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形象、思维与推理:存在图逻辑

Image,Thinking and Reasoning Existential Graph Logic

ISBN:978-7-5203-9893-0

出版日期:2022-06

页数:246

字数:206.0千字

点击量:5590次

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基金信息: 国家社会科学基金博士论文出版项目 展开
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图书简介

本书着重研究和改进存在图逻辑(Existential Graph Logic,简称EGL),考察其哲学基础以及在逻辑博弈中的应用。本研究有利于提高EGL自身技术的严格性,有利于学术界科学合理地把握EGL系统,进而认识皮尔士(C.S.Peirce)实用主义的实质特征等问题。EGL是一种图式逻辑,它反映了视知觉与形象思维、形象推理之间的关系,是皮尔士的逻辑学思想与哲学思想的总结性成果。存在图之所以被称为存在图,是因为它可以讨论存在命题,即它可以讨论虚拟之物或假设之物。早期 EGL受到莱布尼茨的“普遍语言”“理性演算”两个理想的启发,成为了一种以最一般的范畴为基础,通过处理图式标志(iconic sign)来展示逻辑推导过程的演绎逻辑体系。但是,从逻辑主义角度来实现莱布尼茨理想的弗雷格、罗素等人显然更加成功,这导致了皮尔士的哲学思想和EGL被排挤到学术主流之外。在当代,巴维斯(J.Barwise)、盖贝(D.M.Gabbay)和申顺珠(S.J.Shin)等人呼吁重新定义逻辑系统,目的就是为了将图式逻辑纳入到哲学逻辑的范畴中来,在逻辑学中为图式逻辑开辟一席之地。尽管EGL理论已经取得了很多进展,研究者也提出了很多具有启发性的研究角度,但是该理论仍有许多关键问题尚未解决。例如,系统不严格的问题、技术与哲学相分离的问题,等等。如果这些问题不能得到合理解决,将会严重阻碍EGL的进一步发展,也将会严重威胁图式推理、图式逻辑的合法地位。

本书厘清了EGL理论中一些仍然模糊的概念,尝试解决技术上一些仍然存在的问题,进而拓展该理论的应用价值。在语法方面,本书按照现代逻辑的方法与技术为EGL系统的严格性问题提供了一个解决方案,让断言页(The Sheet of Assertion,简称SA)参加存在图的递归构造。在语义方面,本书试图重新赋予EGL一个区别于弗雷格传统的意义理论——效果论意义理论,简称效果论。以效果论为基础,提供一个分析同一性问题的新视角。在应用方面,本书将“存在图博弈定理”补充为当且仅当的关系,使皮尔士的实用主义的运作方式和目的得到了刻画。

第一章绪论详细地论述了本书的主要观点、研究方法、创新成果和研究意义。

第二章系统地梳理EGL的背景知识,包括“形象”的定义、形象思维的研究现状、可视化概念的特点以及柏拉图的“第二种理性”与形象推理的关系,等等。对这些背景知识的介绍与梳理能够给初次接触 EGL的读者提供一个认识该理论的研究背景与学术视野。

第三章是本研究的文献综述。首先,横向比较欧拉圈推理、文恩图推理、皮尔士—文恩图逻辑和 EGL的推理能力,旨在突出EGL的优势。然后,纵向分析该理论的发展历史与发展规律,总结从19世纪末期至今该理论的研究角度与成果,整理出一条连贯的、具有进一步探索价值的文献脉络,最后指出EGL研究的前沿领域。

第四章和第五章细致地研究 EGL的严格性问题。在这两章中,SA参与存在图的递归构造,这样不但能够提供一个更加接近皮尔士思想的存在图的递归定义,而且能够提高 EGL的严格性,从而建立带SA的EGL系统。

第六章用博弈论中关于“策略”的概念重新定义EGL的真值概念,并以此为基础阐述皮尔士的科学逻辑观:皮尔士把存在图当作大自然和科学家博弈的图纸,把EGL当作他的科学逻辑思想与实用主义理论的论证工具。本章内容为第七章探析EGL的哲学意蕴奠定了基础。

第七章在前人工作的基础上对设证推理的形式进行修正,给出一个以效果论为基础的设证推理形式ABD1。因为EGL在ABD1中演绎假设的效果,又因为皮尔士声称实用主义除了是设证的逻辑,其他什么都不是,所以EGL理论刻画了经典实用主义的运作过程。

