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拉美左翼和社会主义理论思潮研究

ISBN:978-7-5203-0118-3

出版日期:2017-05

页数:330

字数:309.0千字

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基金信息: 国家社科基金 展开
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拉丁美洲和加勒比地区(简称拉美)共有33个独立国家和12个未独立地区,面积逾2072万平方千米,占世界陆地面积的13.8%;人口已达6亿,占世界总人口的8%强。2013年拉美国内生产总值6.08万亿美元,人均国内生产总值9881美元。2891149拉美是一个拥有丰富的资源、巨大的发展潜力并对人类的未来将产生巨大影响的大陆。

18世纪末和19世纪初拉美地区爆发了轰轰烈烈的独立运动,摧毁了西班牙、葡萄牙等欧洲列强三百多年的殖民统治,建立了独立的国家。19世纪后期和20世纪前半期,拉美大多数国家的政治制度经历了由半封建的“考迪罗”独裁政权向资产阶级代议制民主制度的转变,逐步形成现代国家制度;政局由政变频仍、动荡不定趋于相对稳定。

在拉美现代史上,左翼是一支重要政治力量,对该地区政治经济和社会的发展产生过重要影响。拉美的左翼历史悠久,早在19世纪中叶以后,社会主义思想就已开始在拉美地区广泛传播。1871年法国巴黎公社失败后,大批欧洲社会主义者流亡拉美,使左翼思想在拉美得到广泛传播和扩散。19世纪70年代,就在墨西哥、乌拉圭和阿根廷建立了第一国际的支部。19世纪90年代,在阿根廷、智利、古巴和乌拉圭等国建立了社会党。1917年俄国十月革命胜利后,拉美国家陆续成立了共产党。

在20世纪历史进程中,拉美共经历了五次比较重要的革命。其中第二次世界大战前有一次,即1910—1917年的墨西哥资产阶级民主革命。第二次世界大战后有四次,即1944—1954年的危地马拉革命,1952—1960年的玻利维亚革命,1959年初夺取全国胜利、后又宣布建立西半球第一个社会主义政权的古巴革命,以及1979年7月19日推翻独裁统治、夺取全国胜利的尼加拉瓜革命。在这五次革命和拉美工业化、现代化的进程中,拉美的无产阶级队伍不断壮大,政党政治不断完善,左翼政党、左翼工会和群众组织不断涌现,左翼思想、左翼运动、左翼政权和左翼领袖不断出现。

除了上述五次革命外,从20世纪30年代起,拉美各国掀起了以外抗强权、内争民主为主要内容的民主改革运动。拉美的民主改革是丰富多样的,有带有威权主义色彩的民众主义2891150改革,如巴西的热图利奥·瓦加斯(Getulio Vargas,1883-1954)、秘鲁的维克托·劳尔·阿亚·德拉托雷(Victor Raul Haya de la Torre,1895-1979)、阿根廷的胡安·多明戈·庇隆(Juan Domingo Peron,1895-1974)、厄瓜多尔的何塞·马里亚·贝拉斯科·伊巴拉(José María Velasco Ibarra,1893-1979)所进行的改革;有革新派军人如秘鲁的胡安·贝拉斯科·阿尔瓦拉多(Juan Velasco Alvarado,1910-1977)军政府所进行的“秘鲁模式”的试验,又有带有形形色色社会主义色彩的改革,如智利萨尔瓦多·阿连德(Salvador Allende,1908-1973)“向社会主义和平过渡”的改革措施,圭亚那福布斯·伯纳姆(Forbes Burnham,1923-1985)所创立和推行的“合作社会主义”,以及拉美一些国家所进行的民主社会主义与基督教社会主义色彩的改革等。这些改革尽管具有不同色彩和特点,有的还打着社会主义的旗号,但是一般都可归结为资产阶级性质的反帝民主改革,这是贯穿于拉美政治进程的一条主线,促进拉美国家由前资本主义向资本主义过渡,由传统社会向现代社会过渡。自20世纪60年代初至80年代初,在拉美民族民主运动的推动下,加勒比地区先后有13个国家摆脱殖民地地位而获得独立。这样,拉美地区的独立国家由战前的20个增加到33个。

本书专门研究拉美左翼和社会主义理论思潮,重点研究20世纪80年代末和90年代初以来,在拉美崛起的新左翼和社会主义思潮。

我们为什么要研究拉美左翼和社会主义理论思潮?其意义何在?

