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中国小微企业发展研究报告.2019

Research Report on the Development of Small and Micro Enterprises in China (2019)

ISBN:978-7-5203-6401-0

出版日期:2020-06

页数:538

字数:375.0千字

丛书名:《国家发展与战略丛书·人大国发院智库丛书》

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图书简介

当前全球经济面临增长乏力且贸易争端不断的局面,中国经济也需要在外部环境不确定性增大条件下完成内部保增长、调结构和促转型的多重任务。可以说世界经济又来到一个十字路口,中国经济的攻坚克难也毫无疑问到了一个新阶段。在此背景下,中小微(简称小微)企业的重要性全面凸显起来。稳增长、稳就业,核心在于稳定小微企业。同时,我国整个新动能的转换,不仅仅体现在大型企业的升级,也体现在占中国经济GDP60%以上小微企业的升级换代,体现在它的技术、管理模式、企业家精神更新之上。

小微企业,虽曰“微”“小”,但就作用而言,其在国民经济构成中却占据重要位置。党的十八大以来,习近平总书记、李克强总理等党和国家领导人多次就小微企业发展、小微企业创新和小微企业减负等作出重要指示,为小微企业的发展繁荣奠定了坚实基础。从我国的实践看,小微企业贡献了全国80%的就业,70%左右的专利发明权,60%以上的GDP和50%以上的税收。小微企业作为实体经济的重要组成部分,在增加就业、促进经济增长、科技创新与社会和谐稳定等方面具有不可替代的作用,是市场经济中最活跃的细胞。从某种意义上讲,中国经济发展的好坏,就业质量的高低,人民幸福与否都要看小微企业的“脸色”。

去年习近平总书记参加民营企业座谈会,指出中小企业的关键问题和解决方案,国家对于小微企业的支持再次上升一个新台阶。目前,小微企业数量还在不断增加,产值还在不断扩大,小微企业整体持续蓬勃发展。但同时需要注意的是,小微企业在微观经营上始终面临许多风险与挑战。调研显示,随着国内外环境的变化,小微企业在市场、融资、转型等方面遇到障碍,存在着市场需求不足、产品销售困难、市场竞争压力大、企业融资难融资贵等问题。近年来,小微企业更遭遇劳动力成本、原材料成本、环境成本、税费成本等快速上升带来的利润和生存空间挤压。小微企业遇到的这些问题预计在未来相当长时间内将持续存在。党中央、国务院高度重视小微企业发展中面临的这些问题,相继出台多种举措,积极为小微企业发展创造便利、保驾护航。针对小微企业普遍存在的融资难、融资贵世界性难题,习近平总书记多次强调“要改善金融服务,疏通金融进入实体经济特别是中小企业、小微企业的管道”,要“建设普惠金融体系,加强对小微企业的金融服务”。李克强总理也在多个场合提出“小微活,就业旺,经济兴”,要求加大小微企业金融服务力度,实施小微企业普惠性税收减免政策等。可见,支持小微企业发展、扶持小微企业创新已经成为党和国家的一个重要战略部署。这些支持政策到底怎么样,以及在当下之际是否需要一些新举措,这需要我们对整个中国的小微企业状况有一个总体画像。

目前对于小微企业的划分标准不同国家不一样,不同发展阶段也不一样。对比我国和世界银行对小微企业划分的标准,可以看到我国定义的中型、小型和微型企业规模比世界银行标准高近二倍。这可能产生一定国际比较问题。比如很多机构说支持小微企业的规模很大,但是可能它的支持力度主要集中在小微企业最顶端部分。如果把小微标准适度往下压,这个问题就会出来。如果按世界银行的标准来衡量,我国对小微企业支持力度可能就不像报道中那么大。

按照我国标准,目前小微企业已经成为经济主力。截至2018年末,全国中小企业超过了3900万户,微型企业超过7000万户,这个微型企业实际上包含了个体户和农村合作社。即全国的市场主体到2018年达到了1.1亿,数量巨大。小微企业占全部市场主体的比重达到了99.6%,产出60%以上GDP、80%的就业岗位。习近平总书记和李克强总理反复强调小微活,就业稳,经济就活,很重要的一个佐证在这些数据里面。

