotations between the branches of party/government and other organizations such as universities,mass organizations,and state-owned enterprises(diaoren),rotations among various branches within the party and government(zhuanren)and temporary rotations(guazhiduanlian).Furthermore,the evolution of rotation mechanism demonstrates the Party's oscillations and striving for balancing the institutionalization of the governing and flexibility of the regime.The article traces the origin and evolution of the cadre rotation institutions,and shows the diverse characteristics of the rotation experiences of various types of cadres,based on historical documents,typical cases and relevant data.

[Keywords] Cadre Management System;Cadre Rotation;Career Development;Institutionalization

The Paradigm Change of Hong Kong's Political Development

Wang Heng

[Abstract] Since Hong Kong's return to her motherland in 1997,Hong Kong has made remarkable achievements in its political development.On the other hand,Hong Kong's development also met with problems such as“Pan-Politicalization”,“Populism”,“Separatism”,“Veto Politics”and“Street Political Confrontation”.These phenomena revealed the difficulties of the Electoral Democracy Paradigm both in theory and practice.As a by-product of Britain's“Colonial Withdrawal”tactic,the introduction of electoral democracy to Hong Kong and its later exercise were essentially driven by the“myth of general election”,a principle intentionally neglecting the importance of effective governance to political development.The conditionality of electoral democracy determines that general election should be gradually carried out,according to Hong Kong's own situations.Under the current circumstance,Hong Kong's political development strongly requires a transformation both in theory and policy.The basic task is to establish a shared goal with national governance of the Central government,to ensure positive interactions between different governance subjects and to acquire an all-round improvement of governance system and governance capacity.On that basis,the focus of political development in Hong Kong could be turned from political structure to governing functions,from systemic change to effects in practice.Consequently,economic growth,social welfare,national education and political trust could help to rebuild a positive political environment in Hong Kong.

[Keywords] Political Development; Paradigm; Electoral Democracy; Democratization; National Governance

Exploring Political Legitimacy Again:From the Perspective of Political Trust

Yang Duancheng

[Abstract] As an important fundamental theory in political science,political legitimacy is often explained by two approaches.One is constructed by the reasoning of political philosophy which aims at justification,and the other is based on the description of objective phenomenon.However,the justification approach was marked by the Western ideology due to the Cold War and finally evolved into a doctrine that only liberal democracy could fundamentally provide regimes with legitimacy.Nevertheless,this theory has much difficulty in explaining the world of being.Why do many countries,in which new regimes have been established in accordance with Western logic after experiencing democratic transition or even“Colour Revolution”,still face with the dilemma that most people distrust the new ruling authorities?Moreover,it is also difficult to explain contemporary China by the traditional legitimacy theory.As a result,inconsistences inevitably occur when China is examined and explained in full accordance with the constructed legitimacy theory.On the contrary,the descriptive approach focused on public opinion and political trust may provide us with a new perspective to reexamine China's political legitimacy.Nonetheless,the existing literature has not elaborated on why it is appropriate to use political trust to measure political legitimacy.This article is an attempt to recognize the premise and offer some illustrations.

[Keywords] Political Legitimacy;Political Trust;Political Support;Contemporary China

