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《周易》结构论

Study on the Structure of ZHOUYI

ISBN:978-7-5203-9955-5

出版日期:2022-10

页数:315

字数:330.0千字

丛书名:《中国社会科学博士后文库》

点击量:5106次

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基金信息: 中国社会科学院创新工程学术出版资助项目;全国博士后管理委员会资助项目 展开
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图书简介

结构是理解《周易》的关键。想要理解《周易》的文学性、哲学性、思想性等多重性质是如何统一在一个文本之中的,就需要找到一个适当的切入角度,这个角度就是“结构”。“结构”的概念,并非结构主义的独专之物,也是中国历代文学批评理论中一个至关重要的问题。结构讲究一定逻辑,是文学、哲学内各个层次、要素之间系统组织关系的体现,是构成意义完整体的关键。对于结构的解析,就是要揭示并说明隐藏在意义背后、致使该意义成为可能的形式和阐释系统。《周易》结构的独特性在于不仅仅由语言构成,而是包括符号体系、丰富的象征意蕴、诗意的表达方式,由此共同构成了承载“意味”的“形式”。整体观之,《周易》各层级的形式与意义之间互相渗透和影响,形成了一个富有意蕴的完整体系,这一体系也是其文学特征与哲学思想的内在支撑。因此,对《周易》的结构进行解析,指出各组成部分的构建和律则,有利于我们更为明悉、完整地把握其哲学条理和文学形象,从而突破直接的、显性的象数、义理功用,深度理解它与中国语言文学,乃至文化的复杂关系。

《周易》结构的本体形态包含符号形态和语言形态。《周易》本体结构中所涉猎的爻位、卦序、文本体例共同形成了一个立体形态。更为缜密的是,对今、帛、竹书《周易》等文献进行整理,可以发现结构上的多重形态的构建遵循着一定的规律性、调适性和整体性,这也是《周易》意味丰富的根本所在。述第一章“《周易》结构的本体形态”。

从历史演进的角度而言,《周易》的成书是一个结构渐全、思想渐丰的过程。首先,在历程上,占筮形态、语素来源、理论准备等范畴都经历了从混沌到系统的变更。其次,在形式上,《周易》文本化理论化建设也是历经从经传编纂的经典化、符号爻题称名的形式化、卦象和卦爻辞观念化等历史演化。再次,《周易》数、象、辞之所以能够表意,都经历了从具象到抽象的演进。述第二章“《周易》结构的历史演进”。

《周易》象征系统的独特性就在于,它不仅仅包含本体符号,更是将语言文字与符号象征紧密结合,于“文象并构”的独特表意结构中形成了一种“有意味的形式”。其文象并构系统可概括为:取象--立象--释象。第一,取象遵循“仰观吐曜、俯察含章”和“观物取象、观象取法”两大原则。第二,立象则是通过“方以类聚,物以群分”和“引而伸之,触类长之”两大原则,将林林总总的象归于特定卦爻符号之中。第三,“释象”系统可分层次为:释义--说象--明理,具有明显的言象互动的象征结构特征。述第三章“《周易》结构的象征形态”。

从语言角度来看,《周易》的结构形式具有诗性特征,与中国文化中文学与哲学相融、诗歌与思想同源的精神特征相一致。首先,卦爻辞具有明显的诗体结构特征,体现了诗性智慧。其次,经传合体之后,在语言形式上既有明显的继承又体现了新旧文言的变革。再次,《周易》的文辞、理论和篇章构造形式,在文学史、诗学、文体等方面都具有一定的典范作用。述第四章“《周易》结构的语言形态”。

从意义的生成角度而言,《周易》意蕴的呈现是以结构为基础的,而结构中的思想原则作为现象的深层本质,对其文学、哲学的构建路径起着决定的影响。第一,整体贯通的结构形式表现了整体性思想原则。第二,衍申性思想使本体和观念都能够不断发展衍申。第三,分析性思维使其在应用实践过程中的具有逻辑上的推导又能够进行不断调适。第四,象征性思维使《周易》的象征从观上升到观念。第五,交互性思想使得内在的多元结构能够相互衔接、影响。述第五章“《周易》结构的思想意义生成”。

在审美意蕴层面,《周易》符号结构特征、语言形式、艺术理论的阐释上都表现了明显的中和性的审美理想、对称性的审美表现、秩序性的美学实践、和谐性的艺术情感,既充满了生机勃勃的艺术精神,更是将中国哲学的诗性品格和艺术审美紧密关联。述第六章“《周易》结构的审美艺术蕴含”。