同时,小微企业完成了超过总数一半的发明专利和新产品研发。也就是说,它们在新动能的成长中间起到最为微观基础性的作用。小微企业发展取得这些成绩,很重要的原因是这些年的政策扶植,特别是2014年双创政策。类似扶植也可以在去年出台的一系列对民营企业的政策上看到,主要政策落脚点在小微企业身上。这些企业在政策的促进下出现了明显的增长,比如说我国的市场主体同比增速在2013年只有1.7%,但是2014年就达到了25.3%。到2018年同样达到了18%的速度。小微企业发展对稳定经济增速起到了显著作用。2014年相比2013年,实际GDP增速提升了1.2个百分点。小微企业的作用从就业上面体现更明显,从国际金融危机后,GDP增长速度从11.3%一直下滑到目前6.4%,但调查失业率稳定在5%左右,每年新增城镇就业水平稳定在1300万左右这样一个规模。这背后原因在于每天近1.8万户的新企业成长托起了整个就业市场。这两年里,中国经济经受了世界经济放缓、中美贸易冲突以及内部攻坚克难三重压力,但中国经济并没有像很多人想象的那样塌下来,而是依然保持了健康的活力。它的韧劲和弹性,主要不仅体现在新动能、新经济上面,同时还体现在小微企业这一个快速发展上。

虽然小微企业在近年高速成长,对就业、新动能、增长起到支撑作用,展现了以放管服、双创战略为主体的一系列政策的良好效果。但其发展依然存在着较多问题。

第一个问题就是小微企业数量过多。2012—2018年复合增长率12.5%,绝对数量超过1亿。世界银行发布的数据统计中,各国小微企业占企业平均总数91.43%,每千人拥有的小微企业平均数量为35.75家。而我国目前每千人拥有的小微企业数量是76.9家,高出国际水平差不多一倍。我国小微企业密度也超过了99%,超过世界平均水平8%。

我国小微企业数量过多,一个原因可能是统计问题。虽然号称一亿小微企业,但估计其中有相当一部分是处于僵尸企业状态。另一个原因是在大量放管服过程中,各个地方都在进行锦标赛,各个地方都在放。对很多企业一些基本的标准,一些技术标准、环境标准等在局部一些区域都放开了。这导致企业设立没有一个真正的信号显示机制,也导致了数量过多的问题。小微企业竞争激烈,大部分处于完全竞争状态,或者超饱和竞争状态。根据一些调查数据,有30.85%的小微企业与竞争对手在50米之内,有72.43%的小微企业与竞争对手的距离在一千米之内。低门槛高竞争导致我国小企业平均寿命是3年,而美国是8年,日本是12年。

第二个问题是发展质量不高。这体现在几方面:一是盈利能力不高,应对要素成本上升能力和议价能力弱。不同于资本密集型的大企业,小微企业面对劳动力成本、原材料成本、环境成本、税费成本上升时压力更大。一些大型企业赊购欠款,所欠款的对象多是小微型企业,这反映小微企业议价能力较弱。近年一些原材料价格如能源价格一直在降价,但由于上游企业大部分是议价能力很强的大企业,原材料价格下降的红利根本没有传递到小微企业。二是平均创新比较弱,根据阿里巴巴中小企业商学院2017年的调查,有超过三分之一的企业认为自己的企业创新能力不足,同时根据中国家庭金融调查2015年数据,90%小微企业无创新活动。不可否认,目前全国一些高技术园区、产业园区孕育了一些科技型小微企业,受到很多VC、PE青睐,获得大量资金支持,成长也非常快,但大部分小微企业创新能力弱。三是产品附加值低。根据产业链分布,在附加值高的领域小微企业比例偏小。四是管理不规范。根据调查,很多最终出现跑路现象的中小企业有一些共同特点:第一个是主营业务没有坚守,企业家精神没有突出;第二个是企业的管理和治理非常紊乱,基本没有风险控制能力。五是我国中等企业偏少,小微企业发展壮大困难。我国微型企业与小型企业数量比是1.95∶1,而小型企业与中型企业数量比为13.75∶1,也就是说13个小企业里面孕育1个中型企业。中国中型企业在企业数量中占比在整个世界范围内偏弱。大量的小微企业没有脱颖而出而成长为中型企业。在发展经济学里面称之为“消失的中等企业现象”。

