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跟随利玛窦来中国:1500—1800年中西文化交流史

ISBN:978-7-5203-5910-8

出版日期:2020-05

页数:388

字数:371.0千字

丛书名:《文明互鉴:中西文化交流史研究丛书》

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图书简介

一 远古的怀想和遥望

中国和欧洲处在欧亚大陆的两端,白雪皑皑的帕米尔高原将中国和欧洲分开,北方的大漠千里黄沙无人烟,除了蒙古人的铁骑外,历史上很少有人越过。相隔就有眺望,眺望是一种幻想,在漫漫的历史长河中,欧洲和中国通过那仅有的联系,相互遥望并幻想着对方。

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中国人最早西行的恐怕是汉代的甘英,他大约到了地中海的东岸。走得最远的恐怕是列班·扫马,他到过英伦三岛,去过巴黎,最后在巴格达当上了主教,把他称为中国的马可·波罗实不为过。西方人最早来到中国的恐怕是柏朗嘉宾,这位六十岁的胖老头作为教皇的特使,从巴黎走到哈拉和剌林,翻过高山,越过大漠实在是不容易。不过他最终总算见到了蒙古大汗,也不虚此行。西方人来到中国并在西方产生重大影响的是威尼斯的商人——马可·波罗。马可·波罗在中国真是风光一时:陪大汗喝酒、打猎,作为大汗的特使周游列国,据说还当过扬州的父母官。其实元代来中国的西方人还有很多,在北京当主教的孟高维诺,在泉州当主教的安德烈,他的墓碑今天在泉州还能看到。但论影响,没有一个人超过马可·波罗。马可·波罗笔下的契丹实在是太富饶了,香料堆积如山,黄金遍地都是,大汗的皇宫简直比天堂还富足。契丹人不仅富足,而且神奇,漫长的冬夜,他们可以用黑色的石头来烤火(因为当时欧洲人还没有发现煤可以作燃料);他们可以用纸张来换取任何食物和物品,这简直不可想象(因为当时的欧洲还没有纸币)。

马可·波罗给欧洲人留下了一个神奇的东方梦,一个他们在漫漫的中世纪长夜,在酒馆里永远谈不完的话题,一个和欧洲教堂里那严肃的祈祷完全不同的快乐而富饶的东方。这个东方的神话激起了一代又一代人的梦想,从此以后,那异域的契丹就是欧洲人最向往的地方。

二 地理大发现的时代

自幼喜欢航海、深受《马可·波罗游记》影响的哥伦布是马可·波罗的崇拜者。这个意大利热那亚人决心要找到马可·波罗所说的契丹。当时的地理学家托斯卡内里也是马可·波罗的崇拜者,他根据《马可·波罗游记》,给哥伦布提供了向西航行的地图。契丹的财富不仅吸引着哥伦布,当时的西班牙国王也渴望着这份遥远的财富。他和哥伦布签了一个协议:授予他贵族头衔,任命他为所有他发现地方的元帅,并可以祖祖辈辈地继承,他还可以拥有所有他发现的财富的1/10,并一律免税,甚至他可以向他所发现地区的所有船只征收1/8的税。两个人都把希望寄托在遥远的东方,似乎哥伦布一到达那里就可以腰缠万贯,富比万家。西班牙国王专门给了他一份“致契丹大汗书”,期待哥伦布的成功。

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1492年10月12日,经过30多天不见陆地的航行,哥伦布的船队终于见到了陆地,这就是巴哈马群岛。在岛上他们遇到了印第安人,他们还处在原始社会的后期——新石器时代,男女老少都一丝不挂。哥伦布认为这可能是亚洲的边缘地区,将其称为“大印度地区”。1492年10月28日,他们发现了古巴,惊奇地看到男女老少都在抽烟。西班牙人很快学会了这个习惯,并把它传向了全世界。哥伦布认为古巴一定是契丹最荒凉的地方,契丹绝不是这样。他认为马可·波罗所说的那香料堆积如山的刺桐港一定会被他再次发现。1493年3月15日,哥伦布返回其出发的西班牙港口帕洛斯,244天的远航就此结束。哥伦布向人们宣称,他已经找到了契丹。对欧洲来说,这是一个石破天惊的消息,一时间,哥伦布名扬天下。