European Civilization's“Free Space”and Modern China:A Reading of Carl Schmitt's Der Nomos der ErdeLiu Xiaofeng[Abstract] In recent decades,studies on“global history”generally regard the social life of human beings as the standard of historiography. This standard seems to suppose that the struggle within the European civilization to acquire the domination over the world has ended. On the contrary,Carl Schmitt's Der Nomos der Erde,which also represents a type of“global history”study,still regards the state as its standard and surpasses Euro-Centrism.Compared with the former standard,Schmitt's study is based on an opposite theory:the struggle between the Great Powers not only continues but also expands from Europe to a global scale. These two conceptions of“global history”suggest completely different concerns. If someone chose to following the former“global history”approach which regards the social life of human beings as its standard(s),he might well believe that a globalized era of cosmopolitan society is surely about to come. However,if the idea of cosmopolitan society since the 18thcentury was merely an utopia,if the struggle between the states is still grave in our age,if studies and teachings of history still dedicate themselves to a liberal-democratic idea of cosmopolitism,a special kind of amnesia will be the price. The younger generation may well forget that the land beneath them is still on the verge of a world-history moment in an era of global conflict,an era when states still rule and set the“standard”. [Keywords] Global History; Carl Schmitt; International Law; Euro-Centrism;Diplomatic History of Modern ChinaGeopolitical Strategy and Vicissitude of the World Empire: From“Mature Mackinder”to“Old Mackinder”Jiang Shigong[Abstract] This article is about the intrinsic relation between the evolving of Mackinder's geo-politics theory and the power-transfer from old world empire to the new one. Mackinder believes that after 1900,a new age begins,when land-powers and seapowers fight for leadership of the world,seeking to establish a single World Empire.Under this contending circumstance,Mackinder argues that British Empire shouldn't continue the“old way”as a traditional sea-power,but turn to the“new way”to meet the calling of history,marching to the land(especially India and South Africa),integrating British Empire through finance and tariffs reforms,making British a new World Empire.This new empire,financially and constitutionally united,having both the characters of sea-power and land-power,was criticized as“imperialism”. Unfortunately,after the First World War,the power of the world empire transited from Britain to the United States.Mackinder realized that only alliance of Britain and America could prolong the life of the British sea-power empire then,so he tried to teach the lessons of the old empire's geopolitical strategy to the new one. The dream of ruling the whole world with democracy would come true only if the rulers take reality of world geo-politics into consideration seriously. The pivot of world geo-politics is not in North America but in the“world island”,namely the whole continent of Europe,Asia and Africa.America needs the margin land(such as Europe,South Africa, India,Japan,and China)to surround the heartland,squash into it,and establish the world empire. After the World War II,witnessing the destruction that the two world wars brought to human communities changed Mackinder's theory subtly. The“mature Mackinder”focusing on the power struggle over the whole world turned to the“old Mackinder”who was more dedicated to global power balance and world peace. [Keywords] Geopolitics; the World Empire; “Mature Mackinder”; “Old Mackinder”“Protestant Ethics and the Spirit of Capitalism”in the Sight of Historical SociologyYang Guangbin[Abstract] While many Chinese intellectuals still regard Max Weber's Protestant Ethics and the Spirit of Capitalism as an academic canon,the masterpiece is,in fact,not only an answer to the question of“Rise of the West”,but also an attempt to construct the cultural superiority of the West.Upon this issue,scholars across the world have already provided various critics. As Fernand Braudel points out,Weber's project was to“rewrite world history”. Within the text,Weber's assumption or logical chain is composed of a series of concepts,namely: Calling,Predestination,Discipline,Rationality,Commercial Behavior and Self-Redemption.However,by re-examining the Protestant Ethics and the Spirit of Capitalism thesis in the course of European history,global history and history of religion,one may find it easy to grasp the flaws of Weber's one-sided presuppositions. Why would Weber“rewrite world history”? As a nationalist or even an imperialist with racial prejudice,Weber's identity determined that it was not justice,nor morality,but“national power”that defined the end of his life-long pursuit . Unfortunately,such a work of cultural imperialism is still regarded as a“canon”in domestic academic circles. Fundamentally,the misunderstanding should be ascribed to the inadequate development of China's social sciences and the absence of historical sociology studies,which has been mistakenly canonizing a study of historical sociology as a masterpiece of political philosophy. [Keywords]“Rise of the West”; Protestant Ethics; the Spirit of Capitalism; “Rewriting History”; Cultural ImperialismEmpire,Politics and Philosophy:Plato and ThucydidesRen Junfeng[Abstract] Inside the great tradition of Western intellectual history,tensions always exist in terms of the quarrels between two minor traditions: ideal and reality,theory and history,philosopher and polis,philosophy and politics,etc. The vocation of philosophy is seeking the“truth”and the principle,while the common good is the end of political activities. Those two traditions,once integrated as a whole in the early times of ancient Greece,were divided and finally antagonized after the fall of Athenian Empire and the death of Socrates.Focusing on Plato and Thucydides,this article analyzes the source of the tension by searching the clues in history. Embodying two different intellectual directions of the Western intellectual tradition,Plato and Thucydides also offer the Chinese intellectuals a chance to rediscover the crucial issues raised by the Western tradition during its modern change. The tension between“Science as Vocation”and the Imperial Cause not only requires the re-understanding of the Western tradition,but also concerns intellectual integrity and political vision of the Chinese