第三个问题是中小企业融资难融资贵的问题依然存在。近年商业银行在小微企业贷款占比有所下降,很多小微企业认为融资问题仍然困扰企业。小微企业融资难融资贵的世界性问题,可能只能缓解它,很难彻底解决它。

第四个问题是政策落实需要加强。国家目前对小微企业进行了定向的优惠政策和一些普惠的优惠政策,并且从近期开始又发布新一轮优惠政策,特别是从今年4月到5月,税费进行全面减免。但调查发现,63%的小微企业没有听说过上述任何税费优惠政策。对政策了解不够与政策宣传不到位有关系,也与小微企业主基本经营素养有关。

第五个问题是小微企业信息收集困难。小微企业对国家税收优惠政策了解程度很低,其他关于小微企业本身的信息收集也很困难。目前学术界某机构尝试进行一些追踪调查,但一年失联的企业占到40%。另一机构调查发现小微企业死亡率很高,每年有16.7%的小微企业死亡。银行间信息也难以共享,需要更多数据平台支撑。

总之,党的十八大以来国家一系列政策扶持使中国小微企业出现了蓬勃发展之势,取得了稳就业、促转型效果。同时也有一些问题,如小微企业过度拥挤竞争、发展质量不高、附加值低、管理不规范、寿命较短、信息收集困难、风险较大、融资难等问题依然存在。

随着目前经济下滑压力加剧,要想稳经济,很重要就是要稳定小微企业。要使小微企业在目前的状况有稳定的预期,有充足的信心,同时也要在现有的一些政策上面进一步进行拓展支持,全面推动小微企业向高质量发展转变。比如,在营商环境还不是足够好的条件下,政府依然要发挥他在促进公平竞争上的主体性作用,解决不公平竞争和过度竞争,扶持小微企业。另外,除了创造公平竞争环境、保持法律持续性,还应改善供给侧结构。根据笔者对长三角、珠三角一些地区的调研,它们的一些新做法可以借鉴。第一,特别重要的是要为小微企业构建相应的支持平台,包括大数据、金融平台、创新平台、帮扶平台等。如果政府想点对点地对小微企业支持,由于有一亿多小微企业,这基本上是不可能的,管理成本无穷大。因此平台化、体系化支持就非常重要。第二,产业集群化,构建中小企业的产业生态。也就是说必须要梳理出大小微企业生态链,使它们的比重相对合理。很多地方以产业集群打造区域的增长极。在这样一个集群里面,一些小微企业与中型企业、大型企业对接,一种企业生态得到很好的改善。另外,虽然近年在高新和制造业这一块很多小微企业出现了,但还不够,在占比中间并没有很好地提升。对于小企业向高新技术制造业领域进行专门的支持要加大力度。最重要的是,必须从治理体系、管理体系、企业家精神培育上来加大对于小微企业促进、扶持。我们一想到小微企业首先想到的是技术和资金,而没有从它的内在动力和配置能力来进行提升。对于小企业的孵化、培育过程中,一定要在这上面下功夫。大家看到目前很多风险投资,对于一些小企业的这种手把手的扶持,很重要的就是要建立它良好的股权结构,良好的管理体系和治理体系。经过这样的过程,现代的小微企业才能够出现,并健康壮大。第三,放管服要进一步深化。当前的“放管服”主要体现在“放”上面,“服”和“管”不足。不能放得过度以至于没有门槛,需要加大技术标准、环境标准、知识产权等门槛。我们要去掉的门槛是一种行政管控的不必要的门槛,但是一些技术性的门槛还必须要有。同时针对这些门槛所需能力提高进行平台化服务。