关键词:存在图逻辑;存在图逻辑的严格性;EG−δ;存在图博弈;效果论意义理论

Abstract

This book focuses on the research of Existential Graph Logic (EGL),including its philosophical basis and its application in Game Theoretical Loigc(GTS).This study is conducive to improving the strictenss of EGL,to understanding the EGLsystems scientifically and rationally and to grapsping the essence of Peirce's pragmatism (pragmaticism).EGLis a kind of diagrammatic logic,which reflects the relationship among visual abilities,image thinking and image reasoning.It is also the summary of Peirce's logical and philosophical works.The so called Existetial Graphssince they can present sentences with quantifers,that is,they can discuss virtual objects and hypothetica matters.The early development of EGLwas inspired by Leibniz's ideals of“universal language”and“rational calculus”.It becomes a deductive system basing on the most general category,displaying the process of deductive logic by processing iconic signs.However,Frege and Russell,who realize Leibniz's ideal from the perspective of logicism,are obviously much more successful,which led to the exclusion of Pierce's philosophy and EGLfrom the academic mainstream.Rencently,in order to open up a place for diagrammatic logic J.Barwise,D.M.Gabbay and S.J.Shin call for rethinking what logic system is.Although much progress has been made in the study of EGLand many en lightening research perspectives have been put forward,there are still many problems in the theory.Such as the problem of strictness,the separation of technology and philosophy of EGL,and so on.If these problems can not be reasonably solved,it will seriously hinder the further development of EGLand threaten the legitimacy of diagrammatic logic.

This book solves some problems of EGL,clarifies some vague concepts and then improves EGLinheriting the ideals of Barwise,Gabbay and basing on the works of J.Zeman,R.Burch,and S.J.Shin.For syntax,let the Sheet of Assertion(SA)participates in the recursive construction of existencial graphs,give formal systems of EGLand prove their properties,which solves the problem of strictness for the systems.And for semantics,this research endows EGL with one that is different from Frege's tradition:the Effect Theory of Meaning.For application,Peirce's pragmatism can be characterized by the combination of EGLand Game Theory Semantics (GTS).

In chapter one the author discusses main viewpoints,research methods,innovative achievements and research significance of the study.

In chapter two the author systematically combs the background knowledge of EGL.It includes the definition of image,the academic status of image thinking,the characteristics of visual concept and the relationship between Plato's Second Reason and image reasoning.The chapter provides a background for the readers whofirst contact with EGL.

The autor gives a literature review of this research in chapter three.Firstly,the reasoning abilities of Euler Circle,Venn Diagram,Peirce-Venn Diagrammatical Logic and EGLare compared horizontally in order to highlight the advantages of EGL.Then it analyzes the development history and rules of the theory vertically,summarizes the research perspectives and achievements of the theory from the late 19th century to the present,and sorts out a coherent literature context with further exploration value,so as to point out the frontier field of studying EGL.

In chapter four and five,the author limproves strictness of EGLand establishes a EGLsystems with SA.In these chapters SAparticipates in the recursiveconstruction of existential graph,which provides a strictly recursively definition of Existential Graph in accord with Peirce's original idea.

In chapter six the autor redefines concept of Truth Value of EGLwith the concept of Strategyand expounds Peirce's view of scientific logic on this basis:Peirce regards existential graph as the drawing of game between the nature and scientists,EGLis considered as the demonstrative tool of his scientific logic and pragmatism.This chapter lays the foundation for chapter 7 that explores the philosophical value of EGL.

The form of abductive reasoning is modified on the basis of previous work in chapter seven .It provides ABD1,the form of abductive reasoning,basing on effect theory.EGLis considered the proof of pragmatism,since it parcipates in ABD1and Peirce claims that pragmatism is nothing but the resoning of abduction,

Key Words:Existential Graph Logic; The Strictness of EGL;EG−δ ; GTS of EGL; Effect Theory of Meaning

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引文

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GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文
程橙.形象、思维与推理:存在图逻辑[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2022
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MLA 格式引文
程橙.形象、思维与推理:存在图逻辑.北京,中国社会科学出版社:2022E-book.
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APA 格式引文
程橙(2022).形象、思维与推理:存在图逻辑.北京:中国社会科学出版社
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