葡萄牙地处欧洲的最西端,诗人们将其描述为:“陆地到此结束,大海由此开始。”这点出了这个欧洲小国的处境。当时的地中海是意大利人的传统商业势力范围,北海和波罗的海是汉萨同盟的商业势力范围,北部和东部是西班牙,西部是无边的大西洋,这样的地缘政治特点,使葡萄牙人只能向南挺进。于是,葡萄牙人驾着他们的三桅帆船沿着西非海岸慢慢向前推进。在与摩尔人的斗争和海上贸易的发展中,葡萄牙的贵族们“把马匹换成船只,把盾牌盔甲换成罗盘,使骑手变成了船长”。对于商人来说,领土的扩张意味着生意兴隆,对于国王宫廷来说,领土的扩张可以提高威望,特别是可以开辟新的财源,扩大版图和自己的权力。新兴的资产阶级则想“把他们的商业活动扩大到更远的市场”。

1415年,葡萄牙占领了北非重镇休达,夺取了伊斯兰世界的一个战略要地,并为以后对西非海岸的探险提供了一个活动的据点。

休达战役后,年轻的亨利王子被封为骑士,当上了葡萄牙骑士团的总团长,骑士团是个半军事半宗教的组织,拥有大量的钱财。他开办航海学校,聘请了当时最有经验的航海家和最知名的地理学家,在这里研制地图和造船技术,造出了灵活而坚固的卡拉维尔轻帆船。

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亨利王子主持的航海探险事业是整个葡萄牙航海事业的一个转折点,他“在历史上首先制定了明确的地理政策;部署了一系列的探险活动,使探险和发现成为一门艺术和科学,使远航成为全国感兴趣的与之有密切利益联系的事业”。6486188

欧洲的历史书说,北纬26度是一个界限,如果跨过了这一纬度,那里的海水会把人烫死,而白种人一过这条线就会被晒黑,再也变不成白种人了。但亨利王子的探险队1436年过了博哈多尔角,他们不但没被滚烫的海水烫死,而且在非洲大陆登陆并第一次见到了黑种人,这是历史上白种人和黑种人的第一次见面。

葡萄牙人托罗缪·迪亚士对好望角的发现,是葡萄牙航海史上的一个重要事件。当时,伊斯兰的奥斯曼帝国兴起,奥斯曼帝国中断了欧洲和亚洲的联系,亚洲的香料从此无法运到欧洲。而欧洲人吃牛肉,炖牛排时是必须要有香料的,不然整个生活都会因此索然无味。为了让圣诞节的牛肉炖得更香,欧洲人必须寻找到达亚洲的新路线。哪里有香料呢?马可·波罗说过,在契丹的刺桐港香料堆积如山,因此欧洲人决定找刺桐港。那年迪亚士才27岁,他是哥伦布之前最好的航海家,他所带领的船队已经绕过了非洲南部的好望角进入了印度洋,当时他称之为“大海角”,在那里他立下一根石柱,表示占有这里的土地。他回到葡萄牙以后,若奥二世将大海角改名为“好望角”。

达·伽玛无疑是葡萄牙历史上最伟大的航海家。1492年,意大利航海家哥伦布率领的西班牙的船队横渡大西洋发现西印度(美洲)后,对葡萄牙人刺激很大,契丹的财富绝不能让他们的死对头西班牙独占。当时葡萄牙国王曼努埃尔决定派达·伽玛率领船队远航。他们沿着东非海岸线航行,在到达莫桑比克的赞比西河口时,他们靠岸休整,当地的黑人热情地接待了他们。他们还见到了两个头戴丝织帽的头领,并把一些印花布给他们,这或许是郑和留下的部属,因为郑和离开这里不过70余年,这个地方也就是郑和下西洋走得最远的地方。

1511年,葡萄牙人占领了印度洋西端的马六甲,这意味着葡萄牙在印度洋海上殖民帝国的轮廓勾勒完毕,也标志着它插手太平洋海上贸易的肇始。穿过马六甲海峡,广阔的太平洋就展现在葡萄牙人的面前。

“寻找契丹,这是西方一百年航海史的灵魂。”

如果说西班牙在北美发现的是土地,那么,葡萄牙在远东发现的则是文明,一个高度发展的中国文明,一个比基督教文明悠久得多的文明。当西班牙人和葡萄牙人在福建外的海域相逢,麦哲伦1522年完成环球航行时,世界合围。全球化的时代开始了。