自20世纪七八十年代起,拉美成了新自由主义的试验场和重灾区。20世纪80年代末和90年代初,东欧剧变和苏联解体曾一度使包括拉美在内的世界各地区社会主义运动和左翼运动遭受巨大冲击,处于低潮。然而,令人瞩目的是,随着新自由主义负面效应逐渐暴露和拉美军人“还政于民”的民主化进程的加快,在新的国际和本地区的环境和形势下,拉美“左翼”与“右翼”共存和竞争逐渐成为拉美国家政治的常态,拉美左翼的发展进入了新的历史阶段。一些曾产生重大影响的左翼政党和组织,有的仍保持一定的活力,但是,相当一部分传统的左翼政党和组织的地位与影响逐渐下降,不如往昔。相反,另一些左翼政党组织和社会运动却在政治战略、纲领、斗争方式等方面进行了调整,力量不断壮大。拉美左翼力量很快就走出低潮,拉美的左翼顶住了巨大的国际压力,经受住了考验,不仅顽强地坚持和生存了下来,而且获得了重要的发展,呈逐渐上升趋势。

从1999年2月乌戈·查韦斯(Hugo Chávez,1954-2013)所领导的“第五共和国运动”在委内瑞拉上台执政开始,巴西、阿根廷、乌拉圭、尼加拉瓜、智利、玻利维亚、厄瓜多尔、萨尔瓦多和秘鲁等国的左翼政党和政治人物相继通过选举上台执政,拉美新左翼力量在政治舞台上群体性崛起;在墨西哥、哥伦比亚、洪都拉斯等国,左派政党虽然没能赢得大选胜利、上台执政,却也具备了与右派相匹敌和抗衡的实力。在玻利维亚、厄瓜多尔、阿根廷、危地马拉等国一波又一波蓬勃发展的社会运动,也迫使多位总统辞职和下台。

拉美左翼群体性崛起是拉美政治现代化的一个重要特征;拉美左翼的发展是拉美政治进程的重要组成部分;拉美左翼是拉美民主化进程的积极维护者;拉美左翼是发展观念转变的主要推动者;拉美左翼也是拉美地区新政治格局的积极塑造者。

拉美左翼和社会主义运动在世界政治舞台上所起的重要作用越来越令人刮目相看。拉美左翼和社会主义运动的“异军突起”是21世纪世界社会主义发展的一个亮点,是当代世界发展变革历史进程中的一支主力军,为世界左翼和社会主义运动的复兴起到了重要的推动作用。不少欧洲、亚洲和非洲的左翼政党和组织把拉美左翼和社会主义运动的崛起看成是“希望”。

拉美左翼于1990年创办的圣保罗论坛和于2001年创办的世界社会论坛,在推动世界左翼运动方面的影响越来越大,圣保罗论坛已成为“左派、反帝、反对新自由主义、反对一切殖民主义和新殖民主义、团结互助和参与制定 ‘替代方案’的空间”,参加圣保罗论坛的年会的已不局限于拉美和加勒比国家的左翼政党和组织,也包括欧洲、亚洲、非洲等地区的左翼政党和组织,圣保罗论坛的年会已成为拉美和世界左派政党的重要聚会。而世界社会论坛也已成为世界各大洲中左派政党和非政府组织广泛参加的“反帝、反新自由主义性质”的“另一种全球化的具体化”。

全面、系统地研究二三十年在拉美出现的左翼和社会主义思潮,具有重要的理论价值和现实意义。

首先,探究拉美左翼和社会主义思潮兴起的原因,这些思潮的主体,其主要主张、观点和特点,及其对拉美政治、经济和国际关系等方面的影响,有助于我们深入认识拉美政治民主化进程和经济发展模式的变化。

其次,拉美的左翼和社会主义思潮无疑与当代世界资本主义的发展与国际左翼和共产主义运动的沉浮有着紧密的联系,研究拉美的左翼和社会主义思潮对我们全面认识当代世界资本主义发展的特点和面临的危机、挑战及其前景,以及了解和研究世界左翼、国际和拉美共运有着重要的意义。拉美地区左翼和社会主义思潮及运动的发展,不仅有着悠久的历史和传统,而且思想活跃、流派众多,可以说是各种社会思潮的聚集地,还是各种左翼政党进行社会革命、改革、运动和建设的试验场。特别是近20年来,拉美新左翼的崛起表明,拉美是21世纪世界社会主义运动发展最兴旺的地区。因此,研究、总结它的理论和实践,评价它在世界历史中的地位和意义是十分必要的。

