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郊区城市化与城乡社会治理一体化研究

ISBN:978-7-5203-1450-3

出版日期:2018-03

页数:347

字数:309.0千字

点击量:4325次

引用量:5次

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基金信息: 本书为2013年度国家社会科学基金项目“城镇化进程中郊区城市化与城乡社会管理一体化研究”(13BZZ038)的最终成果,又系2017年度国家社会科学基金项目“农村基层精准治理研究”(17BKS060)的阶段性成果。 展开
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图书简介

以城带乡,城乡融合,实现城乡社会治理一体化发展

——序尤琳新著《郊区城市化与城乡社会治理一体化研究》

2017年年初开学的一天上午,尤琳博士在上完本科生课之后,带着一大扎刚刚装订的稿本兴冲冲地到我办公室,高兴地向我报告,说她承担的2013年国家社科基金项目“城镇化进程中郊区城市化与城乡社会管理一体化研究”已经完成,准备结项,请我提提意见,以便修改提高。我愉快地答应了。大约两周后,我将尤琳请到我办公室,向她反馈我读后的意见。记得当时只是简单地肯定了三两句,并未刻意鼓励她,便开门见山地表达了两条值得商榷的意见。但尤琳始终笑吟吟地聆听我的看法,觉得我讲得有些在理,表示愿意回家后再琢磨琢磨。她向我告辞时,很诚恳地对我说:“张老师,等我改好后,圆满地结项了,想正式出版。到时,您能够给我写篇序文吗?”我当时就很爽快地答应了。

我与尤琳是华中师范大学的校友。我们都受到了桂子山“博雅、博学、博爱”校训的深刻影响,华中师大的学术传统和学风也深深地浸润着一代又一代桂子山学子。2013年6月,我应邀主持了尤琳那一届的博士论文答辩。尤琳的博士论文题为“中国乡村关系——基于国家治能的检讨”,指导教师是业内知名学者唐鸣教授。在紧张的一整天答辩过程中,尤琳给我留下了深刻的印象。在答辩中,她除了对导师、对导师组和母校充满深深的感激和敬意外,精神格外饱满,全神贯注地投入了答辩:自信从容地陈述论文,认真敏捷地记录专家提问,经过深思熟虑后流畅回答提问,虚心诚恳地接受专家指导。她的这篇博士论文顺利地通过答辩,获得了答辩委员会专家的一致肯定。毕业后,她积极吸取答辩委员会专家的意见,在唐鸣教授的指导下进行了认真的修改,博士论文以“中国乡村关系——基层治理结构与治理能力结构”为书名出版(中国社会科学出版社2015年版)。唐鸣教授在序文中恰如其分地给予评价,说道:该书为研究者“了解和观察乡村关系提供了新的分析视角,也为我们判断和把握乡村关系的未来提供了可资参考的理论框架”3207311。我是赞同他的判断的。

尤琳毕业后,便由景德镇陶瓷大学引进到江西师范大学政法学院。进校后,尤琳在导师唐鸣教授的推荐下,跟随我做博士后研究。经我们充分商量后,她便选择“现代治理背景下农村基层善治问题”继续做农村治理研究,并获得中国博士后科学基金第55批项目研究资助;在站期间,还获得了中国博士后科学基金第8批特别资助项目“推进农村基层治理现代化对策研究”。在站期间,她在教学之余,能吃苦,肯思考,勤写作,教学、科研两不误,在2016年年底顺利出站。她的研究报告受到评审专家和答辩专家的好评。在站期间,尤琳的投入是满满的,而她的收获也是满满的。除此之外,她与导师合写的论文被《新华文摘》全文转载并封面介绍,获得了江西省社会科学优秀成果二等奖,入选教育部“高校思想政治理论课教师2015年度影响力人物”。在当下急功近利、急切浮躁的世风影响学风的背景下,像尤琳这样沉得住气、静得下心做学问的青年学者,不是太多,的确值得称赞。

尤琳出生在农村。与我一样,得益于高考从美丽富饶的江汉平原走出来;进入高校读书学习,并成为一名高校教师。所以,她热爱农村,关注农村,并立志为农村、农业和像她父辈一样憨厚可敬的农民做点什么。从硕士研究生阶段开始,尤琳便选取农村基层治理作为自己研究的主攻目标。而江汉平原淳朴、勤劳和进取的民风,滋养了尤琳这一代青年学子。在她身上,既映现着博士、教授的气质,又时时体现着农民的质朴。这就是尤琳研究农村基层治理的优势。

本书的研究,是尤琳研究农村治理的一个视角和向度。由郊区看城市,实现郊区城市化;再反观农村,以郊区为示范,促进农村实现城市化。这就是作者立足中间抓两头的逻辑构架,并由此形成了城乡社会治理一线贯通的研究思路和格局,得出了“一体化治理”的研究结论。以城带乡,城乡融合,实现城乡社会治理一体化发展,在经济转轨、观念转变和社会转型的新时代,很有价值,也很有意义。习近平总书记在党的十九大政治报告中指出,“打造共治共享的社会治理格局”3207312。城乡社会治理从治理主体上看,是执政党、政府与社会组织、社区居民的关系;从空间布局来看,则是城市与农村的关系。由此可见,作者的研究,适时回应了新时代社会关切和实践需求。

