收藏 纠错 引文

明代卫所制度与贵州地域社会研究

A Study on the Wei-Suo System in Ming Dynasty and its Relationships with the Formation of the Regional Societies in Guizhou Province

ISBN:978-7-5203-8463-6

出版日期:2021-08

页数:333

字数:339.0千字

丛书名:《中国社会科学博士论文文库》

点击量:633次

中图法分类:
出版单位:
关键词:
专题:
折扣价:¥58.8 [6折] 原价:¥98.0 立即购买电子书

图书简介

中国西南边疆地区,是历代中央王朝经营的重点区域之一,尤其是明清两朝,不但倾力开拓西南,且也注重推动西南政治、经济、文化的发展。在此历史背景之下,贵州不仅从“无”到“有”,且取得了长足发展。与其他区域有别的是,明清以来贵州社会经济的进步,基本是在王朝制度的强力推行下而实现的。贵州能称之为一个地区,亦需从其成为一个省级建置开始说起,而贵州都司的设置,正是贵州地方行政区划得以形成的基础。明代卫所制度的推行及其变革,是引发贵州逐渐形成一个特色鲜明的地域社会的重要因素。本书重点从明代卫所制度推行及其变动下的政区、城镇、文化区域以及人群移动与民族分布等方面,论述贵州地域社会在明清时期逐步形成的历史过程。

明初在贵州广置卫所,其大部分疆土被纳入明王朝直接管理之下,卫所成为管理疆土的主要机构。在此基础上,永乐十一年设置贵州省,从此结束了以羁縻统治为主流的历史,取而代之者,是卫所与州县两套疆域管理系统并行的经营模式,其中又以卫所为主,直至清初卫所彻底郡县化之后,这一局面才得以彻底改变。不过,卫所从明初落地贵州开始,就明显带有因地制宜的变通性,换言之,卫所具备着可调整性。进而言之,一些卫所在经营贵州的过程中,出于地方具体实际而改置为军民卫所,这一转变,从制度上给予了卫所管“军”又管“民”的权力,使其成为名副其实的“军管型政区”,迨其“熟化”到一定程度之时,这些军民卫所逐渐以分割辖地而设置州县的方式,步入了郡县化的历程,时至晚明,贵州的军民卫基本完成了这一过程。而清初大规模裁撤卫所,以之设置或归并州县,贵州府、州、县三级地方政区管理系统配套基本完成,至雍正时期,湖广都司绣错于贵州东南部的卫所裁撤完毕,设置新县,进而调整省界,贵州地方政区格局藉此得以最终形成。

明代卫所制度的推行而筑建卫所城,对于地域社会来说,无疑具有重要的整合作用。这些城不仅是一个地区繁荣的表现,也是社会文明进步的标志之一。明代之前的贵州,除了一些寨堡之外,并无城可言。卫所城的大规模修建,由于其具有鲜明的军事功能,城墙高耸,成为名副其实的城,这与一般由商而兴的城市,是有区别的。然而,贵州少数民族众多,社会变乱频发,卫所护卫州县的职责极为繁重,为应对这一问题,府、州、县寄寓于卫城,形成了“州卫同城”的特殊现象,这使以军事功能为主的卫所城,也具备了州县城的功能。更为重要的是,随着卫所军户移民的持续迁入,外来人口逐渐增多,他们聚居于卫所城的周围,从事社会生产或商业活动,使卫所城逐渐又具备了商业职能。于是,卫所城逐渐发展成为集军事、政治、商业、文化中心为一体的城市,亦因如此,当日后裁撤卫所设置州县或归并州县之时,这些卫所城直接转换成了州县城,由此构成了日后贵州城市的基础。此外,在卫所城墙之外,还修筑了大量的关隘、铺、堡、屯、寨等军事防御堡垒,其在历史演变过程中,成为集镇的前身。这些卫所城与城墙之外的堡垒一道,逐渐形成了贵州地域社会中的城镇体系。值得注意的是,由于贵州卫所城“一线路”上的分布特点,导致了贵州城镇亦呈出分布交通线上的特点。这种特点虽然不利于贵州地域社会的全面发展,远离交通线的地区,城镇分布稀少,社会经济发展较为落后,但亦正因这样的分布特点,型构出了贵州内部的文化多样性、经济模式的丰富性和民族社会结构的复杂性的地域特色。