中国文明和欧洲文明骤然间邂逅,从此拉开了二百年东西方两大文明交流、相融的伟大时代,一个欧洲和中国“初恋”的美好的时代。这两大文明的“热恋时代”的牵线人,便是来华的耶稣会传教士。李约瑟说得好:“在文化交流史上,看来没有一件是足以和十七世纪时耶稣会传教士那样一批欧洲人入华相比,因为他们既充满了宗教热情,同时又精通那些随欧洲文艺复兴和资本主义兴起而发展起来的科学。”6486189

三 西儒利玛窦

自葡萄牙人以晒海货的名义在澳门长期驻扎下来以后,澳门就逐渐演化成当时中西文化交流的交会点。由于葡萄牙在整个东方拥有护教权,打通中国,与中国建立稳定的关系,从中获得丰厚的贸易利润,一直是葡萄牙人的梦想。1517年,葡萄牙驻东印度的总督委派皇家的御医皮雷斯访华。这是西方来华的第一个使团,1521年,皮雷斯一行到达北京,但三个原因使这次访问流产:一是被葡萄牙灭亡的满剌加国的使臣来到北京告发了葡萄牙人在马六甲海峡的劣迹;二是允许他们进京的明武宗皇帝驾崩;三是当时的翻译者亚三在北京声誉极差。结果亚三被处死,皮雷斯一行被打入死牢,最后生死不明,只留下他的同行在狱中所写的几封信。

早期来到东方的西方人大多很不顺利。命运比皮雷斯稍好一些的是第一个来到东方的耶稣会会士沙勿略(S.Françiscus Xaverius,1506—1552)他先在日本传教,当时日本人就问他,你们的宗教中国人知道吗?沙勿略说,不知道。日本人就告诉他,如果中国人都不知道你这样的宗教,你的宗教肯定不是好的。沙勿略由此才知道,中国文化在东亚的地位,并因此制定了“在远东传教必须首先归化中国”的方针。不久,他从日本来到澳门,寻找进入中国大陆的机会。后来,他被一名中国渔民带到了广州附近的一个叫作“上川岛”的小岛上,岛上无一人居住。沙勿略高喊着:“岩石啊,你何时开门!”但中国的大门始终没向他打开。在秋雨瑟瑟中,沙勿略病逝在上川岛上。

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沙勿略虽然失败了,但启发了他的后来者。之后,耶稣会在东方传教的负责人范利安(Alexandre Valignani,1538—1606)定下了在中国传教一定要适应中国文化的“适应路线”。第一个实行这一路线的就是意大利的传教士罗明坚(Michel Ruggieri,1543—1607)。罗明坚到澳门后找了一个中国文人,开始跟他咿呀学语,看图说话,学习中文。当罗明坚说着一口流利的汉语出现在广州每年对外国人开放的贸易会上时,马上引起了中国官员的注意。中国当地的官员与他接触后,发现罗明坚温文尔雅,谈吐儒雅,对中国文化比较熟悉。这自然让当时的官员们喜出望外。这样,经过两年的交往,中国当地的官员允许罗明坚在当时的两广总督所在地肇庆长期居住下来,1583年,罗明坚来到了肇庆,不久,在肇庆建起中国的第一座天主教堂,当地官员王泮为其起名“仙华寺”。不久,罗明坚把自己的老乡——从意大利来的耶稣会教士利玛窦(Matteo Ricci,1552—1610)也调到了肇庆。罗明坚为传教四处游走,他开始认识到中国是一个中央集权制的国家,如果皇帝的工作做不好,不认可基督教,那基督教是不可能有大的发展的。该如何做好中国皇帝的工作呢?只有让梵蒂冈的教宗亲自出面,给中国明朝皇帝写信,送一份厚礼,传教士们才可能见到中国的皇帝,在赢得皇帝的好感后,才能提出他们的传教计划。为了实行这个计划,罗明坚返回了欧洲。哪知欧洲局势风云变幻,梵蒂冈的教宗接连病故,罗明坚的事早被教宗抛在了脑后,罗明坚最后老死于故乡拿波里。