郊区,从农村走向上看,它是农村变城市的必经之地;由城市回头看,它是城市与农村的边缘地带。这是作者研究的基点和出发点。

因此,作者认为郊区是连接城市和农村的过渡地带,是城市和农村产生经济联系、实现城乡互动的连接点。从某种意义上看,中国的城市化是以郊区为主的城市化,郊区城市化在城乡发展一体化中具有重要的战略地位。在现阶段,郊区城市化进程使郊区经济结构、郊区社会结构和郊区组织结构产生巨变,出现多样化、分化和重组等具有革命性特点的变革。这些不可避免地给社会治理带来挑战和难题:一是越来越多的外来人口进入郊区就业和居住,由此带来治理对象的复杂和治理内容的增加等;二是郊区“失地农民”无法在教育、医疗、卫生、就业、社会保障等方面与城市居民一样享有均等的公共服务,导致农民市民化进程缓慢,给郊区的社会治理带来严峻的挑战;三是外来人口在教育、医疗、就业及经济收入、社会保障等方面与城市本地居民之间产生显著差别,外来人口在心理上会形成剥夺感和挤压感,这给郊区社会治安带来较为严峻的挑战和冲击。因此,如何实现城乡社会治理一体化以适应城市化的冲击;如何加快农民市民化进程;如何促进外来人口融入城市,促使城乡能够共享高度发达的物质文明和精神文明,促使城乡居民在教育、就业、医疗、养老等基本公共服务方面实现均等化,是当前亟需解决的重大课题。

由郊区看两头——城市和农村,分析城乡一体化发展,特别是实现城乡一体化治理,就必然以城乡一体化相关理论为基础,分析郊区城市化给农村发展带来的示范性效应,以及对城市功能延伸、影响力辐射产生的振动效应,构建农村-城郊-城市一体化进程的逻辑框架,探寻一体化治理的实现路径。由此,作者以郊区社区分化-郊区社区冲突-郊区社区整合为线索,对城乡一体化试点——重庆市、成都市、温州市等地进行案例研究,探寻其路径演变历程、厘清近年来的具体做法及成效,并深入剖析存在的问题,得出通过推动城乡社会治理一体化来实现郊区社会融合的启示。主要有以下几个方面。

第一,尝试对郊区城市化的发展形态进行了划分。作者以郊区城市化为研究的对象,关注城市经济发展辐射郊区居民,使之在经济生活上与城市联系更为密切、更为深入,导致郊区在一定空间范围内高度混合城市和农村的各种要素,兼具城市和农村的经济与社会发展特征。从郊区城市化的空间形态、生产要素、管理体制等方面,指出郊区城市化进程表现为城市化社区、城中村、农村社区三种形态。这为从政策层面对郊区治理“因地制宜”“分类治理”提供了有益参照。

第二,设计了郊区社区分化-郊区社区冲突-郊区社区整合的研究思路。城镇化必然带来郊区社会结构的变迁,这在社区层面上集中表现为一个社区各组成要素的不断更新和重新组合的动态过程,常常表现为社区分化、社区冲突、社区整合三个阶段。由此,作者以郊区社区分化-郊区社区冲突-郊区社区整合为线索,研究如何通过推动城乡社会治理一体化来实现郊区社会融合。这就形成了研究思路的整合式转换,即把握乡村社会与城市社会、乡村问题与城市问题有机联系起来,研究城乡社会统筹治理和城乡问题统筹治理。

第三,构建了城乡社会治理一体化的制度体系。作者聚焦制度设计,认为城乡一体化的实质是最大限度地缩小城乡差距,促使城乡能够共享高度发达的物质文明和精神文明,而这种共享需要通过社会治理来实现;通过构建社会治理一体化制度体系,推进郊区与城市协调发展。而城乡社会治理一体化制度体系则包括城乡生产要素配置一体化、城乡户籍管理制度的一体化、城乡社会治理体制机制一体化、城乡公共服务一体化四个方面。其中,建立城乡生产要素配置一体化的核心内容是,确保郊区农民的公民财产权得以保护与实现;实现城乡户籍管理制度的一体化的核心内容是,确保郊区外来人口迁移自由权得以保护与实现;建立城乡治理体制机制一体化的核心内容是,推进郊区农民和郊区外来人口市民化的过程;建立城乡公共服务一体化的核心问题是,实现全体社会公民基本权利的平等。这就为郊区城市化进程中确保郊区农民合法的财产权益,确保郊区外来人口与郊区农民能够与城市居民享受均等的公共服务和公共产品,重建郊区外来人口与郊区农民对政府的信任和认同,实现郊区社会融合,提供了可资借鉴的经验和有益启示。

从农村、城郊与城市三者的关联性即一体化进程来看,作者提出了一系列值得重视的意见或观点。

一是关于郊区城市化的发展形态研究。改革开放以来,随着社会主义市场经济的发展,郊区城市化发展开始进入崭新的发展时期,呈现加速发展态势。在城市的影响带动下,在城市经济发展的辐射下,郊区在一定空间范围内高度混合城市和农村的各种要素,兼具城市和农村的经济与社会发展特征。郊区城市化表现在空间形态上,以一个或多个村庄为单位进行整村拆迁,将郊区居民就地或异地整体上楼安置,有的一村一社区,还有的将若干村设为一社区;在生产要素上对村集体所有土地、村集体资产进行量化确权,实现“政社分离”,因此,将郊区建设为城市化社区是其发展方向。现阶段,由于受制于郊区经济社会发展的水平,郊区城市化进程表现为城市化社区、城中村、农村社区三种形态。

二是关于郊区城市化造成的社会分化研究。相对于农村与城市,郊区在社会属性、区位分布、居民构成、生活方式等方面均呈现自发性、异质性和独特性特征,郊区城市化进程使得社区经济结构多样化、社区社会结构分化、社区组织结构产生变化。具体而言,郊区社区经济结构多样化主要包括社区所有制结构多样化、社区产业结构多样化、就业结构多元化、社区居民收入结构分化等;郊区社会结构分化主要包括社区人口结构多元化、社区社会阶层分化;郊区组织结构重构主要表现为“村改居”的社区组织重构和新兴组织的兴起等。这些新的社会要素,都是社会治理所必须重点关注的观测点。