最后,拉美左翼和社会主义思潮崛起的根源之一,是拉美各国新自由主义的经济改革使社会和经济利益不平等问题恶化,民众对以“华盛顿共识”为主导的新自由主义发展模式越来越感到不满。当前,我国正在深化改革,如何应对新自由主义全球化的挑战,妥善处理改革过程中出现的利益分配问题,建设和谐社会是面临的主要任务。探讨拉美的左翼和社会主义思潮及其与拉美当今政治经济和社会发展的关系,对于我国建设具有中国特色的社会主义无疑也有重要的借鉴意义。

本书的总体框架和基本内容大致如下:

第一章概括地叙述和分析了拉美左翼和社会主义理论思潮的产生和发展。简要地叙述和分析了19世纪后期拉美工人运动的兴起和科学社会主义思想在拉美的传播,拉美国家社会党、共产党的诞生和曲折发展的拉美共产主义和社会主义运动以及在拉美的社会民主主义的思潮与实践。

第二章主要论述拉美新左翼运动的崛起。在对拉美左翼运动的发展,拉美传统左派政党、组织、运动和拉美的游击运动进行系统梳理的基础上,重点研究了东欧剧变和苏联解体对拉美左翼和社会主义运动的影响,20世纪末拉美新左翼运动的崛起及其原因、作用、影响和所面临的挑战,分析了当代拉美左翼与社会主义运动的战略主张与特点。

第三章拉美左翼与圣保罗论坛。本章在对圣保罗论坛成立的历史背景、发展历程进行分析的基础上,着重分析了圣保罗论坛促进拉美一体化的主张、论坛的特点和圣保罗论坛的意义。

第四章巴西劳工党与世界社会论坛。本章在对世界社会论坛成立的历史背景与评价、重要的活动情况进行分析的基础上,重点研究与分析了世界社会论坛的特点、主张与理念;对巴西劳工党在世界社会论坛建立与发展中的作用、巴西劳工党与世界社会论坛发展中的局限性及问题进行了剖析,指出了巴西劳工党与世界社会论坛发展中的局限性及存在问题。

第五章古巴社会主义的发展与经济社会模式的“更新”。本章分析介绍了古巴是如何走上社会主义道路,如何积极探索社会主义革命和建设的道路,古巴如何应对苏东剧变对其的巨大打击和影响,重点分析和介绍了自2006年年中劳尔执政以来,特别是在2011年古共“六大”以来,古巴“更新”经济和社会模式的情况。

第六章拉美一些执政的左翼政党提出的社会主义。本章分析和介绍了委内瑞拉“21世纪的社会主义”、厄瓜多尔的“21世纪社会主义”、玻利维亚的“社群社会主义”和巴西劳工党的“劳工社会主义”产生的背景、基本内涵、主要实践和前景。

第七章拉美其他社会主义与左翼思潮。本章分析和介绍了拉丁美洲社会民主主义思潮的特点和新变化,秘鲁的阿普拉主义、尼加拉瓜的桑地诺主义、拉丁美洲的基督教民主主义、阿根廷的庇隆主义和拉丁美洲的解放神学。

第八章拉美左翼运动和共产党的新动向。本章分析了拉美左翼领导人对世界金融危机的思考、拉美共产党的新动向、拉美左翼新理论——后新自由主义和新发展主义、拉美左翼运动的新动向和拉美新左派面临的挑战与前景。

《拉美左翼和社会主义理论思潮研究》这一课题,于2012年2月申报,同年5月20日获全国哲学社会科学规划办公室批准立项,项目编号为12BGJ002。原计划2015年5月30日完成,实际完成时间是2015年8月30日。同年11月15日,向浙江省社科规划办申请鉴定。浙江省规划办于2016年3月16日完成专家鉴定,申报全国社科规划办审核。2016年7月13日,全国社科规划办准予结项。

本书由课题负责人、浙江外国语学院拉丁美洲研究所所长、中国社会科学院荣誉学部委员徐世澄研究员任主编,负责课题的论证和申报、课题框架结构的设计、成果的修改、统稿和定稿等工作。