intellectuals in those“great eras of politics”. [Keywords] Plato; Thucydides; Philosophy; PoliticsThe Inner Control of Communes in the People's Commune Period and theImplementation of Family Planning Policy:The Case of Jinshan Village(1970-1982)Tong Zhihui; Yang Xiaoting; Peng Fulin[Abstract] Based on various documents and archives(1967-1981)of Jinshan Village(administratively affiliated to Beiwan Town of Jingyuan County in Gansu Province),this article is an attempt to investigate the interactions between the System of People's Commune and the implementation of Family Planning Policy.Focusing on the special role of Production Brigade and Production Team's inner control in the implementation of Family Planning Policy,we have offered an explanation on the difference of policy effect between the 1970s and 1980s. As the study shows,it was the mechanism of Production Brigade and Production Team that connected the task of national governance and the process of rural governance. [Keywords] Family Planning Policy; The System of People's Commune; National Governance; Rural GovernanceThe Evolution and Operation of the Cadre Rotation Mechanism in China:Based on the Experience of 1101 Cadres at the Provincial and Ministerial LevelLi Zhen; Liu Zhi[Abstract] Scholars have paid much attention to Chinese cadre management system for over decades,especially the mechanisms on cadres' promotion,which indicates the significance of the system in PRC. Cadre management system in China,however,means not only the top-down controlling or mutual competing system,but also a training system. The cadre rotation mechanism,different from the Western democratic election or bureaucracy based on merit,isan important,but under-researched issue in contemporary China,through which may broaden cadres'visions and enrich their governing experience. So it is fundamental and essential for the development of cadres' career. The institutionalized cadre rotation involves three different patterns:rotations between the branches of party/government and other organizations such as universities,mass organizations ,and state-owned enterprises(diaoren),rotations among various branches within the party and government(zhuanren)and temporary rotations(guazhiduanlian). Furthermore,the evolution of rotation mechanism demonstrates the Party's oscillations and striving for balancing the institutionalization of the governing and flexibility of the regime. The article traces the origin and evolution of the cadre rotation institutions,and shows the diverse characteristics of the rotation experiences of various types of cadres,based on historical documents,typical cases and relevant data. [Keywords] Cadre Management System; Cadre Rotation; Career Development;InstitutionalizationThe Paradigm Change of Hong Kong's Political DevelopmentWang Heng[Abstract] Since Hong Kong's return to her motherland in 1997,Hong Kong has made remarkable achievements in its political development. On the other hand,Hong Kong's development also met with problems such as“Pan-Politicalization”,“Populism”,“Separatism”,“Veto Politics”and“Street Political Confrontation”. These phenomena revealed the difficulties of the Electoral Democracy Paradigm both in theory and practice. As a by-product of Britain's“Colonial Withdrawal”tactic,the introduction of electoral democracy to Hong Kong and its later exercise were essentially driven by the“myth of general election”,a principle intentionally neglecting the importance of effective governance to political development. The conditionality of electoral democracy determines that general election should be gradually carried out,according to Hong Kong's own situations. Under the current circumstance,Hong Kong's political development strongly requires a transformation both in theory and policy. The basic task is to establish a shared goal with national governance of the Central government,to ensure positive interactions between different governance subjects and to acquire an all-round improvement of governance system and governance capacity. On that basis,the focus of political development in Hong Kong could be turned from political structure to governing functions,from systemic change to effects in practice. Consequently,economic growth,social welfare,national education and political trust could help to rebuild a positive political environment in Hong Kong. [Keywords] Political Development; Paradigm; Electoral Democracy; Democratization; National GovernanceExploring Political Legitimacy Again:From the Perspective of Political TrustYang Duancheng[Abstract] As an important fundamental theory in political science, political legitimacy is often explained by two approaches. One is constructed by the reasoning of political philosophy which aims at justification,and the other is based on the description of objective phenomenon. However,the justification approach was marked by the Western ideology due to the Cold War and finally evolved into a doctrine that only liberal democracy could fundamentally provide regimes with legitimacy. Nevertheless,this theory has much difficulty in explaining the world of being. Why do many countries,in which new regimes have been established in accordance with Western logic after experiencing democratic transition or even“Colour Revolution”,still face with the dilemma that most people distrust the new ruling authorities? Moreover,it is also difficult to explain contemporary China by the traditional legitimacy theory. As a result,inconsistences inevitably occur when China is examined and explained in full accordance with the constructed legitimacy theory. On the contrary,the descriptive approach focused on public opinion and political trust may provide us with a new perspective to reexamine China's political legitimacy. Nonetheless,the existing literature has not elaborated on why it is appropriate to use political trust to measure political legitimacy. This article is an attempt to recognize the premise and offer some illustrations. [Keywords] Political Legitimacy; Political Trust; Political Support; Contemporary China(AI翻译)

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GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文
中国人民大学国际关系学院.中国政治学.2018年.第二辑:总第二辑[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2019
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中国人民大学国际关系学院.中国政治学.2018年.第二辑:总第二辑.北京,中国社会科学出版社:2019E-book.
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中国人民大学国际关系学院(2019).中国政治学.2018年.第二辑:总第二辑.北京:中国社会科学出版社
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