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中国村镇银行风险防范与可持续发展研究

ISBN:978-7-5203-2703-9

出版日期:2019-05

页数:208

字数:178.0千字

点击量:5699次

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基金信息: 教育部人文社会科学研究一般项目(18YJA790023);吉林省社会科学基金重点项目(2019A3);吉林省教育厅“十三五”社会科学项目(JJKH201804780SK);吉林财经大学重点项目(2017Z11);吉林省科技厅软科学研究项目(20180418049FG);吉林财经大学校长基金项目(XZ2018032);吉林省金融学会重点项目(2019JJX021)资助 展开
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“三农”问题是中国的根本性问题之一,也是特大难题之一。农村金融的改革与发展既是“三农”难题的一个组成部分,又是化解“三农”难题的一把“金钥匙”。而且现代农村经济发展的一个重要特征,就是经济与金融的关系日益密切。为完善农村金融服务体系,促进农村金融竞争,满足农村金融需求,增加农村金融供给,2006年12月20日,银监会发布了《关于调整放宽农村地区银行业金融机构准入政策,更好支持社会主义新农村建设的若干意见》,提出要放宽农村地区的银行业金融机构准入政策,在增量改革方面,成立包括村镇银行、贷款公司、农村资金互助社等新型农村金融机构,加上之前人民银行主导成立的小额贷款公司,新型农村金融机构达到了四类。2007年全国金融工作会议将加快农村金融改革,完善农村金融体系,解决好农业、农村和农民问题,作为金融工作的重点,作为党和国家全部工作的重点。从中可以看出农村金融改革在建设社会主义新农村中的作用。全国金融工作会议对农村金融改革总的要求是:加快建立健全适应“三农”特点的多层次、广覆盖、可持续的农村金融组织体系,包括构建分工合理、投资多元、功能完善、服务高效的农村金融产品体系,显著增强为“三农”服务的功能。中央政府希望这一创新能够有效地增加农村金融供给,提高农村金融服务覆盖面,促进农村金融市场竞争,改善农村金融服务质量。

将近十年过去了,作为新型农村金融机构的主力军——村镇银行发展得怎么样?有没有实现预期的目标?主要的问题是什么?最重要的是,村镇银行能否规避风险,实现可持续发展?这些都是业界关心的问题。本书结合近几年的“中央一号文件”和党的十八届三中全会的要求,对村镇银行的发展历程与现状、发展的可持续性、遇到的风险、存在的问题进行了研究梳理,提出了防范风险、促进村镇银行可持续发展的对策。

本书第一章介绍研究背景和意义、国内外研究现状以及本书的研究框架和方法。第二章介绍了本书研究的主要理论基础,并对一些相关概念进行了界定。第三章梳理了村镇银行的创新理论与制度构建及政策配套。第四章讲述了村镇银行发展历程及状况。第五章对村镇银行的风险类型及成因进行分析,主要对村镇银行的风险进行了研究,并对风险产生的原因进行了剖析。第六章分析了村镇银行的风险管理目标、方针、制度。第七章剖析了制约村镇银行可持续发展的因素,本章主要对村镇银行的发展前景、存在的主要问题、可持续发展的优劣势进行分析。第八章分析了国外农村金融组织风险管理的经验借鉴,本章分别对发达国家、发展中国家农村金融机构的风险管理进行了介绍,并总结了可借鉴的经验。第九章主要选取了吉林省的典型案例,从微观的角度分析了村镇银行发展形势。第十章首先分析了村镇银行所面临的金融生态环境,其次提出了村镇银行防范风险实现可持续发展的措施。