关键词:《周易》;本体;历史;象征;审美

Abstract

Structure is the key to understanding Zhou Yi.In order to understand how the literary,philosophical,and ideological and other multi-fold properties of Zhou Yiare unified in one article,it is necessary to find an appropriate perspective,which is the“structure”.The concept of“structure”is not a monopoly of structuralism,but also a crucial issue in the theory of literary criticism in the past dynasties of China.Structure pays attention to a certain logic,which is the embodiment of the systematic organization relationship between various levels and elements in literature and philosophy and the key to the integrity of meaning.The analysis of structure is to reveal and explain the forms and interpretation systems hidden behind the meaning and make it possible.The uniqueness of the structure of Zhou Yiis that it is not only composed of language,but also includes symbol system,rich symbolic connotations,and poetic expressions,which together constitute the“form”carrying“connotation”.Overall,the forms and meanings of Zhou Yiat all levels penetrate and influence each other,forming a complete system full of meaning,which is also the inner support of its literary characteristics and philosophical thinking.Therefore,analyzing the structure of Zhou Yiand explaining the construction and rules of each component is conducive to us to grasp its philosophical principles and literary images more clearly and completely,so as to break through the direct and explicit function of symbolic mathematical laws and meaning truth,and deeply understanding its complex relationship with Chinese language & literature,and even culture.

The ontology form of the structure of Zhou Yiincludes symbol form and the language form.The lines position,hexagram sequence and stylistic rules and layout text style involved in the ontology structure of Zhou Yitogether form a dimensional form.More meticulously,after sorting out the literatures such of Zhou Yiwritten in modern book,silk and bamboo,it can be found that the construction of multi-fold forms in structure follows certain regularity,adaptability and integrity,which is also the root of rich connotations of Zhou Yi.Stated in chapter 1:“The Ontology Form of the Structure of Zhou Yi”.

From the perspective of historical evolution,the completion of Zhou Yiis a process of gradually completing its structure and enriching its ideas.First,in terms of process,the categories of divination form,morpheme source,and theoretical preparation have experienced changes from chaos to system.Secondly,in terms of form,the theoretical construction of textualization of Zhou Yihas also experienced historical evolution such as canonization of I Chingand Commentary on the I Ching,formalization of symbols and names,and conceptualization of hexagrams and connotations.Thirdly,the number,symbols and words in Zhou Yican express meanings,because they have all experienced the evolution from concrete to abstract.Stated in chapter 2:“The Historical Evolution of the Structure of Zhou Yi”.

The uniqueness of the symbolic system of Zhou Yiis that it not only contains ontological symbols,but also closely combines language and symbols,forming a“meaningful form”in the unique ideographic structure of“combination of literary and symbol”.Its literary-symbol combination system can be summarized as: extracting symbol—determining symbol—interpreting symbol.First,the extracting symbol follows the two principles of“looking up for the glorious scene,looking down for the gorgeous scenery”and“observing object and extracting symbol,observing symbol and extracting method”.Second,the determining symbol is based on the two principles of“birds of a feather flock together”and“after guiding and extending,gain growth and progress”.Thirdly,the interpretation symbol can be divided into three levels: interpretation—explanation—understanding,which has obvious symbolic structure characteristics of interaction between language and symbols.Stated in chapter 3: “The Symbolic Form of the Structure of Zhou Yi”.

Fromthe perspective of language,the structural form of Zhou Yi has poetic characteristics,which is consistent with the spiritual characteristics of the integration of Chinese culture and philosophy,and the homology of poetry and thinking.First,the divination words have obvious poetic structure characteristics,which reflect the poetic wisdom.Secondly,after the combination of I Chingand Commentary on the I Ching,there is not only an obvious inheritance in the language form,but also reflects the transformation of the old and new styles literary language.Thirdly,the language,theory and chapter structure of Zhou Yiplay a certain exemplary role in literary history,poetics,stylistic etc.Stated in chapter 4:“The Linguistic Form of the Structure of Zhou Yi”.

From the perspective of meaning generation,the presentation ofconnotation in Zhou Yiis based on structure,and the ideological principles in the structure,as the deep essence of the phenomenon,have a decisive influence on the construction path of its literature and philosophy.First,the overall structural form expresses the principle of holistic thinking.Second,the derivational thinking enables both the ontology and the concept to develop continuously.Thirdly,analytical thinking enables its logical derivation and continuous adjustment in the application process.Fourth,symbolic thinking makes the symbol of Zhou Yirise from observing to concept.Fifth,the interaction thinking enables the inner pluralistic structures to connect and influence each other.Stated in chapter 5:“The Generation of Thinking in the Structure of Zhou Yi”.

In terms of aesthetic connotation,the interpretation of symbolic structure features,language forms,and artistic theories in Zhou Yi,they all shows obvious neutralizing aesthetic ideals,symmetrical aesthetic expressions,orderly aesthetic practices,and harmonious artistic emotions.It is not only full of vibrant artistic spirit,but also closely related to the poetic character of Chinese philosophy and artistic aesthetics.Stated in chapter 6:“The Aesthetic Connotation in the Structure of Zhou Yi”.

Keywords: Zhou Yi, ontology,history,symbol,aesthetic

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引文

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GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文
孙鸣晨.《周易》结构论[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2022
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MLA 格式引文
孙鸣晨.《周易》结构论.北京,中国社会科学出版社:2022E-book.
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APA 格式引文
孙鸣晨(2022).《周易》结构论.北京:中国社会科学出版社
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