三是关于郊区城市化对传统社会管理体制冲击研究。郊区城市化造成郊区的社会分化,郊区社会治理的主体、客体及环境相应发生改变,郊区城市化对传统社会管理体制带来冲击。首先涉及郊区农民土地权益如何保护。在郊区土地征用或者流转过程中,农民由于主体地位模糊而处于弱势地位,导致其土地被低价征收,土地权益受到损害。其次涉及如何促进村集体经济组织“政社分离”。目前,多数郊区虽然已经对村集体经济组织进行改制,但是仍将村集体经济组织成员与社区成员相混淆,不仅没有摆脱“政社不分”的束缚,而且损害村集体组织成员的财产权利,降低改制后村集体经济组织的效率。最后涉及如何完善村集体资产管理体制。目前大多数改制后的村集体经济组织普遍存在村集体资产大量流失、产权不明、管理主体长期缺位等问题。

四是关于加快郊区农民市民化进程研究。第一是要促进郊区农民就业。基于郊区农民文化素质偏低、专业劳动技能缺乏,需要提高郊区农民的就业能力与就业质量,促进郊区农民更好地适应郊区城市化的进程。第二是要提高郊区农民对郊区的心理认同。基于郊区农民在生活、就业方面的困境,需要加大郊区公共产品供给的力度,让郊区农民在郊区公共产品方面享有与城市市民同等的待遇,提高郊区农民对郊区的心理认同。第三是要实现郊区农民社会关系重建。由于市场化、城市化的冲击,造成郊区农民曾有的社会网络被撕裂,需要帮助郊区农民在与城市居民共同居住的社区达成互惠、信任和规范的社会关系网络,让他们能够享受与城市居民同等的公共服务资源,获得向上流动的社会资本。第四是要提高郊区农民的综合素质。基于郊区农民在综合素质上与城市居民的差距较大,需要提高郊区农民的综合素质,促使他们在生产方式、生活方式、行为方式、思维方式以及价值观念等方面逐渐达到与城市居民相当的程度。第五是要实现郊区农民与城市居民社会保障制度的衔接。为了保障郊区农民在土地被征用后的基本生活,促进社会公平和社会稳定,需要构建城乡一体的涵盖最低生活保障制度、基本养老保险制度和医疗保险制度等的社会保障体系。

五是关于促进郊区外来人口融入郊区并最终融入城市研究。社会融入过程是外来人口的城市化过程。目前,郊区外来人口在经济层次的融入、社会层次的融入、心理层次的融入、身份层次的认同程度普遍较低。这就需要改变外来人口在郊区社区的经济状况,让他们与郊区社区本地居民享有均等的基本公共服务和社会福利,让他们参与当地公共事务的管理,帮助他们与郊区社区本地居民结成相互沟通、深度融合的关系网络,提高外来人口对所居住的社区的认同感和归属感,最终实现外来人口先融入郊区再融入城市的目标。

六是关于创新社会治理体制机制以适应郊区城市化冲击研究。基于郊区治理中存在管理主体和手段单一、社区居民自治发育和发展相对落后等问题,需要创新社会治理体制机制以适应郊区城市化的冲击。具体包括以下三个方面:首先是如何理顺郊区社会管理组织体系;其次是如何更新社区治理理念以适应郊区社会发展需求;最后是如何改进社会治理机制以适应多样化的社会需求。

七是构建城乡社会治理一体化制度体系研究。城乡一体化的实质是最大限度地缩小城乡差距,推进城乡协调发展。构建社会治理一体化制度体系的路径包括城乡生产要素配置一体化、城乡户籍管理制度的一体化、城乡社会治理体制机制一体化、城乡公共服务一体化四个方面。