学校教育是明代统治社会的重要工具之一,其与道理、政教、人才培育及正风俗,均有重要关系。基于这样的认识,有明一代,陆续地修建各类名称不一的学校,以达“善治”天下的目标。贵州“遍地皆夷”,是少数民族最为集中的聚居区之一,学校教育成为明王朝治黔的重要方略之一,藉此实施教化,变左衽而右衽,亦成为宦黔士人的政治理想之一。然明代贵州的学校,卫学数量多达22所,成为全国最多为卫学的地区,在贵州教育史上,扮演着极为重要的角色。由于其教育的对象,多为卫所移民子弟,这些文化程度相对较高的卫籍人员,在科举竞争中占有明显优势。由此而产生的区域差异,表现为远离卫所的少数民族地区,仍然是文化教育上的“沙漠地区”。因此,虽然明王朝在贵州设置了各类学校,其意虽善,用力亦勤,但由于各类学校的教育对象并不尽同,其效果亦不能一概而论,由此导致的地区差异与人群所受教育的多寡,直接影响到文化核心区与不同风俗区的逐渐形成。

明代卫所制度而引发的人群移动,对地域社会的塑造影响最大,地域社会的形成,“人”的活动显然最为重要。明代以前的贵州,可谓“异域”,但其具体情形,因史料匮乏,大抵留给人们的印象只是一个处于羁縻统治而少数民族众多的社会。而明代卫所制度的推行,卫所移民连续性地不断迁入,不仅改变了当地的人口结构,而且成为贵州多元文化形成的重要因素。这些来自全国各地的军户,分布在卫所里,不仅肩负着戍卫着边疆的重任,而且也从事着各类社会生产活动。在历史的演变进程中,这些卫所官军后裔大致有两大去向:一是世代聚居在卫所驻地,坚守着汉人的身份与文化传统,形成了点状分布的“屯堡”村落。二是随着军户人口的增长,卫所有限的辖地并未能养活越来越多的人们,于是,卫所之中未能袭替武官的军余与舍丁等群体,为了拓展生存空间,他们通过不同的方式深入到少数民族地区之中,与其他人群一道,型塑出了形态不一的村落社会。这些村落,虽然在后世的民族识别中被认定为少数民族村寨(如苗寨或侗寨等),但“汉”的因素极多,许多村落带有明显的卫所痕迹,呈现出“亦汉亦苗”或“亦苗亦汉”的文化景观。

综上,本书的结论是:明清时期贵州地域社会的形成,与明代卫所制度有直接和紧密的联系,正是卫所制度的推行及其变动,造就了贵州文化多元并存的基础。实土卫所逐渐向州县系统演进;卫所城址逐渐由军事功能转变为兼具政治、文化、经济、教育中心的城镇;卫学教育开启民智,推行教化,逐渐形成了贵州的文化区域中心,并加速了风俗分区的形成;卫所移民的持续迁入而逐渐形成的军户群体,在历史变迁的长河中,他们不仅卫戍边疆,而且与少数民族人群一道,逐渐开拓出了贵州地域社会中的多样性景观,汉文化、少数民族文化相互交融,在明清时期形成了“你中有我,我中有你”的多民族共生的多元文化形态。

关键词:卫所制度;明清时代;贵州;地域社会

Abstract

The remote frontier regions of southwest China had always been the key regions which had been attached great importance by the central government of the ancient China's dynasties to develop.Particularly,during the periods of Ming and Qing dynasties,the central government not only developed those regions,but also promoted its political,economic and cultural progress.In this grand historical context,the Guizhou,as a provincial district,had been established,and then achieved rapid and far-reaching developments.Comparing to the progresses achieved by other regions of the ancient China,the far-reaching developments gained by Gui zhou during the periods of Ming-Qing dynasties were realized basically under the forcing implementation of the dynasties' systems.The reasons why Guizhou can be regarded as a district should be interpreted from the times when it was established as a provincial administrative area,and it was the establishment of the Gui zhou Du-si(i.e.the Guizhou military district and its commander)that became the foundation of the formation of the local administrative district system of Guizhou.The establishment and reformation of the WeiSuo system in the Ming dynasty were the vital factors that contributed to the gradual formation of various distinctive regional societies in Guizhou,under which this dissertation will focus on the historical process of the gradual formation of these regional societies in Guizhou from the aspects of the administrative districts,counties and towns,cultural areas and the immigration and ethnic distributions.