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此时利玛窦独撑局面。利玛窦做了两件大事,从此打开了基督教在中国的局面。第一,脱去袈裟,换上儒袍,修正过去的以“西僧”出现的面貌,改为“合儒易佛”。于是,利玛窦出门开始坐轿,像中国的儒生一样,读“四书”,念《诗经》,出入于文人墨客之间,一时间,西儒利玛窦在江南声名大噪。第二,进驻北京,接近明王朝。1601年,利玛窦历经千辛万苦,终于来到北京,靠着他进呈给万历皇帝的自鸣钟,在北京住了下来,成了万历皇帝的门客。尽管他从来没见过皇帝,也从不参与朝中之事,但在文人中颇有影响,不仅像徐光启、李之藻这样的晚明重臣投于他的门下,就是像李贽这样的另类文人也很欣赏他的才华,处处给予利玛窦帮助。1610年,利玛窦病逝于北京,葬于西郊的滕公栅栏。基督教从此在中国真正扎下了根。

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四 康乾盛世西洋风

当吴三桂打开了山海关的城门时,明朝就注定灭亡了。清军入关后,中国社会处在极度的变化之中,此时的耶稣会会士也是狡兔三窟,活跃在中国的各个政治势力之中。在北京,德国的耶稣会会士汤若望成为清顺治皇帝的“玛法”,一时权倾朝野。在南方,毕方济(François Sambias,1582—1649)、卜弥格(Michel Boym,1612—1659)等传教士紧随南明王朝,乃至永历皇帝的母亲、皇后、皇妃、太子都受洗加入了天主教。在四川,耶稣会会士利类思(Louis Bagkio,1606—1682)、安文思(Gabriel deMagalhaens,1610—1677)则成为张献忠的“天师”。待顺治帝在北京登基,张献忠死于豪格的手下,永历王朝被吴三桂灭于缅甸,大清帝国终于一统江山。

清初历狱,杨光先将汤若望、南怀仁、安文思、利类思等人打入死牢,发生了西洋历法和已经在中国使用多年的“回回历法”之争。年幼的康熙皇帝在处理这个案件的过程中,不仅表现出来高度的政治智慧,并以此案为契机,将鳌拜集团粉碎;而且,正是在这场天文历法之争中,引起了他对西洋科学的兴趣,也正是在康熙年间,西方科学技术和文化在中国得到了大规模的传播。康熙演算数学,学习医学,绘制地图,测算天文,对西方科学表现出了浓厚的兴趣。乾隆继承康熙的遗风,对西洋传教士一直十分钟爱,宫中西洋风势头不减,画西洋画,建圆明园大水法,造西洋表,西方文化在娱乐的形式中延续、传播并发展着。

宗教、战争、贸易这是人类历史中文化交流和传播的三大途径。以耶稣会为代表的传教士入华是中西文化交流的重大事件,传教士这个站在文化交流的双轨线上的团体,成为中国和欧洲早期文化交流的主要中介和桥梁。正是通过这个中介,中国和欧洲双方才在精神层面上相识;正是通过这座桥梁,西方文化才第一次大规模地传入中国,促成了明末清初中国思想和文化的重大变化;同时,也是通过这座桥梁,中国文化和思想才传入欧洲,“中学西传”催生了欧洲18世纪的中国热。如果和1840年以后的中西文化关系相比,此时的中西文化交流基本上处在一个平等的基础之上,那是一个相互仰慕、相互尊重的时代,虽然,各自都是从自己的立场来吸取对方、解释对方、理解对方的,但从总体来说,那是两个文化间没有仇视、欺诈,没有居高临下的霸气,没有奴颜婢膝的媚眼,只有相互学习的时代。分歧是有的,冲突也不乏激烈,但一切都集中在对文化的理解上。胡适认为,明末清初的中西文化交流是文化间一见钟情的典范,这的确是一个精辟的概括。