具体而言,就是通过实现城乡生产要素配置一体化,实现劳动力、土地、资金、技术等生产要素在郊区与城市之间自由流动,让郊区农民能够获得城市化带来的更多的收益,其核心内容是确保郊区农民的公民财产权得以保护与实现;通过建立城乡户籍管理制度的一体化,促使郊区外来人口享受与户籍制度相关的养老、医疗、失业保险等社会保障制度和社会福利,其核心内容是确保郊区外来人口迁移自由权得以保护与实现;通过社会治理体制机制创新、社会治理方式的改进,建构城乡一体化的基层组织与管理体制,其核心内容是推进郊区农民和郊区外来人口市民化的过程;通过建立城乡公共服务一体化,促进郊区农民与郊区享有与城市居民均等的公共服务,其核心问题是实现全体社会公民基本权利的平等。第一,要建立城乡生产要素配置一体化,实现郊区生产要素的市场化配置。郊区土地、资金、房屋、资源等要素面临的困境和约束,是导致农民不能真正享受自己拥有的财产权益,郊区生产潜力难以激发的重要因素。需要通过对郊区土地、房屋等生产要素市场化配置,促进郊区过剩劳动力从土地脱身,从事非农生产,保护郊区农民财产权益,在村集体经济组织、村民与国家之间建立土地资源增值收益共享机制。同时,明确改制后村级集体经济的法律地位,形成一种股份合作、自主经营、风险共担、收益共享的新型合作经济组织。在保护原村集体经济组织成员权益的前提下,规范股权继承、转让和赠与等流转原则和办理程序,建立股权管理制度,促进产权要素走向市场化。第二,要建立城乡户籍管理制度的一体化,促进郊区农民与外来人口市民化。在促进郊区农民市民化方面,要尊重郊区农民的合法财产权,郊区农民进城不得以牺牲其已有的权利为代价。在郊区农民向市民进行身份转变的过程中,要让他们享受与本地城镇居民同样的公共服务和福利待遇;在促进郊区外来人口市民化方面,立足于建立统一的城乡户口登记制度,对郊区暂时没有落户的外来人口建立居住证制度,并以居住证为载体,建立健全与居住年限等条件相挂钩的基本公共服务制度。健全城乡一体化的人口服务和管理机制,逐渐推进城镇基本公共服务覆盖全部常住人口,实现郊区外来人口与城市居民在基本公共服务与福利方面享有同等的权利和待遇。第三,要建立城乡社会治理一体化体制机制,促进多元治理主体实现有序参与。推进政府治理转型。规范政府行政权力运行,促使政府治理法治化;科学界定政府职能履行范围,促使“服务型政府”角色得以实现;搭建管理与服务平台,为社区居民提供“一站式”服务;走市场化、社会化道路,为社区居民提供多样化服务;治理方式从管制向协商转变,推进多元治理主体共管共治等。健全与完善社区市场经济体系。发挥市场在资源配置中的决定性作用;扶持和培育社区经济的发展;促使社区经济组织建立现代企业制度;加强对社区市场经济秩序的监管;等等。培育社区自治力量的生长。加强社区党组织建设;推进村(居)委会依法自治,推进社区社会组织健康成长;大力创新社区居民参与制度和参与载体。构建政府、市场、社会三个治理子系统之间制度化互动机制。合理划分政府与社区经济组织、居委会、社区社会组织之间的权力边界;加强政府、市场、社会之间的功能耦合,做到三者之间相互配合和互相补位,避免政府失灵、市场失灵和社会失灵。第四,要建立城乡公共服务供给制度一体化,使郊区所有居民也能享有与城市居民同等的公共服务和社会福利。积极推进城乡公共基础设施一体化,使郊区的道路、水电、通信、照明、娱乐场地等公共基础设施与城市社区同水平,让郊区居民能够享有完善公共交通、通信网络、娱乐休闲、水电气暖等社区公共服务,改善郊区居民生产生活条件;积极推进城乡就业、教育、养老、医疗、社会救助等社会保障制度并轨,建立城乡一体的公共服务制度;建立公共服务均等化供给的公共财政制度,建立事权和支出责任相适应的制度,省和市县政府按照事权划分相应承担和分担支出责任。与此同时,还要建立由政府、企业、社会、个人等共同参与的多元化成本分担机制,以缓解政府在基础设施兴建和公共服务支出等方面面临的财政压力。

显而易见,以上研究结论是有认识的启发性和思想的冲击力的。人的思想来自于社会实践,认识深化人们对社会实践的认识,又有助于解决实践中不断涌现的矛盾和问题。这就是科学研究的价值所在、魅力所在。

当然,任何一种研究设计和范式,都不是尽善尽美的。在解决突出问题的同时,也会暴露其局限,甚至是弱点。尤其是由于各地郊区城市化的表现形态多样,在城乡一体化社会治理实践中的探索也不尽相同,因而这一研究是不可能覆盖农村-城郊-城市社会治理一体化发展所有问题的。这就需要学术界有更多的专家深入研究这一问题,在见仁见智的基础上,形成有丰富科学含量的共识和智慧,将其运用于实践之中,解决城乡社会治理一体化的各种矛盾和问题。

我相信,尤琳并不会就此止步,她还会有更大的决心和勇气关注、研究新时代中国农村社会的转型变迁,并不断取得新的成果。然而,学术研究如古人所谓“言授于意,密则无际,疏则千里”3207313,因此,这就需要学者在研究上要有更大的追求、在精力上要有更大的投入、在思想上要有更多的新锐,不一探究竟、不弄清原委就绝不罢手!这就是古人的治学境界和严格要求:“学为实事而文非空言”3207314。这也是古往今来学者治学的优良传统和学风,在当下尤其值得传承和弘扬。

在尤琳的大著出版之际,我乐于讲述以上一番话,权做序文,以示并不爽约,更在于对青年学者积极进取、勤于研究的肯定与鼓励。文中不乏勉励的话语,就算作为老师对学生在今后教研工作中精进上扬的一种期许吧!

是为序。

2017年11月15日

(张艳国,历史学博士、博士后。现任江西师范大学副校长,兼任江西省“2011协同创新中心”——江西师范大学中国社会转型研究中心主任、首席专家,教授,博士生导师、博士后联合导师,国务院政府津贴专家。)