对小微企业进行研究,面临众多困难,但鉴于其重要性,学术界还是要进行尝试。本书的编写即来自多位相关领域研究专家和业界精英的努力。本书由刘元春教授和邵智宝先生联合主编。经济学理论离不开应用,中国邮政储蓄银行股份有限公司在支持小微企业贷款方面是领军者。因此,中国人民大学很荣幸地与邮储银行合作,利用它们的微观数据和金融实践共同研究小微企业话题。本书既有中国人民大学的学者研究,也吸纳了邮储银行多位研究者的研究成果,是理论与实践的结合。鉴于时间仓促,问题难以避免,希望读者在阅读时不吝指出。对小微企业的研究将在未来持续深化,力争做到更好。

中国人民大学校长

At present, the global economy is facing a situation of weak growth and continuous trade disputes, and China's economy also needs to complete the multiple tasks of maintaining internal growth, adjusting structure and promoting transformation under the condition of increasing uncertainty in the external environment. It can be said that the world economy has come to a crossroads, and China's economic difficulties have undoubtedly reached a new stage. In this context, the importance of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (referred to as small and micro) enterprises has been fully highlighted. The core of stable growth and employment lies in stabilizing small and micro enterprises. At the same time, the transformation of China's entire new kinetic energy is not only reflected in the upgrading of large enterprises, but also in the upgrading of small and micro enterprises accounting for more than 60% of China's economic GDP, and in the renewal of its technology, management mode and entrepreneurial spirit. Although small and micro enterprises are called "micro" and "small", they occupy an important position in the composition of the national economy in terms of their role. Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, General Secretary Xi Jinping, Premier Li Keqiang and other party and state leaders have repeatedly issued important instructions on the development of small and micro enterprises, small and micro enterprise innovation and small and micro enterprise burden reduction, laying a solid foundation for the development and prosperity of small and micro enterprises. From China's practice, small and micro enterprises contribute 80% of the country's employment, about 70% of patent invention rights, more than 60% of GDP and more than 50% of taxes. As an important part of the real economy, small and micro enterprises play an irreplaceable role in increasing employment, promoting economic growth, scientific and technological innovation and social harmony and stability, and are the most active cells in the market economy. In a sense, the quality of China's economic development, the quality of employment, and the happiness of the people all depend on the "face" of small and micro enterprises. Last year, General Secretary Xi Jinping participated in the private enterprise symposium, pointed out the key problems and solutions of small and medium-sized enterprises, and the state's support for small and micro enterprises has risen to a new level. At present, the number of small and micro enterprises is still increasing, the output value is still expanding, and the overall development of small and micro enterprises continues to flourish. However, at the same time, it should be noted that small and micro enterprises have always faced many risks and challenges in micro-operation. The survey shows that with the changes in the domestic and international environment, small and micro enterprises have encountered obstacles in the market, financing and transformation, and there are problems such as insufficient market demand, difficult product sales, high market competition pressure, and difficult and expensive financing for enterprises. In recent years, small and micro enterprises have encountered profits and living space squeezes brought about by rapid rise in labor costs, raw material costs, environmental costs, and tax costs. These problems encountered by small and micro enterprises are expected to persist for quite some time to come. The Party Central Committee and the State Council attach great importance to these problems faced by the development of small and micro enterprises, and have successively introduced a variety of measures to actively create convenience and escort for the development of small and micro enterprises. In view of the widespread financing difficulties and expensive financing problems of small and micro enterprises, General Secretary Xi Jinping has repeatedly stressed that "it is necessary to improve financial services, dredge the channels for finance to enter the real economy, especially small and medium-sized enterprises and small and micro enterprises", and "build an inclusive financial system and strengthen financial services for small and micro enterprises". Premier Li Keqiang also proposed on many occasions that "small and micro activities, prosperous employment and prosperous economy", called for increasing financial services for small and micro enterprises, and implemented inclusive tax reduction policies for small and micro enterprises. It can be seen that supporting the development of small and micro enterprises and supporting the innovation of small and micro enterprises has become an important strategic deployment of the party and the state. What these support policies are, and whether some new initiatives are needed at this time, requires us to have a general picture of the situation of small and micro enterprises in China as a whole. At present, the classification standards for small