Wei-Suo was widely established in Guizhou at the beginning of the Ming Dynasty,which became the main institutions of the territory-governing and brought most of the territories of Guizhou under the direct control of the Ming dynasty central government.On this basis,in the 11th year of the Yongle emperor,the Guizhou Province was set up,ending her main history of being governed by the appeasing-control policy and brought her a new governing and administrative mode.This new mode was composed of two paralleling frontier-governing systems,i.e.the Wei-Suo system and the state-county system,in which the former played a main role.It was during the Qing dynasty when the Wei-suo system was replaced by the state-county system that this two paralleling frontiergoverning mode ended.Nevertheless,it is worth noting that from its establishment in the early Ming Dynasty in Guizhou,the Wei-suo system obviously carried with some flexibilities according to the local conditions and circumstances.In other words,the Wei-Suo system was adjustable.Specifically,in the course of governing and administrating Guizhou,considering the local practices and needs,some Wei-suo were reformed into military and civil Weisuo.This reformation authorized Weisuo the constitutional powers of not only governing and administrating the military affairs and but also the civil affairs,changing it into a veritable‘administrative district of military style'.When these new style Weisuo operated to the extent of highly effective,they then walked into the historical processes of countilization in the forms of subdividing the jurisdiction areas and establishing counties,the course of which completed in the late Ming Dynasty.It was after the large-scale of abolishing the Wei-Suo and then emerging them into or replacing them by the new established states or counties in the early Qing Dynasty when the course of formation of the local three ranks of province-statecounty administrative system in Guizhou generally finished.During the years of Yongzheng emperor,Xiu-cuo,the Hu-Kuang Dusi,abolished all the Wei-suo remained in the southeastern part of Guizhou,establishing many new counties and changing the provincial boundaries.As a result of these actions,the structure of the local administrative districts in Guizhou Province finally formed.

The implementation of the Wei-Suo system and the buildup of the Wei-Suo city during the Ming Dynasty had no doubt had an important role in the integration of the local communities,especially the Wei-suo city was not only the symbol of a regional socio-economic prosperity,but also a sign of social progress.Before the Ming Dynasty,except some village forts,there were no cities in Guizhou Province.With its distinctive military functions and high walls,the large number of veritable cities of Wei-Suo built up during the Ming Dynasty differed from those commercial cities.However,facing with the situations of there are numerous ethnic minorities who lives Guizhou and the frequently broken-up social accidents,Wei-Suo's duties of guarding and defending the states and counties were extremely arduous.In order to solve this problem,the states or counties governments all moved into or located in the Wei-suo cites,forming a special phenomenon of“State and Wei-suo in the same city”,which made the Wei-suo city at the same of remaining its main military Function played a role and had a function of the center city of a county or a state.More importantly,with the Weisuo personalities'family continually migrating in and with numerous other foreign populations settling near with and engaging in production or commercial activities,many Weisuo cities gradually gained the commercial function.As a result,the Wei-Suo city became a center city that integrating all the functions of military,political,commercial and cultural.It was with these multiplying functions that the Weisuo city transferred into the state or county city when the Weisuo were abolished and the new states or counties were established.These state or county cities constituted the foundations of the nowadays cities in Guizhou.In addition,except for the walls of Wei-Suo city,many defensive military facilities such as mountain fastness,transfer posts,forts,army farms were built up,which in its' historical evolution process became the predecessors of the nowadays towns and gradually formed the town systems in the local societies of Guizhou.It is also noteworthy that,because of almost all the Wei-Suo Cities were set up or located along the main roads,the majority of towns in Guizhou also distributed along the main roads.This is not conducive to the comprehensive developments of Guizhou's regional societies,especially to the remote regions that were far from the main roads and with few inhabitants and undeveloped society and economy,but it was just because of this character that made the Guizhou famous with its cultural diversity,the abundance of its economical patterns,the complexity in its social composition of the ethnics.