Realizing the Integrated Development of Urban and Rural Social Governance with Urban and Rural Integration——Preface You Lin's new book "Research on the Integration of Suburban Urbanization and Urban and Rural Social Governance" On the morning of the beginning of school in early 2017, Dr. You Lin came to my office with a large bundle of freshly bound manuscripts after her undergraduate class, and happily reported to me that the 2013 National Social Science Fund project "Research on the Integration of Suburban Urbanization and Urban and Rural Social Management in the Process of Urbanization" undertaken by her has been completed and is ready to be completed. I am invited to make comments with a view to revising and improving. I happily agreed. About two weeks later, I invited Yuleen into my office to give her feedback on my comments after reading it. I remember that I only briefly affirmed three or two sentences, and did not deliberately encourage her, and then expressed two debatable opinions straight to the point. But Yu Lin always listened to my opinion with a smile, felt that I had made some sense, and expressed her willingness to think about it when she went home. When she said goodbye to me, she said to me very sincerely: "Teacher Zhang, after I correct it, the project is successfully completed, and I want to publish it officially." At that time, can you write me a prologue? "I readily agreed. You Lin and I are alumni of Central China Normal University. We have all been deeply influenced by Guizishan's motto of "Liberal Arts, Erudition, and Fraternity", and the academic tradition and academic style of Central China Normal University have deeply infiltrated generations of Guizishan students. In June 2013, I was invited to preside over Yu Lin's doctoral dissertation defense. You Lin's doctoral dissertation is entitled "China's Rural Relations: A Review Based on National Governance", supervised by Professor Tang Ming, a well-known scholar in the industry. During the intense whole day of defense, Yu Lin left a deep impression on me. In the defense, in addition to being full of deep gratitude and respect for her supervisor, the tutor group and her alma mater, she was particularly full of spirit and devoted herself to the defense: confidently and calmly stating the thesis, carefully and quickly recording the questions of experts, answering questions smoothly after careful consideration, and humbly and sincerely accepting expert guidance. Her doctoral dissertation successfully passed the defense and was unanimously affirmed by the experts of the defense committee. After graduation, she actively absorbed the opinions of the experts of the defense committee, and under the guidance of Professor Tang Ming, she made serious revisions, and published her doctoral dissertation under the title "China's Rural Relations: Grassroots Governance Structure and Governance Capacity Structure" (China Social Sciences Press, 2015). Professor Tang Ming aptly commented in the preface, saying that the book provides researchers with "a new analytical perspective for understanding and observing rural relations, and also provides a theoretical framework for us to judge and grasp the future of rural relations"3207311. I agree with his judgment. After graduating, You Lin was introduced from Jingdezhen Ceramic University to the School of Political Science and Law of Jiangxi Normal University. After entering the university, You Lin followed me to do postdoctoral research under the recommendation of her supervisor, Professor Tang Ming. After our full discussion, she chose "Rural Grassroots Good Governance in the Context of Modern Governance" to continue her research on rural governance, and won the 55th batch of project research funding from the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation. During the station, he also won the 8th special funding project of the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation "Research on Countermeasures for Promoting the Modernization of Rural Grassroots Governance". During the station, in addition to teaching, she was able to endure hardships, be willing to think, write diligently, teach and research, and successfully left the station at the end of 2016. Her research report has been well received by reviewers and defense experts. During the station, Yu Lin's investment is full, and her harvest is also full. In addition, the paper she co-authored with her supervisor was reprinted in full and introduced on the cover of Xinhua Digest, won the second prize of Jiangxi Province Social Science Outstanding Achievement Award, and was selected as the "2015 Influential Person of the Year for Teachers of Ideological and Political Theory Courses in Colleges and Universities" by the Ministry of Education. In the context of the current rush to achieve quick results and impatience to influence the style of study, there are not too many young scholars like You Lin who can calm down and quietly do learning, and they are indeed worthy of praise. Yu Lin was born in the countryside. Like me, thanks to the college entrance examination to come out of the beautiful and rich Jianghan Plain; Enter a university to study and become a college teacher. So, she loves the countryside, cares about the countryside, and is determined to do something for the countryside, agriculture and the respectable farmers like her father's generation. Since her master's degree, You Lin has chosen rural grassroots governance as her main research target. The simple, hardworking and enterprising folk customs of the Jianghan Plain nourished Youlin's generation of young students. In her, she not only reflects the temperament of doctors and professors, but also reflects the simplicity of farmers from time to time. This is the advantage of You Lin's research on rural grassroots governance. The research of this book is a perspective and dimension of You Lin's research on rural governance. See the city from the suburbs to realize suburban urbanization; On the other hand, in rural areas, the suburbs are used as a model to promote the urbanization of rural areas. This is the logical framework of the author based on the middle to grasp the two ends, and thus formed the research ideas and patterns of urban and rural social governance, and reached the research conclusion of "integrated governance". Integrating urban and rural areas and integrating urban and rural areas to achieve the integrated development of urban and rural social governance is very valuable and meaningful in the new era of economic transformation, conceptual transformation and social transformation. General Secretary Xi Jinping pointed out in the political report of the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China that it is 3207312 to "create a social governance pattern of co-governance and sharing". From the perspective of governance subjects, urban and rural social governance is the relationship between the ruling party and the government, social organizations and community residents; From the perspective of spatial layout, it is the relationship between urban and rural areas. It can be seen that the author's research responds to the social concerns and practical needs of the new era in a timely manner. The suburbs, from the perspective of rural to upward, are the necessary places for rural areas to become cities; Looking back from the city, it is the periphery of urban and rural. This is the basis and starting point of the author's research. Therefore, the author believes that the suburbs are a transitional zone connecting urban and rural areas, and are the connection points between urban and rural areas to generate economic ties and realize urban-rural interaction. In a sense, China's urbanization is dominated by suburban urbanization, and suburban urbanization has an important strategic position in the integration of urban and rural development. At this stage, the process of suburban urbanization has brought about tremendous changes in the suburban economic structure, suburban social structure and suburban organizational structure, and there have been revolutionary changes such as diversification, differentiation and reorganization. These inevitably bring challenges and problems to social governance: first, more and more foreigners have entered the suburbs for employment and residence, which has brought about the complexity of governance objects and the increase of governance content; Second, the "landless peasants" in the suburbs cannot enjoy the same public services as urban residents in terms of education, medical care, sanitation, employment, and social security, resulting in the slow process of rural