本书是在作者主持的以下课题项目基础上完成的:教育部人文社会科学研究一般项目“乡村振兴背景下的农村金融机构的风险生成机理与控制路径研究——以吉林省为例”(18YJA790023)、吉林省科技厅软科学研究项目“吉林省村镇银行的风险生成机理与防控措施研究”(20180418049FG)、吉林省社会科学基金重点项目“乡村振兴战略下吉林省农村金融机构的风险管理问题研究”(2019A3)、吉林省教育厅“十三五”社会科学项目“吉林省新型农村金融机构风险管理问题研究”(JJKH201804780SK)、吉林财经大学重点项目“新型农村金融机构的风险生成机理与控制路径选择”(2017Z11)、吉林财经大学校长基金项目“乡村振兴战略下的农村金融生态环境的风险生成机理与控制路径选择”(XZ2018032)和吉林省金融学会重点项目“乡村振兴战略下吉林省普惠金融发展问题研究”(2019JJX021)。本书获得吉林财经大学资助,并向教育部、吉林省科技厅、吉林省哲学社会科学规划办、吉林财经大学科研处、吉林财经大学金融学院表示衷心感谢!

在项目的调研和资料收集过程中,得到了吉林省金融办、吉林省银监局、人民银行长春分行的大力支持和热情帮助,在此一并表示感谢!

吉林外国语大学罗俊成老师撰写了3万字的内容;在本书的完成过程中,我的同事刘吉舫、鞠国华老师提出了许多宝贵的建议,许永健帮助完成了部分图表的制作,参与了文字校对。对他们的辛勤工作表示感谢!

由于理论水平、资料来源和时间紧迫等因素,本书还有许多问题需要进一步研究探讨,近期中央政府对民间资本开放的政策力度不断加强,农村金融环境进一步改善,农村金融机构竞争加剧,这对村镇银行的影响还有待于进一步研究。在本书撰写的过程中,作者及其团队对吉林省、黑龙江等省份的一些村镇银行进行了调研,但从全国的角度看有一定的局限性,对问题的研究深度产生不利影响。对于不足之处,作者将在以后的研究中改进完善,恳请各位同人给予指导,并提出宝贵意见。