课题组成员承担和完成的具体任务如下:

前言:徐世澄

第一章:袁东振(中国社会科学院拉丁美洲研究所所长助理、研究员)

第二章:徐世澄

第三章:陈岚(浙江外国语学院拉丁美洲研究所助理研究员、在读博士生)

第四章:王双(浙江外国语学院拉丁美洲研究所助理研究员、博士)

第五章:徐世澄

第六章:唐俊(浙江外国语学院拉丁美洲研究所副所长、博士)

第七章:叶健辉(浙江外国语学院社会科学部讲师、博士)

第八章:徐世澄

后记:徐世澄

本书所用的资料载至2015年9月底。

在本课题申报、写作和结项过程中,得到了浙江外国语学院院长洪岗、党委书记姚成荣、副院长郑亚莉等院领导,科研处处长郑淑贞等同志的大力支持,浙江外国语学院拉丁美洲研究所副所长唐俊博士做了大量的工作,在此表示衷心感谢。

本课题在立项后的3年多时间中,曾在北京和杭州先后召开了3次会议,就课题研究的思路和方法、课题的框架、成果初稿以及最终成果的审定等进行了研究和讨论。本课题的成果凝结了课题组全体成员的心血,是集体努力的结晶。

本课题研究中学习和借鉴了大量的学术界已有的研究成果,在此谨向他们表示衷心感谢。

对拉美左翼和社会主义及其理论思潮的研究是一项系统工程,我们在这方面的研究还是初步的,我们的一些看法和评价很可能是局限的、不够全面的,对许多重要问题的理解还有待于继续深入研究。另外,拉美左翼和社会主义及其理论思潮是在不断变化和发展的,新的情况、新的思潮层出不穷。虽然我们在主观上尽了力,但是由于理论水平和学术水平的限制,书中错误和不当之处在所难免,敬请各位读者不吝赐教。