urbanization and bringing severe challenges to the social governance of the suburbs. Third, there are significant differences between the migrant population and urban residents in terms of education, medical care, employment and economic income, social security, etc., and the migrant population will form a sense of deprivation and squeeze psychologically, which will bring more severe challenges and impacts to suburban social security. Therefore, how to realize the integration of urban and rural social governance to adapt to the impact of urbanization; how to accelerate the process of rural urbanization; How to promote the integration of the foreign population into the city, so that urban and rural areas can share a highly developed material and spiritual civilization, and promote the equalization of urban and rural residents in basic public services such as education, employment, medical care, and old-age care is a major issue that needs to be solved urgently. Looking at the two ends of the suburbs - urban and rural, to analyze the integrated development of urban and rural areas, especially the realization of integrated urban-rural governance, it is necessary to analyze the exemplary effect of suburban urbanization on rural development based on the relevant theories of urban-rural integration, as well as the vibration effect on the extension of urban functions and influence radiation, build a logical framework for the rural-periurban-urban integration process, and explore the realization path of integrated governance. Therefore, taking suburban community differentiation, suburban community conflict-suburban community integration as a clue, the author conducts case studies on the pilot of urban-rural integration - Chongqing, Chengdu, Wenzhou and other places, explores the evolution of its path, clarifies the specific practices and achievements in recent years, and deeply analyzes the existing problems, and draws enlightenment to achieve suburban social integration by promoting the integration of urban and rural social governance. There are mainly the following aspects. First, try to divide the development form of suburban urbanization. Taking suburban urbanization as the research object, the author focuses on urban economic development radiating suburban residents, making them more closely and deeply connected with the city in economic life, resulting in a high degree of mixing various elements of urban and rural areas in the suburbs within a certain spatial range, and having the characteristics of urban and rural economic and social development. From the aspects of spatial form, production factors and management system of suburban urbanization, it is pointed out that the process of suburban urbanization is manifested in three forms: urban community, urban village and rural community. This provides a useful reference for the "adaptation to local conditions" and "categorical governance" of suburban governance from the policy level. Second, the research idea of suburban community differentiation-suburban community conflict-suburban community integration is designed. Urbanization inevitably brings about changes in the social structure of suburbs, which is concentrated at the community level as a dynamic process of continuous renewal and recombination of various components of a community, often manifested in three stages: community differentiation, community conflict, and community integration. Therefore, the author takes suburban community differentiation-suburban community conflict-suburban community integration as a clue to study how to achieve suburban social integration by promoting the integration of urban and rural social governance. This has formed an integrated transformation of research ideas, that is, grasping the organic connection between rural society and urban society, rural problems and urban problems, and studying the overall governance of urban and rural society and urban and rural issues. Third, an institutional system integrating urban and rural social governance has been constructed. The author focuses on institutional design, arguing that the essence of urban-rural integration is to minimize the gap between urban and rural areas, so that urban and rural areas can share highly developed material and spiritual civilizations, and this sharing needs to be realized through social governance; Through the construction of an integrated institutional system of social governance, the coordinated development of suburbs and cities will be promoted. The integrated institutional system of urban and rural social governance includes four aspects: the integration of urban and rural production factor allocation, the integration of urban and rural household registration management system, the integration of urban and rural social governance system and mechanism, and the integration of urban and rural public services. Among them, the core content of establishing the integration of urban and rural production factor allocation is to ensure that the civil property rights of suburban farmers are protected and realized; The core content of the integration of urban and rural household registration management systems is to ensure that the right to freedom of movement of migrants in suburban areas is protected and realized; The core content of establishing the integration of urban and rural governance systems and mechanisms is to promote the process of urbanization of suburban farmers and suburban migrant population; The core issue of establishing the integration of urban and rural public services is to realize the equality of basic rights of all citizens in society. This provides experience and useful enlightenment for ensuring the legitimate property rights and interests of suburban farmers in the process of suburban urbanization, ensuring that suburban migrants and suburban farmers can enjoy equal public services and public goods with urban residents, rebuilding the trust and recognition of suburban migrants and suburban farmers in the government, and realizing suburban social integration. From the perspective of the relationship between rural, peri-urban and urban, that is, the integration process, the author puts forward a series of opinions or views worthy of attention. The first is the research on the development pattern of suburban urbanization. Since the reform and opening up, with the development of the socialist market economy, the urbanization development of suburban areas has begun to enter a new period of development, showing an accelerated development trend. Driven by the influence of the city and the radiation of urban economic development, the suburbs highly mix various elements of urban and rural areas within a certain spatial range, and have the characteristics of urban and rural economic and social development. Suburban urbanization is manifested in spatial form, with one or more villages as units to carry out the demolition and relocation of the entire village, and the suburban residents are resettled on the spot or in different places as a whole, some are one village and one community, and some are set up as one community in several villages; In terms of production factors, the land owned by the village collective and the village collective assets are quantified and confirmed, and the "separation of politics and society" is realized, so the construction of suburbs into urbanized communities is its development direction. At this stage, due to the level of economic and social development in the suburbs, the urbanization process of the suburbs is manifested in three forms: urban communities, urban villages and rural communities. The second is the study of social differentiation caused by suburban urbanization. Compared with rural and urban areas, suburbs are spontaneous, heterogeneous and unique in terms of social attributes, location distribution, resident composition and lifestyle, and the process of suburban urbanization has led to diversification of community economic structure, differentiation of community social structure and change of community organization structure. Specifically, the diversification of the economic structure of suburban communities mainly includes the diversification of community ownership structure, the diversification of community industrial structure, the diversification of employment structure, and the differentiation of community residents' income structure. The differentiation of suburban social structure mainly includes the diversification of community population structure and the differentiation of community social class; The restructuring of the organizational structure of suburbs is mainly manifested in the reconstruction