and micro enterprises are different in different countries, and different stages of development are also different. Comparing the standards for small and micro enterprises in China and the World Bank, we can see that the size of medium-sized, small and micro enterprises defined in China is nearly twice as high as the World Bank standard. This may raise some international comparison issues. For example, many institutions say that the scale of support for small and micro enterprises is very large, but its support may be mainly concentrated in the top part of small and micro enterprises. If the small and micro standards are moderately pressed down, this problem will come out. If measured by the World Bank's standards, China's support for small and micro enterprises may not be as great as reported. According to China's standards, small and micro enterprises have become the main force of the economy. By the end of 2018, there were more than 39 million small and medium-sized enterprises and more than 70 million microenterprises in the country, which actually include self-employed households and rural cooperatives. That is, the market entities in the country reached 110 million by 2018, and the number was huge. Small and micro enterprises account for 99.6% of all market entities, producing more than 60% of GDP and 80% of jobs. General Secretary Xi Jinping and Premier Li Keqiang have repeatedly emphasized that small and micro jobs, stable employment, and economic vitality are very important to support this data. At the same time, small and micro enterprises have completed more than half of the total number of invention patents and new product research and development. In other words, they play the most micro-fundamental role in the growth of new kinetic energy. The development of small and micro enterprises has achieved these achievements, and a very important reason is the policy support in recent years, especially the 2014 double innovation policy. Similar support can also be seen in a series of policies for private enterprises introduced last year, and the main policy foothold is on small and micro enterprises. For example, the year-on-year growth rate of China's market entities was only 1.7% in 2013, but reached 25.3% in 2014. By 2018, it also reached a rate of 18%. The development of small and micro enterprises has played a significant role in stabilizing economic growth. In 2014, real GDP growth increased by 1.2 percentage points compared to 2013. Since the international financial crisis, the GDP growth rate has declined from 11.3% to the current 6.4%, but the survey unemployment rate is stable at about 5%, and the annual level of new urban employment is stable at about 13 million. The reason behind this is that the growth of nearly 18,000 new businesses every day supports the entire job market. In the past two years, China's economy has withstood the triple pressure of the world economic slowdown, the Sino-US trade conflict and internal difficulties, but China's economy has not collapsed as many people imagined, but has remained healthy and dynamic. Its tenacity and elasticity are mainly reflected not only in the new momentum and new economy, but also in the rapid development of small and micro enterprises. Although small and micro enterprises have grown rapidly in recent years, they have played a supporting role in employment, new momentum and growth, showing the good results of a series of policies with decentralization, management and service and entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship strategies as the main body. However, there are still many problems in its development. The first problem is that there are too many small and micro enterprises. From 2012 to 2018, the compound growth rate is 12.5%, and the absolute number exceeds 100 million. According to the statistics released by the World Bank, small and micro enterprises in various countries accounted for 91.43% of the total number of enterprises, and the average number of small and micro enterprises per 1,000 people was 35.75. At present, the number of small and micro enterprises per 1,000 people in China is 76.9, almost double the international level. The density of small and micro enterprises in China has also exceeded 99%, exceeding the world average of 8%. One reason for the excessive number of small and micro enterprises in China may be statistical problems. Although it is claimed to be 100 million small and micro enterprises, it is estimated that a considerable number of them are in the state of zombie enterprises. Another reason is that in the process of releasing a lot of tube uniforms, tournaments are being played everywhere, and everywhere is being released. For many enterprises, some basic standards, some technical standards, environmental standards, etc. have been liberalized in some areas. This leads to the lack of a real signal display mechanism for the establishment of enterprises, which also leads to the problem of excessive numbers. Small and micro enterprises are highly competitive, and most of them are in a state of complete competition or super-saturated competition. According to some survey data, 30.85% of small and micro enterprises are within 50 meters of competitors, and 72.43% of small and micro