这是几千年来中国和西方之间相处最平稳的时代,是中国文化和西方文化相互理解最为平和的时代。这一时代的中西关系是中国和欧洲之间的一份宝贵的文化遗产。

A Ancient nostalgia and distant vision of China and Europe are at opposite ends of the Eurasian continent, the snow-capped Pamir plateau separates China and Europe, and the desert in the north is uninhabited by thousands of miles of yellow sand, which few people in history have crossed except for the iron horses of the Mongols. Looking at each other is an illusion in which Europe and China have looked at each other and imagined each other through that only connection. 1. Chinese The first person to travel west was probably Gan Ying of the Han Dynasty, who reached the eastern shore of the Mediterranean. Perhaps the furthest was Leban Sauma, who traveled to the British Isles, went to Paris, and finally became bishop in Baghdad, and it is not an exaggeration to call him the Marco Polo of China. Perhaps the first Westerners to come to China were the guests of Blanc, the sixty-year-old fat old man who walked from Paris to Hala and Rarin, over the mountains, and over the desert. However, he finally met the Mongol Great Khan, and it was worth the trip. Westerners who came to China and made a major impact in the West were the merchants of Venice, Marco Polo. Marco Polo was truly a great man in China: he accompanied the Great Khan to drink and hunt, traveled around the world as the Great Khan's envoy, and was said to have served as a parent official in Yangzhou. In fact, there were many Westerners who came to China in the Yuan Dynasty, Meng Gaowino, who was a bishop in Beijing, and Andrei, who was a bishop in Quanzhou, whose tombstones can still be seen in Quanzhou today. But in terms of influence, no one surpassed Marco Polo. Marco Polo's Khitan is too rich, spices are piled up, gold is everywhere, and the palace of the Great Khan is simply richer than heaven. The Khitans were not only rich, but also magical, and on long winter nights, they could use black stones to bake fires (because Europeans had not yet discovered that coal could be used as fuel); They could exchange paper for any food and goods, which was simply unthinkable (because there were no paper money in Europe at that time). Marco Polo left Europeans with a magical oriental dream, a topic they could never finish talking about in taverns during the long medieval nights, a happy and rich orient completely different from the serious prayers in the European churches. This Eastern myth has stirred the dreams of generations of people, and since then, the exotic Khitan has been the most desired place for Europeans. 2. Columbus, who loved sailing since childhood and was deeply influenced by the "Travels of Marco Polo", was an admirer of Marco Polo. This Italian Genoese was determined to find the Khitan that Marco Polo spoke of. The geographer Tuscaneri of the time, who was also an admirer of Marco Polo, provided Columbus with a map of his voyage west, based on the Travels of Marco Polo. The wealth of the Khitan not only attracted Columbus, but the Spanish kings of the time also longed for this distant wealth. He signed an agreement with Columbus: he was granted a title of nobility, appointed him marshal of all the places he found and could inherit from the generations, he could also own 1/10 of all the wealth he found, and he could be exempted from tax all at all, and he could even levy a tax of 1/8 on all ships in the area he discovered. Both men pinned their hopes on the far east, and it seemed that Columbus could be rich as soon as he arrived there. The King of Spain specially gave him a "letter to the Khitan Khan", expecting Columbus's success. On October 12, 11492, after more than 30 days of sailing without land, Columbus's fleet finally saw land, which is the Bahamas. On the island they met the Indians, who were still in the late stages of primitive society - the Neolithic period, and men, women and children were naked. Columbus thought it might be a fringe region in Asia, calling it the "Greater India Region." On October 28, 1492, they discovered Cuba and were surprised to see men, women and children smoking. The Spaniards quickly learned the habit and spread it all over the world. Columbus believed that Cuba must be the most desolate place in the Khitan, and this was by no means the case with the Khitans. He thought that Marco Polo would surely be rediscovered by him in the spice heap of the spice prickly harbor. On March 15, 1493, Columbus returned to the Spanish port of Palos from which he departed, and the 244-day voyage ended. Columbus declared to the people that he had found the Khitan. For Europe, this was groundbreaking news, and for a while, Columbus became famous all over the world. Portugal is located at the westernmost tip of Europe, and poets describe it as: "This is where the land ends and the sea begins." "This points to the situation of this small European country. At that time, the Mediterranean Sea was the traditional commercial sphere of influence of the Italians, the North Sea and the Baltic Sea were the commercial sphere of influence of the Hanseatic League, the north and east were Spain, and the west was the boundless Atlantic