of community organizations and the rise of emerging organizations in "village resettlement". These new social elements are the observation points that social governance must focus on. The third is the impact of suburban urbanization on the traditional social management system. Suburban urbanization has led to the social differentiation of suburbs, and the subject, object and environment of suburban social governance have changed accordingly, and suburban urbanization has had an impact on the traditional social management system. First of all, it involves how to protect the land rights of suburban farmers. In the process of land acquisition or circulation in suburban areas, peasants are in a weak position due to the ambiguity of their status as subjects, resulting in their land being expropriated at low prices and damage to their land rights and interests. Secondly, it involves how to promote the "separation of politics and society" of village collective economic organizations. At present, although most suburbs have restructured village collective economic organizations, they still confuse the members of village collective economic organizations with community members, which not only does not get rid of the shackles of "not separating politics from society," but also damages the property rights of village collective organization members and reduces the efficiency of village collective economic organizations after restructuring. Finally, it involves how to improve the village collective asset management system. At present, most of the restructured village collective economic organizations generally have problems such as a large loss of village collective assets, unclear property rights, and long-term absence of management subjects. The fourth is to study on speeding up the process of urbanization of suburban peasants. The first is to promote the employment of suburban peasants. Based on the low cultural quality and lack of professional labor skills of suburban farmers, it is necessary to improve the employability and employment quality of suburban farmers, and promote suburban farmers to better adapt to the process of suburban urbanization. The second is to improve the psychological identification of suburban farmers with the suburbs. Based on the plight of suburban farmers in terms of life and employment, it is necessary to increase the supply of suburban public goods, so that suburban farmers can enjoy the same treatment as urban citizens in suburban public goods, and improve the psychological identity of suburban farmers to the suburbs. The third is to realize the reconstruction of social relations among peasants in the suburbs. Due to the impact of marketization and urbanization, the social network of suburban farmers has been torn apart, and it is necessary to help suburban farmers reach a social network of reciprocity, trust and standardization in the communities where they live with urban residents, so that they can enjoy the same public service resources as urban residents and obtain upward mobility social capital. Fourth, it is necessary to improve the comprehensive quality of peasants in the suburbs. Based on the large gap between suburban farmers and urban residents in terms of comprehensive quality, it is necessary to improve the comprehensive quality of suburban farmers, so that they can gradually reach the same level as urban residents in terms of production methods, lifestyles, behaviors, thinking styles and values. Fifth, it is necessary to realize the convergence of the social security system between suburban farmers and urban residents. In order to ensure the basic livelihood of suburban peasants after land requisition and promote social equity and social stability, it is necessary to build a social security system that integrates urban and rural areas, including the minimum subsistence guarantee system, the basic old-age insurance system and the medical insurance system. The fifth is research on promoting the integration of the suburban migrant population into the suburbs and eventually into the city. The process of social integration is the process of urbanization of the migrant population. At present, the degree of integration of the suburban migrant population at the economic level, the integration of the social level, the integration of the psychological level, and the identity level is generally low. This requires changing the economic situation of migrants in suburban communities, allowing them to enjoy equal basic public services and social benefits with local residents in suburban communities, allowing them to participate in the management of local public affairs, helping them form a network of mutual communication and deep integration with local residents in suburban communities, improving the sense of identity and belonging of migrants to the communities they live in, and finally realizing the goal of integrating migrants into the suburbs first and then into the city. Sixth, research on innovating social governance institutional mechanisms to adapt to the impact of suburban urbanization. Based on the problems of single management subjects and means in suburban governance, and the relatively backward development and development of community residents' autonomy, it is necessary to innovate social governance systems and mechanisms to adapt to the impact of suburban urbanization. Specifically, it includes the following three aspects: first, how to straighten out the suburban social management organization system; secondly, how to update the concept of community governance to meet the needs of suburban social development; Finally, how to improve social governance mechanisms to meet diverse social needs. The seventh is to build an integrated institutional system for urban and rural social governance. The essence of urban-rural integration is to minimize the gap between urban and rural areas and promote the coordinated development of urban and rural areas. The path of building an integrated system of social governance includes four aspects: the integration of urban and rural production factor allocation, the integration of urban and rural household registration management systems, the integration of urban and rural social governance systems and mechanisms, and the integration of urban and rural public services. Specifically, through the integration of urban and rural production factor allocation, the free flow of production factors such as labor, land, capital, technology and other production factors between suburbs and cities is realized, so that suburban farmers can obtain more benefits brought by urbanization, and its core content is to ensure that the civil property rights of suburban farmers are protected and realized; Through the establishment of the integration of urban and rural household registration management systems, the suburban migrant population will enjoy the social security system and social welfare such as pension, medical care, unemployment insurance and other social benefits related to the household registration system, and its core content is to ensure that the right to freedom of movement of the suburban migrant population is protected and realized; Through the innovation of social governance systems and mechanisms and the improvement of social governance methods, the core content of which is to promote the urbanization of suburban farmers and suburban migrant population is to build a grassroots organization and management system that integrates urban and rural areas; Through the establishment of the integration of urban and rural public services, the core issue of promoting suburban farmers and suburban areas to enjoy equal public services with urban residents is to realize the equality of basic rights of all social citizens. First, it is necessary to establish the integration of the allocation of urban and rural production factors and realize the market-oriented allocation of production factors in suburbs. The difficulties and constraints faced by suburban land, capital, housing, resources and other factors are important factors that lead to farmers not truly enjoying their own property rights and interests, and it is difficult to stimulate the production potential of suburbs. It is necessary to promote the excesses of surplus labor in suburban areas from the land through the market-oriented allocation of production factors such as land and houses in the suburbs, engage in non-agricultural production, protect the property rights and interests of farmers in the suburbs, and establish a mechanism for sharing the value-added income of land resources between village collective economic organizations, villagers