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In the late 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, the political systems of most Latin American countries underwent a transformation from the semi-feudal "Caudillo" dictatorship to the bourgeois representative democracy, gradually forming a modern state system; The political situation has become relatively stable from frequent coups and turbulence. In Latin America's modern history, the left is an important political force that has had an important impact on the political, economic and social development of the region. Latin America has a long history of left-wing, and socialist ideas began to spread widely in Latin America as early as the mid-19th century. After the defeat of the Paris Commune in France in 1871, a large number of European socialists went into exile in Latin America, and left-wing ideas spread and spread widely in Latin America. In the 70s of the 19th century, the sections of the First International were established in Mexico, Uruguay and Argentina. In the 90s of the 19th century, the Socialist Party was founded in Argentina, Chile, Cuba and Uruguay. After the victory of the October Revolution in Russia in 1917, Latin American countries successively established Communist Parties. In the course of the history of the 20th century, Latin America has experienced five relatively important revolutions. One of them was preceded by World War II, the Mexican bourgeois-democratic revolution of 1910-1917. There were four post-World War II elections, namely, the Guatemalan Revolution of 1944-1954, the Bolivian Revolution of 1952-1960, the Cuban Revolution, which won national victory in early 1959 and later proclaimed the establishment of the first socialist regime in the Western Hemisphere, and the Nicaraguan Revolution, which overthrew the dictatorship and won national victory on 19 July 1979. In the course of these five revolutions and Latin America's industrialization and modernization, the ranks of the proletariat in Latin America have continued to grow, party politics has been continuously improved, left-wing political parties, left-wing trade unions and mass organizations have continued to emerge, and left-wing ideas, left-wing movements, left-wing regimes and left-wing leaders have continued to emerge. In addition to the above-mentioned five revolutions, since the 30s of the 20th century, Latin American countries have launched democratic reform movements with foreign resistance to power and internal struggle for democracy as the main content. Latin America's democratic reforms were rich and diverse, with authoritarian populist 2891150 reforms, such as Getulio Vargas (1883-1954) in Brazil, Victor Raul Haya de la Torre (1895-1979) in Peru, Juan Domingo Peron in Argentina, 1895-1974), reforms by José María Velasco Ibarra of Ecuador (1893-1979); There were experiments with the "Peruvian model" carried out by reformist military figures such as the military government of Juan Velasco Alvarado of Peru (1910-1977), as well as reforms with various socialist overtones, such as the "peaceful transition to socialism" of Salvador Allende (1908-1973) in Chile, and Forbes Burnham of Guyana Burnham (1923-1985) founded and implemented "cooperative socialism", as well as democratic and Christian socialist reforms in some Latin American countries. Although these reforms have different colors and characteristics, and some of them still flaunt the banner of socialism, they can generally be attributed to bourgeois anti-imperialist democratic reforms, which are a main thread running through the political process in Latin America, promoting the transition of Latin American countries from pre-capitalism to capitalism and from traditional society to modern society. From the early 60s to the early 80s of the 20th century, under the impetus of the Latin American national democratic movement, 13 countries in the Caribbean gained independence from colonial status. As a result, the number of independent states in Latin America increased from 20 before the war to 33. This book is devoted to the study of the theoretical trend of left and socialism in Latin America, focusing on the new left and socialist trend that has risen in Latin America since the late 80s and early 90s of the 20th century. Why should we study the Latin American trend of left and socialist theory? What's the point? Since the seventies and eighties of the twentieth century, Latin America has become a testing ground and hardest hit area for neoliberalism. In the late 80s and early 90s of the 20th century, the drastic changes in Eastern Europe and the disintegration of the Soviet Union once caused a huge impact on socialist movements and left-wing movements in various regions of the world, including Latin America, and were at a low ebb. However, what is remarkable is that with the gradual exposure of the negative effects of neoliberalism and the acceleration of the democratization process of Latin American military personnel "returning government to the people", under the new international and regional environment and situation, the coexistence and competition between the "left" and the "right" in Latin America has gradually become the norm in the politics of Latin American countries, and the development of the Latin American left has entered a new historical stage. Some left-wing parties and organizations that have had a major influence still maintain a certain degree of vitality, but the status and influence of a considerable number of traditional left-wing parties and organizations have gradually declined, and they are not as good as in the past. On the contrary, other left-wing party organizations and social movements have adjusted their political strategies, programs, methods of struggle, etc., and their strength has continued to grow. The Latin American left quickly came out of the toldrums, and the Latin American left withstood the huge international pressure, withstood the test, not only tenaciously persevered and survived, but also achieved important development, showing a gradual upward trend. Since the "Fifth Republic Movement" led by Hugo Chávez (1954-2013) came to power in Venezuela in February 1999, left-wing parties and politicians in Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Nicaragua, Chile, Bolivia, Ecuador, El Salvador and Peru have successively elected to power, and Latin American new left forces have risen en masse on the political stage; In Mexico, Colombia, Honduras and other countries, although the left party failed to win the election and come to power, it also has the strength to rival and compete with the right. Waves of