Ocean, which made the Portuguese have to advance south. So the Portuguese sailed slowly along the coast of West Africa in their three-masted schoon. In the struggle against the Moors and the development of maritime trade, the Portuguese nobility "exchanged horses for ships, shields and armor for compasses, and riders into captains". For merchants, territorial expansion meant prosperous business, and for the king's court, territorial expansion could increase prestige, especially opening up new sources of wealth, expanding territory and their own power. The emerging bourgeoisie wanted to "expand their commercial activities to markets farther away." In 1415, the Portuguese captured the important North African town of Ceuta, seizing a strategic point in the Islamic world and providing a stronghold for future expeditions to the coast of West Africa. After the Battle of Ceuta, the young Prince Henry was knighted and became head of the Portuguese Order, a semi-military, semi-religious organization with a large amount of money. He opened a nautical school, employing the most experienced navigators and the most well-known geographers of the time, where he developed maps and shipbuilding techniques, creating the flexible and robust Caravel light schoon. 1 The nautical expedition presided over by Prince Henry was a turning point in the whole of Portuguese navigation, and he "was the first in history to establish a clear geographical policy; A series of expeditions were deployed to make exploration and discovery an art and a science, and voyage a cause of national interest and a close interest in it". 6486188 European history books say that 26 degrees north latitude is a limit, and if you cross this latitude, the sea water there will burn people to death, and white people will be tanned as soon as they cross this line, and they will no longer become white people. But Prince Henry's expedition passed Cape Bohador in 1436, and not only did they not die of the scalding water, but they landed on the African continent and met the black people for the first time in history. The discovery of the Cape of Good Hope by the Portuguese Toromew Dias was an important event in the history of Portuguese navigation. At that time, the Islamic Ottoman Empire arose, and the Ottoman Empire broke off the connection between Europe and Asia, and Asian spices could not be shipped to Europe. And Europeans eat beef, stew steak must have spices, otherwise the whole life will be tasteless. To make the Christmas beef stew even better, Europeans must find new routes to reach Asia. Where are the spices? Marco Polo said that in the Khitan port of Houtong was full of spices, so the Europeans decided to look for the port of Houtong. Diaz was 27 years old, the best navigator before Columbus, and his fleet had already rounded the Cape of Good Hope in southern Africa into the Indian Ocean, which he called "Cape of the Sea," where he erected a stone pillar to signify his possession of the land. After his return to Portugal, João II renamed Cape of the Sea "Cape of Good Hope". Vasco da Gama is undoubtedly the greatest navigator in Portuguese history. In 1492, after the Spanish fleet led by the Italian navigator Columbus crossed the Atlantic Ocean and discovered the West Indies (America), it greatly stimulated the Portuguese, and the wealth of the Khitan must not allow their nemesis Spain to monopolize. King Manuel of Portugal decided to send da Gama to lead the fleet on a voyage. They sailed along the East African coastline, and when they reached the mouth of the Zambezi River in Mozambique, they landed to rest, and were warmly received by local blacks. They also met two leaders in silk hats and gave them some calico, perhaps Zheng He's subordinates, because Zheng He had been away for more than 70 years, and this place was the farthest Zheng He had traveled to the West. In 1511, the Portuguese occupied Malacca at the western tip of the Indian Ocean, which meant that the outline of Portugal's colonial empire in the Indian Ocean was completed, and it also marked the beginning of its intervention in the maritime trade of the Pacific Ocean. Crossing the Strait of Malacca, the vast Pacific Ocean unfolds before the Portuguese. "Looking for the Khitan, this is the soul of a hundred years of Western maritime history." If Spain found land in North America, Portugal found civilization in the Far East, a highly developed Chinese civilization, a civilization much older than Christianity. When the Spaniards and Portuguese met in the waters off Fujian, Magellan completed his circumnavigation of the world in 1522, the world was encircled. The era of globalization has begun. Chinese civilization and European civilization suddenly met, opening a great era of exchanges and integration between the two major civilizations of the East and the West for 200 years, and a beautiful era of "first love" between Europe and China. The informants of the "era of love" of these two civilizations were Jesuit missionaries who came to China. Joseph Needham put it well: "There seems to be nothing in the history of cultural exchange that compares to the arrival of Europeans in China by the Jesuit missionaries of the seventeenth century, who were both full of religious fervor and masterful of the sciences that developed with the rise of the European Renaissance and capitalism." 