enterprises are within 1,000 meters of competitors. Low threshold and high competition have led to the average life expectancy of small enterprises in China being 3 years, while that in the United States it is 8 years and in Japan it is 12 years. The second problem is the poor quality of development. This is reflected in several aspects: First, the profitability is not high, and the ability to cope with the rise in factor costs and bargaining power is weak. Unlike large capital-intensive enterprises, small and micro enterprises are under greater pressure when labor costs, raw material costs, environmental costs, and tax costs rise. Some large enterprises purchase arrears on credit, and the objects of arrears are mostly small and micro enterprises, which reflects the weak bargaining power of small and micro enterprises. In recent years, the price of some raw materials such as energy prices has been decreasing, but because most of the upstream enterprises are large enterprises with strong bargaining power, the dividends of falling raw material prices have not been passed on to small and micro enterprises at all. According to the 2017 survey of Alibaba SME Business School, more than one-third of companies believe that their corporate innovation ability is insufficient, and according to the 2015 data of the China Household Finance Survey, 90% of small and micro enterprises have no innovation activities. It is undeniable that at present, some high-tech parks and industrial parks across the country have given birth to some technology-based small and micro enterprises, favored by many VCs and PEs, received a large amount of financial support, and grew very fast, but most small and micro enterprises have weak innovation capabilities. Third, the added value of products is low. According to the distribution of the industrial chain, the proportion of small and micro enterprises in the field of high added value is small. Fourth, management is not standardized. According to the survey, many small and medium-sized enterprises that eventually run away have some common characteristics: the first is that the main business is not adhered to, and the entrepreneurial spirit is not prominent; The second is that the management and governance of enterprises are very disordered, and there is basically no risk control ability. Fifth, there are few medium-sized enterprises in China, and it is difficult for small and micro enterprises to develop and grow. The ratio of microenterprises to small enterprises in China is 1.95:1, while the ratio of small enterprises to medium-sized enterprises is 13.75:1, which means that 1 medium-sized enterprise is born out of 13 small enterprises. China's medium-sized enterprises account for a weak proportion of the entire number of enterprises in the world. A large number of small and micro enterprises did not stand out and grew into medium-sized enterprises. In development economics, this is called the "disappearing medium-sized enterprise phenomenon." The third problem is that it is difficult for small and medium-sized enterprises to obtain financing, and the problem of expensive financing still exists. In recent years, the proportion of loans by commercial banks to small and micro enterprises has declined, and many small and micro enterprises believe that financing problems still plague enterprises. The worldwide problem that financing for small and micro enterprises is difficult and expensive may only alleviate it, and it is difficult to completely solve it. The fourth issue is that policy implementation needs to be strengthened. At present, the state has targeted preferential policies and some inclusive preferential policies for small and micro enterprises, and has recently issued a new round of preferential policies, especially from April to May this year, tax exemptions and exemptions. However, the survey found that 63% of small and micro enterprises have not heard of any of the above tax incentives. Insufficient understanding of policies is related to the lack of policy publicity, and is also related to the basic business literacy of small and micro business owners. The fifth problem is the difficulty of collecting information for small and micro enterprises. Small and micro enterprises have a low understanding of the country's preferential tax policies, and other information collection on small and micro enterprises themselves is also difficult. At present, an academic institution has tried to conduct some follow-up investigations, but 40% of the enterprises have lost contact in a year. Another agency found that the mortality rate of small and micro enterprises is high, with 16.7% of small and micro enterprises dying every year. Interbank information is also difficult to share, requiring more data platform support. In short, since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, a series of national policy support has made China's small and micro enterprises flourish, and achieved the effect of stabilizing employment and promoting transformation. At the same time, there are still some problems, such as overcrowded competition of small and micro enterprises, low development quality, low added value, irregular management, short lifespan, difficulty in information collection, greater