thriving social movements in Bolivia, Ecuador, Argentina, Guatemala and other countries have also forced presidents to resign and step down. The rise of the Latin American left-wing group is an important feature of Latin American political modernization; The development of the Latin American left is an important part of the Latin American political process; The Latin American left is an active defender of the democratization process in Latin America; The Latin American left is the main driver of the change in the concept of development; The Latin American left is also an active shaper of the new political landscape in Latin America. The important role played by the Latin American left and socialist movements on the world political stage is increasingly impressive. The "sudden rise" of the Latin American left wing and socialist movement is a bright spot in the development of world socialism in the 21st century, a major force in the historical process of development and change in the contemporary world, and has played an important role in promoting the revival of the world left and socialist movements. Many left-wing parties and organizations in Europe, Asia, and Africa see the rise of the left and socialist movements in Latin America as "hope." The São Paulo Forum, founded by the Latin American left in 1990, and the World Social Forum, founded in 2001, have become increasingly influential in promoting the world left-wing movement, which has become "a space for leftists, anti-imperialists, anti-neoliberalism, opposition to all colonialism and neocolonialism, solidarity and participation in the formulation of 'alternatives'", and the participation in the annual meeting of the São Paulo Forum is not limited to left-wing parties and organizations in Latin American and Caribbean countries, but also includes Europe, Asia, Left-wing parties and organizations in Africa and elsewhere, the annual meeting of the São Paulo Forum has become an important gathering of leftist parties in Latin America and the world. The World Social Forum has also become the "embodiment of another globalization" of an "anti-imperialist and anti-neoliberal nature" widely attended by leftist parties and non-governmental organizations on all continents. A comprehensive and systematic study of the left-wing and socialist trends of thought that emerged in Latin America in the past two or three decades is of great theoretical value and practical significance. First of all, to explore the reasons for the rise of left-wing and socialist trends in Latin America, the main body of these trends, their main propositions, viewpoints and characteristics, and their impact on Latin American politics, economy and international relations, will help us to deeply understand the process of political democratization and the changes in the economic development model in Latin America. Second, the left-wing and socialist trends of thought in Latin America are undoubtedly closely related to the development of contemporary world capitalism and the ups and downs of the international left and communist movements, and studying the left and socialist trends in Latin America is of great significance for us to fully understand the characteristics of the development of capitalism in the contemporary world, the crises, challenges and prospects it faces, as well as to understand and study the world left, international and Latin American communist movements. The development of left-wing and socialist trends and movements in Latin America not only has a long history and tradition, but also has active ideas and many currents, which can be said to be a gathering place for various social trends and a testing ground for various left-wing parties to carry out social revolution, reform, movement and construction. Especially in the past 20 years, the rise of the New Left in Latin America shows that Latin America is the most prosperous region for the development of the world socialist movement in the 21st century. Therefore, it is very necessary to study and summarize its theory and practice and evaluate its status and significance in world history. Finally, one of the root causes of the rise of the left and socialism in Latin America is that neoliberal economic reforms in Latin American countries have exacerbated social and economic inequalities, and people are increasingly dissatisfied with the neoliberal development model dominated by the "Washington Consensus". At present, China is deepening reform, how to deal with the challenges of neoliberal globalization, properly handle the problem of benefit distribution in the reform process, and build a harmonious society is the main task facing it. Exploring the left-wing and socialist trends of thought in Latin America and their relationship with Latin America's political, economic and social development today is undoubtedly of great reference significance for China's construction of socialism with Chinese characteristics. The general framework and basic content of this book are roughly as follows: The first chapter summarizes and analyzes the emergence and development of Latin American left-wing and socialist theoretical trends. This paper briefly describes and analyzes the rise of the Latin American workers' movement in the late 19th century and the spread of scientific socialism in Latin America, the birth and tortuous development of socialist parties and communist parties in Latin American countries, and the trend and practice of social democracy in Latin America. The second chapter focuses on the rise of the New Left movement in Latin America. On the basis of systematically sorting out the development of Latin American left-wing movements, Latin American traditional left parties, organizations, movements and Latin American guerrilla movements, this paper focuses on the impact of drastic changes in Eastern Europe and the disintegration of the Soviet Union on Latin American left and socialist movements, the rise of Latin American new left movements at the end of the 20th century, their causes, roles, influences and challenges, and analyzes the strategic propositions and characteristics of contemporary Latin American left and socialist movements. Chapter III: The Latin American Left and the São Paulo Forum. Based on the analysis of the historical background and development process of the establishment of the São Paulo Forum, this chapter focuses on the proposition of the São Paulo Forum to promote Latin American integration, the characteristics of the Forum and the significance of the São Paulo Forum. Chapter IV: The Brazilian Labour Party and the World Social Forum. Based on the analysis of the historical