6486189 3 Since the Portuguese settled in Macao for a long time in the name of seafood, Macao has gradually evolved into a meeting point for cultural exchanges between China and the West at that time. Since Portugal has the right to apologize throughout the East, it has always been the dream of the Portuguese to open up China, establish stable relations with China, and obtain huge trade profits from it. In 1517, the Portuguese governor in the East Indies sent the royal physician Pires to visit China. This was the first Western mission to China, and in 1521, Pires and his party arrived in Beijing, but three reasons aborted this visit: first, the envoys of the Manchurian state destroyed by Portugal came to Beijing to report the bad deeds of the Portuguese in the Strait of Malacca; second, Emperor Wuzong of Ming, who allowed them to enter Beijing, died; Third, the translator at the time, Yasan, had a very poor reputation in Beijing. As a result, Yasan was executed, and Pires and his party were sent to death row, and their fate was unknown, leaving only a few letters written by his colleagues in prison. Most of the Westerners who came to the East in the early days were very unhappy. Slightly better than Pires, the first Jesuit to come to the East, S. Françiscus Xaverius (1506-1552), who first preached in Japan, when the Japanese asked him, Do you Chinese know your religion? Xavier said, I don't know. The Japanese told him that if Chinese don't know about your religion, your religion is definitely not good. Only then did Xavier understand the place of Chinese culture in East Asia, and thus formulated the policy that "missionaries in the Far East must first naturalize China." Soon, he came to Macau from Japan in search of an opportunity to enter Chinese mainland. Later, he was taken by a Chinese fisherman to a small island near Guangzhou called Shangchuan Island, where no one lived on it. Xavier shouted, "O rock, when will you open the door!" But China's door never opened to him. In the autumn rain, Xavier died on Shangchuan Island. 1 Xavier, though defeated, inspired his latecomers. Later, Alexandre Valignani (1538-1606), the head of the Jesuit mission in the East, set an "adaptation route" that would allow missionaries in China to adapt to Chinese culture. The first to follow this route was the Italian missionary Michel Ruggieri (1543-1607). After Luo Mingjian arrived in Macau, he found a Chinese literati and began to babble with him, read pictures and talk, and learn Chinese. When Mr. Luo, speaking fluent Chinese, appeared at Guangzhou's annual trade fair, which is open to foreigners, it immediately caught the attention of Chinese officials. After local Chinese officials contacted him, they found Luo Mingjian to be gentle, elegant and familiar with Chinese culture. This naturally made the officials at the time overjoyed. Thus, after two years of exchanges, local Chinese officials allowed Luo Mingjian to live for a long time in Zhaoqing, the seat of the governor of Liangguang at the time, and in 1583, Luo Mingjian came to Zhaoqing, where China's first Catholic church was soon built, and the local official Wang Pan named it "Xianhua Temple". Soon, Luo Mingjian transferred his fellow countryman, Matteo Ricci (1552-1610), a Jesuit priest from Italy, to Zhaoqing. Luo Mingjian traveled around as a missionary, and he began to realize that China was a centralized state, and if the emperor did not do his job well and did not recognize Christianity, then Christianity could not develop significantly. How to do a good job of the Chinese emperor? Only by allowing the Vatican Pope to personally come forward and write a letter to the Chinese Ming Emperor and send a generous gift can the missionaries meet the Chinese emperor and, after winning the favor of the emperor, can they propose their missionary plans. In order to carry out this plan, Luo Mingjian returned to Europe. Who knows that the situation in Europe is changing, the Pope of the Vatican has died one after another, Luo Mingjian's affairs have long been left behind by the Pope, and Luo Mingjian finally died in his hometown of Naples. 111 At this time, Matteo Ricci was alone in the situation. Matteo Ricci did two great things that opened up Christianity in China. First, take off the cassock, replace it with a Confucian robe, and correct the appearance of the past as a "Western monk" and change it to "Confucian Yi Buddha". So, Matteo Ricci went out and began to sit in a sedan car, like the Chinese Confucianists, read the "Four Books", read the "Book of Poetry", and went in and out of the literati and inkers, and for a time, the Western Ru Matteo Ricci became famous in Jiangnan. Second, it entered Beijing and approached the Ming Dynasty. In 1601, Matteo Ricci finally came to Beijing after many hardships, relied on the self-ringing bell he presented to the Wanli Emperor, settled in Beijing, and became a protégé of the Wanli Emperor. Although he never met the emperor and never participated in the affairs of the dynasty, he was quite influential among the literati, not only late Ming ministers like Xu Guangqi and Li Zhizao, but also alternative literati like Li Zhen who appreciated his talent and helped Matteo Ricci everywhere. In 1610, Matteo Ricci died of illness in Beijing and was buried in Tenggongshilan in the western suburbs. Since then, Christianity has truly taken root in China. 