School education is one of the important ruling tools that was used by the Ming Dynasty,which has important relationship with the Confucian school,political education,talents cultivation and social enlightenment.In view of this consideration,various schools or institutions with different names were established all through the Ming Dynasty,so as to realize the goals of enjoying“a vast orderly world”.Guizhou,with“barbarians”everywhere then,was one of the most concentrated areas of ethnic minorities.School education had become one of the important strategies which the Ming dynasty chosen to govern Guizhou.So changing the uncivilized customs of these“barbarians”and enlightening them also became the political goals of the elites and lords who governed Guizhou directly.Of the various schools established in Guizhou during the Ming dynasty,the number of schools run by Weisuo accounted to 22,which occupied the position of top one in number in the whole country.In the educational history of Guizhou,the Weisuo School had played a very important role.The children of the Weisuo officers and soldiers naturally had the priority rights of studying in this kind of school and accounted most of its students,therefore were more well-educated and always enjoyed more advantages in the competition of Ke-jv test(the national test for selecting outstanding officials in ancient China)than those who lived in other ethnic minorities areas where were far from Weisuo and called the“culture desert”in Guizhou.It can be seen that the Ming dynasty had set up various kinds of schools in Guizhou and despite it harbored much good will and worked hard,but because the these schools got different types of students,so its consequential effects should not be measured by the same standard.The differences existing different regions and different groups of different educating degrees affected directly the formation of different cultural and customs areas.

The activities of human beings are obviously the most important factors for the the formation of a regional society,so The migration of the populations driven by the Weisuo system in the Ming Dynasty had a great impact on shaping the local society in Guizhou.Before the Ming Dynasty was founded,Guizhou was an so called“barbarous land”and because of lacking sufficient specific historical records to provide its detail information,so left an general impression of that it was a society whose most majority members were various native ethnic groups and governed by the central governments' appeasing policies in different dynasties.The Wei-suo system and the followed Weisuo immigration in Ming Dynasty not only changed the local population structure but also promoted the formation of a multicultural society in Guizhou.Those military personalities who were conscripted from all over the country were sent to different Wei-Suo with their families,not only defending and guarding the territories and the frontiers,but also engaging in various production activities.In the course of the evolution of history,the descendants of those Weisuo personalities gradually divided along two different directions.Some lived in the Wei-Suo stations generation by generation with their Han national identities and cultural traditions,gradually forming numerous“garrison villages”in dot-liked distribution;others who were not able to inherit the military posts and could be supported by the Wei suo because of the population increase were gradually forced to migrate into the ethnic minorities gathering areas and amalgamated into them,formatting many different types of village society.Although the villages of the latter kind had been identified in latter periods'ethnic identifications as ethnic minority villages,such as Hmong Villages or Dong stockades,but they still maintain many of their‘Han' characters and nationalities,many villages still remain many features of Wei-Suo,showing cultural landscapes of‘half Han half Hmong'.

To sum up,this dissertation will come to the conclusions bellow:the WeiSuo system has a direct and closed relationships with the regional societies in Guizhou that formed since the Ming and Qing dynasties;it was the implementation and evolution of the Wei-Suo system that created the foundations of multicultural coexistence in Guizhou; those Weisuo cities and its facilities that only had military functions at its establishment gradually evolved into many center cities or towns that gradually got the comprehensive functions of political,economic,military,educational and cultural;the Weisuo schools enlightened the local people,spread the civilized customs and subsequently became the culture centers of those regions where they located;the Weisuo immigrations and the army families groups formed followed not only defended and guarded the frontiers and territories,but also along with the ethnic minorities together developed a diversity landscape in the regional communities in Guizhou,in which the Han cultures and the minority ethnics' cultures integrated,forming an inseparable multi-cultural landscape of multi-ethnics.

Key words:Ming and Qing Dynasties; Wei-Suo System; Guizhou Province;Regional Society

展开

作者简介

展开

图书目录

本书视频 参考文献 本书图表

相关词

人物

地点

阅读
请支付
×
提示:您即将购买的内容资源仅支持在线阅读,不支持下载!

当前账户可用余额

余额不足,请先充值或选择其他支付方式

请选择感兴趣的分类
选好了,开始浏览
×
推荐购买
×
手机注册 邮箱注册

已有账号,返回登录

×
账号登录 一键登录

没有账号,快速注册

×
手机找回 邮箱找回

返回登录

引文

×
GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文
吴才茂.明代卫所制度与贵州地域社会研究[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2021
复制
MLA 格式引文
吴才茂.明代卫所制度与贵州地域社会研究.北京,中国社会科学出版社:2021E-book.
复制
APA 格式引文
吴才茂(2021).明代卫所制度与贵州地域社会研究.北京:中国社会科学出版社
复制
×
错误反馈