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《资本论》视域中的生命政治批判研究

The Study on Critique of Biopolitics in the Perspective of Das Capital

ISBN:978-7-5227-1920-7

出版日期:2023-07

页数:436

字数:380.0千字

丛书名:《社科基金优秀博士论文》

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基金信息: 国家社会科学基金 展开
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Biopolitics is to consider and examine the problems of right and wrong,good and evil in the operation of political power from the perspective of life.Western scholars' research on biopolitics fully reflects their high academic sensitivity and strong concern of reality.Their ideas have provided us with important inspirations for analysis of practical problems,theoretical innovationand broadening of academic horizons.However,positions and methods of Western scholars have determined that theircritique of capitalismis destined to be weak and invalid.Their theory is destined to be in trouble.By analyzing the conceptual origin and development context of the theory of biopolitics,it can be seen that the essence of biopolitics is that power acts on human life in different ways to control,discipline,regulate and exclude life.The fundamental force driving the changes of power is capital and the aim of these changes is to achieve the increment of the capital.Therefore,the real actor behind biopolitics is the power of power—captial.Western bio-politics theories seem to see the“illness”of biopolitics in capitalist society,but they do not know the root cause of the disease,let alone give out a prescription.Marx's critique of biopolitics is based on a profound critique of the capitalist system.It not only reveals the conflict between life and politics,but also the root cause of the conflict.Therefore,to find out how to get rid of the domination of power by life,we need to return to Marx's theory to find the answer.

The common concern and criticism of the capitalist society made it possible for the encounter between Das Capital and Western biopolitics.The study of critical biopolitics in the perspective of Das Capital is focused on two levels.One is to deeply dig and explain the critical thinking of biopolitics contained in the Das Capital text,to analyze the discipline and regulation of capital power on human life in Das Capital,and to reproduce the situation of human life and reveal the capital logic behind the operation of this power.The second is to analyze the operation mechanism and of biopolitics in contemporary capitalist society and the situation of human life,to explore the fundamental difference between the theory of biopolitics and Marx's critical thought of biopolitics,to reveal the limitations of western biopolitics theory and to point the way for biopolitics to get out of the troubles.

The horizon of production,the everyday life,the surplus populationand the primitive accumulation of capital are the four important dimensions in which the critiques of biopolitics can be realized in the perspective of Das Capital.The selection of these four dimensions is based on the textual structure and internal logic of Das Capital which can cover human life situations comprehensively.The most important critique of biopolitics in the perspective of production is to clarify the logical starting point of biopolitics—labor force becomes a commodity.The field of production is the most typical field of biopolitics,in which the capital power realizes the discipline,regulation,oppression and exploitation of life through working days,disciplines and machines.The discipline of life by capital is more thorough in immaterial labor.Relative surplus population is an inevitable result of the development of the capitalist mode of production,a necessary condition for the existence of capitalist production,and an important mechanism for the deployment of life politics.Capital power achieves differentiation and control of the entire proletariat by using the relatively surplus population as a labor pool and wage lever.In modern capitalist society,the relative surplus population has gradually become the“dead load”of capitalist society,and will eventually become“a share of the no-share”and“abandoned population”and face the fate to be expelled,but they are also a potential revolution power.Everyday life is a hidden clue that Marx exhibited in Das Capital,which links production,distribution,exchange and consumption,extends the research object from the direct participants in production-workers to the entire proletariat,and expands the scope of discussion from the production of surplus value to the realization of surplus value,so as to form a more comprehensive and profound criticism of capitalist society,and outline a panoramic view of political discipline and oppression of life in capitalist society.

The position of primitive accumulation in the development of capitalism is very special.It conforms to the nature of capital plunder and expansion,but it does not conform to the general characteristics of capital's proliferation through exploitation of surplus value.Primitive accumulation is Marx's explanation of the starting point of capitalism from the perspective of genetics.In fact,the primitive accumulation of capital never stopped.In the initial stage of capitalism,capital reduced laborers to“bare life”and made“exceptional state”in colonies to realize the primitive accumulation.In modern times,capital has spread the biopolitics to the world by means of cross-border circulation and non-material labor,constantly opening new primitiveaccumulation.

The profoundness of the critical thought of biopolitics in Das Capital is that it reveals the ubiquitous control and discipline of capital power over life through the critique of political economy,finds the logic of capital behind power,and it reveals the fundamental confrontation between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat in this discipline and control.In modern capitalist society,class relations have moderated on the surface,but their antago nistic nature has not changed.This can be verified in the more profound and comprehensive control and discipline of power over life.The theory of biopolitics has not clarified the antagonism in power relations,so it is impossible to find the revolutionary forces contained in it,and it is impossible to establish the subject of revolution.The purpose of critical research on biopolitics is to realize the liberation of life,to move towards a better life,and finally to achieve the human liberation.If biopolitics critique deviates from Marx's theory and method,it will lose its critical spirit and revolutionary passion,and become an irrelevant theory in many“philosophies”explaining the world.

The era value of critical research on biopolitics in the perspective of Das Capitallies in its reaffirmation of the value goals of liberation of life,liberation of human and better life.And it also provides a solid theoretical basis and a valuable source of wisdom for to tame the capital and realize the free and well-rounded development of human.To“tame the capital”is an era issue faced by the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics.The superiority of the socialism system with Chinese characteristics determines that China can tame the capital better.The China road to a better life is a creative practice of China's taming the capital and is also a full demonstration of the contemporary value of Das Capital.

Key Words:Das Capital; Biopolitics; the perspective of production; the surplus population; everyday life; the primitive accumulation of capital

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GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文
马乔恩.《资本论》视域中的生命政治批判研究[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2023
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MLA 格式引文
马乔恩.《资本论》视域中的生命政治批判研究.北京,中国社会科学出版社:2023E-book.
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APA 格式引文
马乔恩(2023).《资本论》视域中的生命政治批判研究.北京:中国社会科学出版社
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