高晓光

2019年4月15日于吉林财经大学

The issue of "three rural areas" is one of China's fundamental problems and one of the most serious problems. The reform and development of rural finance is not only an integral part of the "three rural areas" problem, but also a "golden key" to solve the "three rural areas" problem. Moreover, an important feature of modern rural economic development is the increasingly close relationship between economy and finance. In order to improve the rural financial service system, promote rural financial competition, meet rural financial needs and increase rural financial supply, on December 20, 2006, the CBRC issued Several Opinions on Adjusting and Relaxing the Access Policy for Banking Financial Institutions in Rural Areas to Better Support the Construction of a New Socialist Countryside, proposing to relax the access policy of banking financial institutions in rural areas, and in terms of incremental reform, establish new rural financial institutions including village and town banks, loan companies, rural mutual aid cooperatives and so on. Together with the microfinance companies led by the People's Bank of China, the new rural financial institutions have reached four categories. The 2007 National Financial Work Conference will accelerate rural financial reform, improve the rural financial system, and properly solve the problems of agriculture, rural areas and farmers, as the focus of financial work and the focus of all the work of the Party and the state. It can be seen from this the role of rural financial reform in building a new socialist countryside. The general requirements of the National Financial Work Conference for rural financial reform are: to accelerate the establishment and improvement of a multi-level, wide-coverage and sustainable rural financial organization system that adapts to the characteristics of the "three rural areas", including the construction of a rural financial product system with reasonable division of labor, diversified investment, perfect functions and efficient services, and significantly enhance the function of serving the "three rural areas". The central government hopes that this innovation can effectively increase the supply of rural finance, improve the coverage of rural financial services, promote competition in rural financial markets, and improve the quality of rural financial services. Nearly a decade later, how are village and town banks, the main force of new rural financial institutions, developing? Have you achieved your desired goals? What are the main problems? Most importantly, can village banks avoid risks and achieve sustainable development? These are all concerns of the industry. Combined with the "No. 1 Document of the Central Committee" in recent years and the requirements of the Third Plenary Session of the 18th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, this book studies and sorts out the development process and current situation of village and town banks, the sustainability of development, the risks encountered and the existing problems, and puts forward countermeasures to prevent risks and promote the sustainable development of village and town banks. The first chapter of this book introduces the research background and significance, the current research status at home and abroad, and the research framework and methods of this book. Chapter 2 introduces the main theoretical foundations of the study in this book and defines some related concepts. Chapter 3 sorts out the innovation theory, institutional construction and policy support of village and township banks. Chapter 4 describes the development history and status of village and township banks. Chapter 5 analyzes the types and causes of risks of village banks, mainly studies the risks of village banks, and analyzes the causes of risks. Chapter 6 analyzes the risk management objectives, policies and systems of village banks. Chapter 7 analyzes the factors restricting the sustainable development of village banks, and this chapter mainly analyzes the development prospects, main problems, advantages and disadvantages of sustainable development of village and town banks. Chapter 8 analyzes the experience of risk management of foreign rural financial organizations, and this chapter introduces the risk management of rural financial institutions in developed and developing countries, and summarizes the experience that can be learned. Chapter 9 mainly selects typical cases in Jilin Province and analyzes the development situation of village and town banks from a micro perspective. Chapter 10 first analyzes the financial ecological environment faced by village banks, and then puts forward the measures for village banks to prevent risks and achieve sustainable development. This book is completed on the basis of the following projects led by the author: "Research on Risk Generation Mechanism and Control Path of Rural Financial Institutions in the Context of Rural Revitalization" (18YJA790023), Jilin Provincial Science and Technology Department Soft Science Research Project "Research on Risk Generation Mechanism and Prevention and Control Measures of Rural and Township Banks in Jilin Province" (20180418049FG), Jilin Provincial Social Science Foundation Key Project" Research on Risk Management of Rural Financial Institutions in Jilin Province under the Rural Revitalization Strategy (2019A3), Research on Risk Management of New Rural Financial Institutions in Jilin Province (JJKH201804780SK), Key Project of Jilin University of Finance and Economics "Risk Generation Mechanism and Control Path Selection of New Rural Financial Institutions" (2017Z11), President Fund Project of Jilin University of Finance and Economics Risk Generation Mechanism and Control Path Selection of Rural Financial Ecological Environment under Rural Revitalization Strategy" (XZ2018032) and "Research on Inclusive Financial Development in Jilin Province under Rural Revitalization Strategy" (2019JJX021). This book was funded by Jilin University of Finance and Economics, and I would like to express my heartfelt thanks to the Ministry of Education, Jilin Provincial Department of Science and Technology, Jilin Provincial Philosophy and Social Science Planning Office, Jilin University of Finance and Economics Scientific Research Office, and School of Finance of Jilin University of Finance and Economics. In the process of research and data collection of the project, we have received strong support and enthusiastic help from Jilin Provincial Financial Office, Jilin Provincial Banking Regulatory Bureau and Changchun Branch of the People's Bank of China. Professor Luo Juncheng of Jilin University of Foreign Chinese wrote 30,000 words of content; In the process of completing this book, my colleagues Liu Jifang and Ju Guohua put forward many valuable suggestions, and Xu Yongjian helped complete the production of some diagrams and participated in the text proofreading. Thank you for their hard work! Due to factors such as theoretical level, data sources and time constraints, there are still many issues in this book that need to be further studied and explored, and the recent central government's policy of opening up to private capital has been continuously strengthened, the rural financial environment has been further improved, and the competition of rural financial institutions has intensified, and the impact on village and town banks needs to be further studied. In the process of writing this book, the author and his team conducted research on some village and town banks in Jilin Province, Heilongjiang and other provinces, but from a national perspective, there were certain limitations, which adversely affected the depth of research on the problem. The author will improve the deficiencies in future research, and kindly ask for your guidance and valuable advice. Gao Xiaoguang at Jilin University of Finance and Economics on April 15, 2019(AI翻译)

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引文

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GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文
高晓光.中国村镇银行风险防范与可持续发展研究[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2019
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MLA 格式引文
高晓光.中国村镇银行风险防范与可持续发展研究.北京,中国社会科学出版社:2019E-book.
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APA 格式引文
高晓光(2019).中国村镇银行风险防范与可持续发展研究.北京:中国社会科学出版社
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