background and evaluation of the establishment of the World Social Forum and the important activities of the World Social Forum, this chapter focuses on the study and analysis of the characteristics, propositions and concepts of the World Social Forum. The role of the Brazilian Workers' Party in the establishment and development of the World Social Forum, the limitations and problems in the development of the Brazilian Workers' Party and the World Social Forum were analyzed, and the limitations and existing problems in the development of the Brazilian Workers' Party and the World Social Forum were pointed out. Chapter V: The Development of Cuban Socialism and the "Renewal" of the Economic and Social Model. This chapter analyzes how Cuba embarked on the road of socialism, how it actively explored the road of socialist revolution and construction, how Cuba coped with the huge blow and impact of the drastic changes in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, and focuses on the situation of Cuba's "renewal" economic and social model since Raul came to power in mid-2006, especially since the "Sixth National Congress" of the Communist Party of Cuba in 2011. Chapter Six: Socialism Proposed by Some of Latin America's ruling left-wing parties. This chapter analyzes and introduces the background, basic connotation, main practices and prospects of "socialism in the 21st century" in Venezuela, "socialism in the 21st century" in Ecuador, "communion socialism" in Bolivia and "labor socialism" in the Brazilian Labor Party. Chapter VII: Other Socialist and Left-Wing Trends in Latin America. This chapter analyses and introduces the characteristics and new changes in social democratic thought in Latin America, such as Apraism in Peru, Sandinista in Nicaragua, Christian democracy in Latin America, Peronism in Argentina and liberation theology in Latin America. Chapter VIII: New Movements of the Left Movement and the Communist Party in Latin America. This chapter analyzes the reflections of Latin American leftist leaders on the world financial crisis, the new trends of Latin American Communist Parties, the new theories of Latin American left-wing - post-neoliberalism and neo-developmentalism, new movements of Latin American left movements, and the challenges and prospects of Latin American new leftists. The project "Research on Latin American Left Wing and Socialist Theoretical Trends" was declared in February 2012 and approved by the National Office of Philosophy and Social Science Planning on May 20 of the same year, with the project number 12BGJ002. It was originally scheduled to be completed by May 30, 2015, but the actual completion time was August 30, 2015. On November 15 of the same year, he applied to the Zhejiang Provincial Social Science Planning Office for appraisal. The Zhejiang Provincial Planning Office completed the expert appraisal on March 16, 2016 and applied for the review of the National Social Science Planning Office. On July 13, 2016, the National Social Science Planning Office approved the closure of the project. This book is edited by researcher Xu Shicheng, the project leader, director of the Institute of Latin American Studies of Zhejiang University of Foreign Chinese, and member of the Honorary Division of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, who is responsible for the demonstration and declaration of the project, the design of the project framework structure, the revision, drafting and finalization of the results. The specific tasks undertaken and completed by the members of the research group are as follows: Introduction: Xu Shicheng Chapter 1: Yuan Dongzhen (Assistant Director and Researcher, Institute of Latin American Studies, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences) Chapter 2: Xu ShichengChapter 3: Chen Lan (Assistant Researcher, Institute of Latin American Studies, Zhejiang University of Foreign Chinese, PhD student) Chapter 4: Wang Shuang (Assistant Researcher, Ph.D., Institute of Latin American Studies, Zhejiang University of Foreign Chinese) Chapter 5: Xu ShichengChapter 6: Tang Jun (Deputy Director, Institute of Latin American Studies, Zhejiang University of Foreign Chinese, Ph.D.) Chapter 7: Ye Jianhui (Lecturer, Ph.D., Department of Social Sciences, Zhejiang University of Foreign Chinese) Chapter 8: Afterword by Xu Shicheng: The materials used in Xu Shicheng's book are published as of the end of September 2015. In the process of declaration, writing and closing of this project, we have received strong support from Hong Gang, Dean of Zhejiang University of Foreign Chinese, Yao Chengrong, Secretary of the Party Committee, Zheng Yali, Vice Dean of Zhejiang University of Foreign Affairs, Zheng Shuzhen, Director of the Scientific Research Department, and Dr. Tang Jun, Deputy Director of the Institute of Latin American Studies of Zhejiang University of Foreign Chinese, has done a lot of work, and I would like to express my heartfelt thanks. In the more than three years since the project was established, three meetings have been held in Beijing and Hangzhou to study and discuss the ideas and methods of the project research, the framework of the project, the first draft of the results and the review of the final results. The results of this project condense the painstaking efforts of all members of the research group and are the crystallization of collective efforts. I would like to express my heartfelt thanks to the fact that we have learned and borrowed a large number of existing research results from academia in this project. The study of the Latin American left and socialism and their theoretical trends is a systematic project, our research in this area is still preliminary, some of our views and evaluations are likely to be limited and incomplete, and the understanding of many important issues needs to be further studied. In addition, Latin American left-wing, socialism and their theoretical trends are constantly changing and developing, and new situations and new trends of thought are emerging one after another. Although we have done our best subjectively, due to the limitations of theoretical and academic level, errors and improprieties in the book are inevitable.(AI翻译)

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GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文
徐世澄.拉美左翼和社会主义理论思潮研究[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2017
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徐世澄.拉美左翼和社会主义理论思潮研究.北京,中国社会科学出版社:2017E-book.
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APA 格式引文
徐世澄(2017).拉美左翼和社会主义理论思潮研究.北京:中国社会科学出版社
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