risk, and difficulty in financing. With the current downward pressure on the economy intensifying, it is important to stabilize small and micro enterprises in order to stabilize the economy. It is necessary to make small and micro enterprises have stable expectations and sufficient confidence in the current situation, and at the same time, it is necessary to further expand support on some existing policies to comprehensively promote the transformation of small and micro enterprises to high-quality development. For example, under the condition that the business environment is not good enough, the government still has to play its subjective role in promoting fair competition, solve unfair competition and excessive competition, and support small and micro enterprises. In addition, in addition to creating a level playing field and maintaining legal continuity, it is necessary to improve the supply-side structure. According to the author's research on some regions of the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta, some of their new practices can be used for reference. First, it is particularly important to build corresponding support platforms for small and micro enterprises, including big data, financial platforms, innovation platforms, and assistance platforms. If the government wants to support small and micro enterprises point-to-point, this is basically impossible because there are more than 100 million small and micro enterprises, and the management cost is infinite. Therefore, platform and systematic support are very important. Second, industrial clustering to build an industrial ecology for small and medium-sized enterprises. That is to say, it is necessary to sort out the ecological chain of small and micro enterprises so that their proportion is relatively reasonable. Many places use industrial clusters to create regional growth poles. In such a cluster, some small and micro enterprises are connected with medium-sized enterprises and large enterprises, and an enterprise ecology has been well improved. In addition, although many small and micro enterprises in the high-tech and manufacturing industries have appeared in recent years, they are not enough, and the proportion has not been well improved. For small enterprises, special support for high-tech manufacturing should be strengthened. The most important thing is to increase the promotion and support for small and micro enterprises from the perspective of governance system, management system and entrepreneurship cultivation. When we think of small and micro enterprises, the first thing that comes to mind is technology and capital, and there is no improvement from its internal motivation and configuration ability. For the incubation and cultivation process of small enterprises, we must work this. We see that at present, many venture capital, for some small enterprises such hand-to-hand support, it is very important to establish its good equity structure, good management system and governance system. After such a process, modern small and micro enterprises can emerge and grow healthily. Third, the release of management and service should be further deepened. The current "release and management service" is mainly reflected in "release", and "service" and "tube" are insufficient. It cannot be so excessive that there is no threshold, and it is necessary to increase the threshold of technical standards, environmental standards, intellectual property rights, etc. The threshold we want to remove is an unnecessary threshold for administrative control, but some technical thresholds must also exist. At the same time, platform services are provided for the improvement of the capabilities required by these thresholds. There are many difficulties in conducting research on small and micro enterprises, but given its importance, the academic community still needs to try. This book was written with the efforts of a number of research experts and industry elites in related fields. This book is co-edited by Professor Liu Yuanchun and Mr. Shao Zhibao. Economic theory is inseparable from application, and Postal Savings Bank of China is a leader in supporting loans for small and micro enterprises. Therefore, Chinese Minmin University is proud to partner with PSBC to use their microdata and financial practices to jointly study the topic of small and micro enterprises. This book not only has the research of scholars from Chinese Minmin University, but also absorbs the research results of many researchers of PSBC, which is a combination of theory and practice. Given the lack of time, problems are inevitable, and readers are expected to point them out when reading. The research on small and micro enterprises will continue to deepen in the future and strive to do better. President of Chinese Minmin University(AI翻译)

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GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文
刘元春,邵智宝.中国小微企业发展研究报告.2019[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2020
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刘元春,邵智宝.中国小微企业发展研究报告.2019.北京,中国社会科学出版社:2020E-book.
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刘元春和邵智宝(2020).中国小微企业发展研究报告.2019.北京:中国社会科学出版社
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