and the state. At the same time, the legal status of the village-level collective economy after the restructuring should be clarified, and a new type of cooperative economic organization with shareholding cooperation, independent operation, risk sharing and benefit sharing should be formed. On the premise of protecting the rights and interests of members of former village collective economic organizations, standardize the principles and procedures for the circulation of equity inheritance, transfer, and gift, establish an equity management system, and promote the marketization of property rights elements. Second, it is necessary to establish the integration of urban and rural household registration management systems and promote the urbanization of suburban farmers and foreign populations. In promoting the urbanization of suburban peasants, it is necessary to respect the legitimate property rights of suburban peasants, and suburban peasants must not enter the city at the expense of their existing rights. In the process of transforming suburban farmers into citizens, they should enjoy the same public services and welfare benefits as local urban residents; In terms of promoting the urbanization of the migrant population in the suburbs, based on the establishment of a unified urban and rural household registration system, the establishment of a residence permit system for the migrant population temporarily not settled in the suburbs, and the establishment and improvement of a basic public service system linked to the length of residence and other conditions with the residence permit as the carrier. Improve the integrated urban-rural population service and management mechanism, gradually promote the coverage of all permanent residents with basic urban public services, and realize that the suburban migrant population and urban residents enjoy the same rights and treatment in basic public services and welfare. Third, it is necessary to establish an integrated institutional mechanism for urban and rural social governance and promote the orderly participation of multiple governance subjects. Promote the transformation of government governance. Standardize the operation of government administrative power and promote the rule of law in government governance; Scientifically define the scope of government functions and promote the realization of the role of "service-oriented government"; Build a management and service platform to provide "one-stop" services for community residents; Take the road of marketization and socialization to provide diversified services for community residents; The governance mode has changed from control to consultation, and the co-management and co-governance of multiple governance subjects have been promoted. Complete and improve the community market economic system. Give play to the decisive role of the market in the allocation of resources; Supporting and nurturing the development of community economies; Encourage community economic organizations to establish a modern enterprise system; Strengthen the supervision of the community market economic order; Wait a minute. Foster the growth of community self-government. Strengthen the construction of community party organizations; Promote the autonomy of village (neighborhood) committees in accordance with the law, and promote the healthy growth of community social organizations; Vigorously innovate the participation system and participation carrier of community residents. Build an institutionalized interaction mechanism between the three governance subsystems of government, market and society. Rationally demarcate the boundaries of power between the government and community economic organizations, neighborhood committees, and community social organizations; Strengthen the functional coupling between the government, the market and society, so that the three cooperate and complement each other, and avoid government failure, market failure and social failure. Fourth, it is necessary to establish an integrated urban and rural public service supply system, so that all residents in the suburbs can enjoy the same public services and social benefits as urban residents. Actively promote the integration of urban and rural public infrastructure, so that public infrastructure such as roads, water and electricity, communications, lighting, and entertainment venues in suburbs is at the same level as urban communities, so that suburban residents can enjoy and improve community public services such as public transportation, communication networks, entertainment and leisure, water, electricity and heating, and improve the production and living conditions of suburban residents; Actively promote the integration of urban and rural social security systems such as employment, education, old-age care, medical care, and social assistance, and establish a public service system that integrates urban and rural areas; Establish a public finance system for the equal supply of public services, establish a system that is commensurate with the power of affairs and the responsibility for expenditure, and the provincial and municipal and county governments bear and share the responsibility for expenditure accordingly according to the division of powers. At the same time, it is also necessary to establish a diversified cost-sharing mechanism involving the government, enterprises, society, and individuals to ease the financial pressure faced by the government in infrastructure construction and public service expenditure. Obviously, the above research conclusions are enlightening and thoughtful. People's thinking comes from social practice, and understanding deepens people's understanding of social practice, and helps to solve the contradictions and problems that continue to emerge in practice. This is the value and charm of scientific research. Of course, no research design and paradigm is perfect. While solving outstanding problems, it also exposes their limitations and even weaknesses. In particular, due to the diverse manifestations of urbanization in suburban areas and the different explorations in the practice of urban-rural integrated social governance, it is impossible for this research to cover all issues of rural-peri-urban integrated social governance development. This requires more experts in the academic community to study this issue in depth, form a consensus and wisdom with rich scientific content on the basis of opinions and opinions, apply it to practice, and solve various contradictions and problems in the integration of urban and rural social governance. I believe that You Lin will not stop there, she will also have greater determination and courage to pay attention to and study the transformation and changes of China's rural society in the new era, and continue to achieve new results. However, academic research is like the ancients called "words are instructed, secrets are boundless, and neglect is thousands of miles 3207313", so this requires scholars to have greater pursuit in research, greater investment in energy, and more cutting-edge ideas. This is the realm and strict requirements of the ancients: "learning is for facts, not empty words"3207314. This is also the fine tradition and style of learning of scholars throughout the ages, and it is especially worthy of inheritance and promotion at present. On the occasion of the publication of Yu Lin's magnum opus, I am happy to say the above remarks and make a preface to show that I am not happy with the appointment, but also to affirm and encourage young scholars to be proactive and diligent in research. There is no shortage of words of encouragement in the text, even if it is a teacher's expectation for students to improve in future teaching and research work! is the order. November 15, 2017 (Zhang Yanguo, Ph.D. in History, Postdoctoral Fellow. He is currently the vice president of Jiangxi Normal University, and the director, chief expert, professor, doctoral supervisor, postdoctoral co-supervisor, and government subsidy expert of the State Council Government Subsidy Expert of Jiangxi Province's "2011 Collaborative Innovation Center" - China Social Transformation Research Center of Jiangxi Normal University. )(AI翻译)

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GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文
尤琳.郊区城市化与城乡社会治理一体化研究[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2018
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MLA 格式引文
尤琳.郊区城市化与城乡社会治理一体化研究.北京,中国社会科学出版社:2018E-book.
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APA 格式引文
尤琳(2018).郊区城市化与城乡社会治理一体化研究.北京:中国社会科学出版社
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