14 When Wu Sangui opened the gates of Shanhaiguan, the Ming Dynasty was doomed. After the Qing army entered the customs, Chinese society was in a state of extreme change, and the Jesuits at this time were also the three caves of the rabbit, active in various political forces in China. In Beijing, the German Jesuit John Tang became the "Marfa" of the Shunzhi Emperor of the Qing Dynasty, and for a time the power fell to the opposition. In the south, missionaries such as François Sambias (1582-1649) and Michel Boym (1612-1659) followed the Southern Ming Dynasty, and even the mother, empress, imperial princess, and crown prince of the Yongli Emperor were baptized into Catholicism. In Sichuan, the Jesuits Louis Backio (1606-1682) and Gabriel de Magalhaens (1610-1677) became Zhang Xianzhong's "heavenly masters." After the Shunzhi Emperor ascended the throne in Beijing, Zhang Xianzhong died at the hands of Haoge, the Yongli Dynasty was destroyed by Wu Sangui in Burma, and the Qing Empire finally ruled the country. In the early Qing Dynasty, Yang Guang first put Tang Ruowang, Nan Huairen, An Wensi, Li Shusi and others on death row, and there was a dispute between the Western calendar and the "Hijri calendar" that had been used in China for many years. In the process of handling this case, the young Kangxi Emperor not only showed a high degree of political wisdom, but also used this case as an opportunity to smash the Aobai clique; Moreover, it was in this astronomical calendar dispute that his interest in Western science was aroused, and it was during the Kangxi Dynasty that Western science and technology and culture were widely spread in China. Kangxi calculates mathematics, studies medicine, draws maps, and calculates astronomy, and shows a keen interest in Western science. Qianlong inherited the legacy of Kangxi, and has always loved Western missionaries for ten minutes, and the momentum of Western style in the palace has not decreased, painting Western paintings, building the Great Water Law of the Old Summer Palace, and making Western watches, Western culture has continued, spread and developed in the form of entertainment. Religion, war, and trade are the three major ways of communication and dissemination Chinese human history. The entry of missionaries represented by the Society of Jesus into China was a major event in the cultural exchange between China and the West, and the missionaries, a group standing on the dual track of cultural exchanges, became the main intermediary and bridge of early cultural exchanges between China and Europe. It is through this intermediary that China and Europe meet on a spiritual level; It was through this bridge that Western culture was first introduced into China on a large scale, contributing to major changes in Chinese thought and culture in the late Ming and early Qing dynasties; At the same time, it was through this bridge that Chinese culture and ideas were introduced to Europe, and the "Western Transmission of Middle School" gave birth to the Chinese fever in Europe in the 18th century. If compared with the cultural relations between China and the West after 1840, the cultural exchanges between China and the West at this time were basically on an equal basis, it was an era of mutual admiration and mutual respect, although each of them absorbed each other, explained each other, and understood each other from its own position, but on the whole, it was an era of no hatred, fraud, no condescending domineering, no servile flattery, only mutual learning between the two cultures. There are differences, and there are fierce conflicts, but everything is focused on the understanding of the culture. Hu Shi believes that the cultural exchanges between China and the West in the late Ming and early Qing Dynasties are a model of love at first sight between cultures, which is indeed an incisive summary. This was the era of the most stable relationship between China and the West in thousands of years, and the era of the most peaceful mutual understanding between Chinese culture and Western culture. The relationship between China and the West in this era is a valuable cultural heritage between China and Europe.(AI翻译)

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GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文
张西平.跟随利玛窦来中国:1500—1800年中西文化交流史[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2020
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MLA 格式引文
张西平.跟随利玛窦来中国:1500—1800年中西文化交流史.北京,中国社会科学出版社:2020E-book.
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APA 格式引文
张西平(2020).跟随利玛窦来中国:1500—1800年中西文化交流史.北京:中国社会科学出版社
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